Tuesday, March 29, 2016

Queen Anna

Queen Anna “Ana Kanaina Loke, queen of Topeka’s annual fall carnival, is a native of Honolulu, and she travelled the long distance from her island home to the Kansas metropolis especially to take the prominent part in the festivities which was assigned to her.” “She was a teacher in Hilo and made the trip to the States especially for the fete in Topeka.” “By some brilliant inspiration it was suggested that this year’s queen be a newly annexed American belle from Hawaiʻi”. Her name translates to Anna Rose; they dubbed her ‘Queen Anna.’ Ana Kanaina Loke later moved to the continent, married a man named Anderson and resided in San Francisco.

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Monday, March 28, 2016


Waikamoi In 1983, Waikamoi Preserve on the slopes of Haleakala on Maui became a reality when the Haleakala Ranch granted a conservation easement to The Nature Conservancy (TNC) over 5,230-acres (in 2014, Alexander & Baldwin conveyed a conservation easement over an additional 3,721-adjacent acres, bringing the total to 8,951-acres - the largest private nature preserve in the Islands.) It is a sanctuary for native Hawaiian species, many of them endangered or rare (including several native birds: the rare ‘akohekohe (Maui parrotbill,) the scarlet ‘i‘iwi, the crimson ‘apapane, the bright green ‘amakihi, the yellow-green Maui creeper, the pueo (Hawaiian owl,) nene (Hawaiian goose) and the native ‘ua‘u (dark-rumped petrel.))

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Saturday, March 26, 2016


Aikapu Pā‘ao is reported to have introduced (or, at least expanded upon) a religious and political code in old Hawai`i, collectively called the kapu system. This forbid many things and demanded many more, with many infractions being punishable by death. One of the most fundamental of this type of prohibition forbade men and women from eating together and also prohibited women from eating certain foods - ʻaikapu (to eat according to the restrictions of the kapu.) The ʻaikapu is a belief in which males and females are separated in the act of eating; males being laʻa or ‘sacred,’ and females haumia or ‘defiling’ (by virtue of menstruation.) The ʻainoa following Kamehameha’s death continued and the ʻaikapu was not put into place – effectively ending the centuries-old kapu system. Some have suggested it was the missionaries that ended the kapu that disrupted the social/political system in the Islands; that is not true. The Hawaiians ended their centuries’ long social/political system.

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Friday, March 25, 2016

Ties to the Santa Fe

Ties to the Santa Fe During the height of the railroad industry, commonly referred to as the ‘Golden Age’ from the late 19th century through the 1920s, there were more than 254,000 miles of railroad in service. The expanding rail system needed material to tie the rails – then, in 1907, the ‘Santa Fe’ came to the Islands. The head of the tie and lumber department of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroad came to the Islands to investigate the ʻōhiʻa ties”. He signed a contract for “the exportation of 90,000,000-board feet of ʻōhiʻa to the mainland within the next five years.” The contract with the Santa Fe was never fulfilled; it was realized that the ʻōhiʻa wood ties did not last in the extreme conditions of the southwest.

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Thursday, March 24, 2016


Tydings-McDuffie After its defeat in the Spanish-American War of 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines to the US in the Treaty of Paris. On February 4, 1899, just two days before the US Senate ratified the treaty, fighting broke out between American forces and Filipino nationalists – the ensuing Philippine-American War lasted three years. In 1907, the Philippines convened its first elected assembly, and in 1916, the Jones Act promised the nation eventual independence. Between 1906 and 1930, approximately 120,000-Filipinos came to Hawaiʻi to work on the sugar plantations, dramatically altering the territory's ethnic demographics. On March 24, 1934, President Roosevelt signed the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which provided for an autonomous Philippines Commonwealth government; the US granted independence in 1946.

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Wednesday, March 23, 2016


Oklahoma In 1911 Congress authorized the building of two battleships, the Nevada and the Oklahoma, to be a modern symbol of the power of the United States (These two battleships were to be the first to burn oil as fuel instead of coal.) Oklahoma (BB-37) was laid down October 26, 1912, christened in March 23, 1914 and commissioned on May 2, 1916. The Oklahoma, a 27,500-ton battleship, needed 2,166 sailors and marines to function properly. She could travel 20,000 miles without refueling. She carried ten 14-inch guns. She was based at Pearl Harbor for patrols and exercises, and was moored in Battleship Row on December 7, 1941 when the Japanese attacked. Oklahoma took 3 torpedo hits almost immediately and capsized. Righting and refloating her took 74-days. Too old and badly damaged to be worth returning to service, Oklahoma was formally decommissioned in September 1944.

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Tuesday, March 22, 2016

Waikiki Beach

Waikiki Beach In June, 1810, fur baron John Jacob Astor created ‘Pacific Fur Company.’ They hoped to best the flourishing Northwest Company (who travelled by land,) which was a most powerful concern, by having a great depot at the mouth of the Columbia, in other words, by using the sea. One of the vessels selected for the pioneer voyage was the Tonquin. On March 22, 1811, they arrived off the mouth of the Columbia, where they encountered heavy seas. Thorn sent out several boats to find the river channel; two of them capsized and eight men died. One of the men was a Hawaiian. Local history says that the area was named Waikiki Beach in honor of this unnamed Hawaiian who was buried on the beach.

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Monday, March 21, 2016

Women Warriors

Women Warriors In Kamehameha’s conquest, “chiefesses accompanied their husbands on this war expedition, as well as the young male and female aliʻi. Most of these chiefesses who went with their husbands were adept at shooting a musket … It can be declared that Hawai‘i did not lack for fearless-hearted chiefesses, and it is appropriate that we proudly preserve the memory of their support of Kamehameha in those victorious battles.” A woman warrior of note was Manono; she fought side-by-side with her husband, Kekuaokalani, in the battle following the fall of the kapu. “No characters in Hawaiian history stand forth with a sadder prominence, or add a richer tint to the vanishing chivalry of the race, than Kekuaokalani and his courageous and devoted wife, Manono, the last defenders in arms of the Hawaiian gods.”

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Sunday, March 20, 2016

Hokuloa Church

Hokuloa Church Lorenzo and Betsy Lyons arrived in the Hawaiian on May 17, 1832. He replaced Reverend Dwight Baldwin as minister at Waimea, South Kohala, Hawai‘i. Lyons built fourteen churches in the expanse of his mission station including Waipi‘o Valley, Honokaʻa, Kawaihae and Puakō. The construction of the Hokuloa Church (Hoku loa – ‘evening star’) in Puakō began in 1858 and was completed and dedicated March 20, 1860. It’s the oldest functioning lava rock structure in the district of South Kohala. “The stone church, with its whitened walls, and reddened roof and humble spire give the place an air of civilization and religiousness, and the school house in close proximity with its similar walls though thatched roof, makes something of a show, and indicated the existence of a school.” (Lyons, 1863)

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Saturday, March 19, 2016

Moon Nights

Moon Nights Reasoning from observations has been important to modern scientific practice at least since the time of Aristotle (384–322 BC.) A scientific process or scientific method requires observations of nature and formulating and testing the hypothesis. It consists of following four steps. Hawaiians in traditional times also made observations of the world around them. Most of the makaʻāinana (common people) were farmers, a few were fishermen. Part of the observations noted appropriate planting/fishing according to moon phases (‘Moon Nights.’)

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Friday, March 18, 2016


Manōkalanipo Poetically Kauai is reportedly called, "Manōkalanipo", or "Kauaʻi a Manō" after the ancient chief who was largely responsible for elevating Kauaʻi’s ancient society to sophisticated heights of advancement and productivity. Manōkalanipo has the characteristic honor of having had his name as a nickname to the island over which he ruled, and in epical and diplomatic language it was ever after known as "Kauai-a-Manōkalanipo."

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Thursday, March 17, 2016

Two Cummins Schools – Now None

Two Cummins Schools – Now None Washington Intermediate and Liholiho Elementary serve their respective communities in Pawaʻa and Kaimuki, O‘ahu. But they weren’t known as such (at least by conflicting claims of the City and Territory.) Depending on who you talked to, each was known as Cummins School, named after John Adams Kuakini Cummins. Both schools were built the same year, 1926. Back then, the Territorial Department of Public Instruction (now the DOE) provided the instruction in schools and the City, through the Board of Supervisors (now the County Council,) owned the school properties and buildings. Effectively, each was ‘Cummins School.’ The issue was resolved (somewhat) in 1935.

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Wednesday, March 16, 2016

Flagship of the Fleet

Flagship of the Fleet The first ‘Arizona’ was an iron-hulled, side-wheel steamer completed in 1859; the second Arizona launched in 1865 and named the Neshaminy, her name was changed to Arizona on May 15, 1869. The keel of the third ‘Arizona’ (Battleship No. 39) was laid on the morning of March 16, 1914 with Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Delano Roosevelt in attendance. She was commissioned on October 17, 1916, and went on a shakedown cruise. Arizona carried twelve 14-inch guns in triple gun turrets. She had a history of serving as flag ship for different Admirals across different oceans (the flag ship carries the commander of a group of ships.) For the next decade and a half, Arizona served as flagship for Battleship Divisions 2, 3 or 4. On December 7, 1941, Arizona’s air raid alarm went off about 7:55 and the ship went to general quarters. Shortly after 08:00, the ship was attacked. The last bomb hit at 08:06 in the vicinity of Turret II.

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Tuesday, March 15, 2016

Harold Melville Clark

Harold Melville Clark Harold Melville Clark was born October 4, 1890 in St. Paul, Minnesota. The Clark family had a strong military tradition dating back to the Revolutionary War. Harold followed in his family’s footsteps; he was commissioned in the cavalry in 1913. A couple years later he transferred into the Signal Corps’ aviation section and went to the North Island Flying School in San Diego. On May 3, 1917, Clark received his rating as a junior military aviator and later that year he took command of the Army's 6th Aero Squadron in Hawai‘i. He began to learn the Hawaiian winds and how to fly in them. On March 15, 1918, he flew to Molokai and back to O‘ahu - the first round trip inter-island flight ever made in the Hawaiian Islands. Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines was named for him; the US turned over possession of Clark Air Base to the Republic of the Philippines November 26, 1991.

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Monday, March 14, 2016

Waihou Spring

Waihou Spring In traditional times, the area would have been covered in native forest including koa, ʻōhiʻa lehua, ti and kukui. Logging in the mid- to late-1800s resulted in the elimination of majority of the forest trees, which was later followed by cattle. By the 1870s, the Waihou Springs (‘new water’) area was probably cleared pasture land, with little to no native vegetation. Unlike most Forest Reserves in the early-20th century, the land that was set aside for Waihou Spring Forest Reserve in 1909 was open grazing land rather than forested land. At the time, the spring had already been tunneled and its water was being piped to the lower reaches of the adjacent Haleakalā Ranch to water livestock. Today, it’s a popular day-use area with a well-used hiking trail.

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Sunday, March 13, 2016

Love always for Hawaiʻi

Love always for Hawaiʻi “For more than 100 years, love of the land and its natural beauty has been the poetry Hawaiian composers have used to speak of love. Hawaiian songs also speak to people's passion for their homeland and their beliefs.” He was a citizen of the Islands and fluent in the English and Hawaiian languages. He composed many Hawaiian poems and songs. He wrote a song that expressed feelings for the Islands; shared my many, then and now. Next time you and others automatically stand, hold hands and sing this song together, you can thank an American Protestant missionary, Lorenzo Lyons, for writing Hawai‘i Aloha.

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Saturday, March 12, 2016


Kaluakoʻi It was “a desolate land, a land of famine.” (Kamakau) It’s in the rain shadow of east Molokai making the area very arid. Kaluakoʻi (the adze pit) is the largest ahupuaʻa on Molokai, containing an area of 46,500 acres. It’s on the western portion of island. The upland of Kaluakoʻi was well known for the fine grained basalts used for adze manufacture (thus the latter.) In 1977, Molokai tourism was enhanced with the opening of the 198-room Kaluakoʻi Resort and condo complex on the West End. However, by the early-1980s it was virtually abandoned. Many hoped that the opening of the Beach Village in 1996 and the Lodge in 1999 would resuscitate Kaluakoʻi, attracting tourists and adding jobs. The hotel and the golf course were permanently closed in January of 2001. The 149 privately owned condominium units continued to operate.

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Friday, March 11, 2016

Kona Coast

Kona Coast In 1967, Richard Boone (with Vera Miles, Joan Blondell, Kent Smith, Duane Eddy and a bunch of folks from Kona) filmed ‘Kona Coast,’ a pilot that he hoped CBS would adopt as a series. (Instead, CBS chose Hawaii Five-O.) (It was released in 1968 – with its premier in the Kona Theater.) “Kona Coast” was an adventure story about a Honolulu charter-boat captain (‘Sam Moran,’ played by Boone) who leads fishing expeditions and later hunts down the man responsible for his daughter's death. It did not receive favorable reviews; “… most of Kona Coast utilizes actual locations and this is the film's single greatest asset.”

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Thursday, March 10, 2016

Naked Warriors

Naked Warriors They were equipped only with swim fins, face mask and a slate board with a lead pencil on which to record intelligence gathered ... their only weapon was a knife (thus, nearly defenseless or ‘naked;’) they were part of the Underwater Demolition Team. The Pacific Underwater Demolition Teams originated at Waimanalo Beach in December, 1943. (A ‘Naked Warrior’ monument commemorates their training at Bellows.) The concept for development of an improved “Naval Guerrilla/Counter-guerrilla Warfare” capability within the US Navy was delineated in a March 10, 1961 Navy memorandum of recommendations. The same memorandum stated that, “An appropriate name for such units could be ‘SEAL’ units, SEAL being a contraction of SEA, AIR, LAND, and thereby indicating an all-around, universal capability.”

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Wednesday, March 9, 2016

Tax Maps

Tax Maps The origin of county government in Hawai‘i is found in the Organic Act (June 14, 1900) which created the Territory of Hawaiʻi and which gave it the authority to establish municipalities. A mapping effort was initiated in 1917 with the appropriation Act. A Branch was created for the purpose of making maps for the use of the tax assessors. In 1932, a comprehensive plan for a coordinated mapping system was adopted. The key system provided for the accounting of all properties based on location, boundaries, area and ownership identified through its Tax Map Key. The property Tax Map Key is typically written as: (1) 4-4-006:014 (District 1; Zone 4; Section 4; Plat 6; Parcel 14 – if this was a condominium, the sequence would be followed by the assigned tax map unit number.)

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Tuesday, March 8, 2016


Koehnen By 1874, Hilo ranked as the second largest population center in the islands. In 1910, H Hackfeld built a building spanning the entire block along Kamehameha Avenue; the two-story Hackfeld Building was the most substantial building in downtown Hilo when completed. Freiderich Wilheim “Fritz” Koehnen came to Hilo from Germany in 1909 to work for H Hackfeld Company. In 1929, Koehnen and his wife, German-born Katherine Bocker, bought Hill Optical. They shut down the optical operation and started selling silverware, fine china, crystal and giftware as F Koehnen Ltd. Son-in-law Carl Rohner opened the furniture business in 1946. Fred J Koehnen, son of Fritz, oversaw the jewelry and giftware division; Rohner oversaw furniture sales. After 83-years and three generations in business, Koehnen’s closed at the end of 2012.

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Monday, March 7, 2016

Claims to the Crown Lands

Claims to the Crown Lands With the Great Māhele, Kamehameha III divided the lands and reserved for himself lands for his personal use (“Crown” lands) and the larger portion he gave ‘to the Chiefs and people’ (“Government” lands.) Queen Emma and Lili‘uokalani made claim to the Crown Lands as private property (Emma for her dower rights and Lili‘uokalani as her personal property.) The Hawai‘i Supreme Court ruled, “These lands are … for the good of the Hawaiian Government, and to promote the dignity of the Hawaiian Crown.” An 1865 law noted the Crown Lands “shall be henceforth inalienable, and shall descend to the heirs and successors of the Hawaiian Crown forever”. The US Court of Claims noted, “it is very unusual, even in cases of conquest, for the conqueror to do more than to displace the sovereign and assume dominion over the country.” We now generally refer to the Crown and Government Lands as ‘ceded’ lands. Under the Admission Act, about 1.2-million acres are to “be held by (the) State as a public trust” – they remain in the ‘public domain’ for the public good.

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Sunday, March 6, 2016


Pulu Hāpuʻu is an endemic tree fern found in wet forests in association with mature ʻōhiʻa at elevations from about 1,000-feet to 6,000-feet. Young stems were formerly used to make hats; the starchy core has been used for cooking and laundry, the outer fibrous part to line or form baskets for plants. The edible starch in the core of the trunk and the young leaves were eaten during the time of famine. The young unfurled fronds are densely covered with soft golden colored, wool-like fibers called pulu; Hawaiians stuffed bodies of their dead with pulu after removing vital organs. Later, pulu became a commodity, “Pulu, or fern down, is also an important and staple article of export. This soft, yellow, silken down, gathered from the exhaustless fern fields of Hilo and Puna, is much used in California for upholstery as a substitute for feathers, wool and hair.”

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Saturday, March 5, 2016


ʻAukelenuiaʻīkū The waters of Kāne surround us constantly and provide life for all living things. The story of ʻAukelenuiaʻīkū is one of a hero's quest to find these waters and to learn what every young man must know to be mature in this coming-of-age tale. Kuaihelani was the country in which they lived, suggested as a mythical place, is the traditional name for what we refer to as Midway Atoll. The origin of this name can be traced to an ancient homeland of the Hawaiian people, located somewhere in central Polynesia.

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Friday, March 4, 2016

Mailable Matter

Mailable Matter Like early mail exchange in the American Colonies, following Cook's contact, mail in Hawaiʻi was handled privately by employing forwarders or by making arrangements directly with a ship captain. Hawaiʻi and the US agreed on a ‘Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation and Extradition, December 20, 1849;’ among other things, Article 15 of the Treaty created an arrangement for delivery of mail. On November 2, 1850, The Polynesian announced it was keeping a letter bag open to receive letters and promised to place on board reliable vessels any letters deposited in its letter bag. By 1850, almost all mail was being sent to/from Hawaiʻi via San Francisco to enter the mail stream there and be carried in the US mail via Panama to New York. Hawaiʻi’s first stamps (issued in 1851) included a 2-cent stamp for the newspaper rate, a 5-cent stamp for regular mail to the US, and a 13-cent stamp for mail to the US East Coast.

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Thursday, March 3, 2016

Hole Hole Bushi

Hole Hole Bushi Japanese laborers quickly comprised the majority of Hawaiian sugar plantation workers in Hawai‘i in 1885. The men cut the cane; the women’s work was to strip the leaves from sugar cane stalks so that it produces more juice while providing fertilizer for the growing plant. These women sang songs about work and the dilemma of plantation life. The songs, called Hole Hole Bushi (a hybrid term that combines the Japanese word for tune (bushi) with a Hawaiian term describing the stripping the leaves off of sugar cane (hole,)) used old Japanese folk tunes, and mixed Hawaiian and Japanese words for dramatic lyrics.

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Wednesday, March 2, 2016

Insane Asylum

Insane Asylum An 1863 law passed by the Hawaiian legislature states: “A building is to be erected for the reception of insane persons. This facility will furnish restraint till the person becomes of sane mind or is discharged.” Its first location was at the corner of School and Lanakila Streets; the hospital was completed in 1866, and the first six patients were transferred to the hospital from the jails at which the mentally ill had previously been kept.

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Tuesday, March 1, 2016

Fire Department

Fire Department No organized fire protection system existed in Honolulu until November 6, 1850, when the city's first volunteer fire brigade was formed. Reportedly, King Kamehameha III took an immense interest in the department. When the alarm went off, the reigning monarch shed his coat, rolled up his sleeves and helped right alongside the other volunteers. Within ten years, the city had four engine companies, including No. 4, which was composed exclusively of Hawaiians. Kings Kamehameha III, Kamehameha IV, Kamehameha V and Kalākaua were all active members of Company No. 4, with Kamehameha V, as Prince Lot, playing an instrumental role in its foundation and Kalākaua served as the company's secretary.

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