Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Uncle George - George Lycurgus

George Lycurgus (1858–1960) was a Greek American businessman who played an influential role in the early visitor industry of Hawaiʻi.

He was instrumental in the development of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park.

In 1893, Lycurgus leased a small guest house on Waikīkī Beach.  He expanded it and renamed it the "Sans Souci" (French for "without care" and named after the palace of Frederick the Great in Germany.)

It became one of the first Waikīkī beach resorts (that end of Waikīkī is still called "Sans-Souci Beach.")  Among its guests was Robert Louis Stevenson.

Stevenson wrote in the guest book: “If anyone desires such old-fashioned things as lovely scenery, quiet, pure air, clean sea water, good food, and heavenly sunsets hung out before their eyes over the Pacific and the distant hills of Waianae, I recommend him cordially to the Sans Souci.”

“In 1893 Sans Souci was a rambling hostelry, nestled among the coconut and palm trees of Waikiki Beach. The guests occupied small bungalows, thatched-roof affairs about ten by twelve, the bed being the principal article of furniture. It was in one of these bungalows that Stevenson had established himself, propped up with pillows on the bed in his shirt-sleeves.”  Scribner's Magazine, August, 1926.

By 1898, the Spanish American War had increased American interest in the Pacific.  Hawaiʻi was annexed as a territory of the United States and Lycurgus applied for American citizenship.

He opened a restaurant called the Union Grill in Honolulu in 1901.  He later invested in a logging venture in 1907 and also bought the Hilo Hotel in 1908.

In 1903, when he returned to Greece to visit his mother, he met and married Athena Geracimos from Sparta.  She was probably the first Greek woman in Hawaiʻi.

In December 1904, George and his nephew (Demosthenes Lycurgus) became principal stockholders of the Volcano House Company and took over the management of the Volcano House hotel on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi.

His nephew always introduced him as "Uncle George" to the guests, which earned him his new nickname.

He worked with Lorrin Thurston and others for ten years, starting in 1906, to have the volcano area made into Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park.

In January 1912, geologist Thomas Jaggar arrived to investigate the volcano.  A building for scientific instruments was built in a small building next to the hotel.  Jaggar stayed in Volcano for the next 28 years.

In 1921, George Lycurgus sold the Volcano House to the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company and moved to Hilo.  During the Great Depression the company was going bankrupt and Lycurgus bought it back.

A fire destroyed the hotel in 1940, ironically from a kitchen oil burner, not volcanic activity.  Only a few artifacts, such as a koa wood piano, were saved.

At the age of 81, he traveled to Washington, DC to have the construction of the new park headquarters building farther back from the lip of the crater.

That allowed him, in 1941, to build a more modern hotel at the former Hawaiian Volcano Observatory site.  He reopened the new Volcano House (designed by notable architect Charles William Dickey.)

After another eruption in 1952, at the age of 93, he arranged a publicity stunt involving riding a horse to the rim of the erupting vent and tossing in his ceremonial bottle of gin.  (The offering of gin became a regular at Volcano after that.)

Uncle George died in 1960 at the age of 101.

The National Park recently announced that Hawaiʻi Volcanoes Lodge Company has been selected to operate The Volcano House Hotel, Nāmakanipaio cabins and campground and other commercial services within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park.  The facility is scheduled to reopen in late-2012.

Volcano has been a special place for me.

As a kid, our family often visited Volcano and regularly stayed at the Volcano House.  I remember seeing and meeting Uncle George while he was sitting before the continuously-burning fireplace at the Volcano House.

Decades later, I purposefully went to Volcano to plan the formation of my first business; the initial planning was on cocktail napkins at the Volcano House bar (the business succeeded.)

Today, the Young siblings own a house at Volcano our mother built; I used to visit there once a month, but it has been a while since the last visit.

The Volcano Art Center Gallery is located in the 1877 Volcano House Hotel (now adjacent to the Volcano Visitor Center) under a cooperative agreement with the National Park Service.

The image shows Uncle George at the Volcano House, looking out at the 1952 eruption of Halema‘uma‘u.  In addition, I have included some other images of Uncle George and his properties in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.


Monday, July 30, 2012

Keōua Hale - Residence of Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani

Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani Keanolani Kanāhoahoa was born in Pohukaina, O‘ahu on February 9, 1826, to High Chiefess Pauahi and High Chief Kekūanāo‘a.

The Princess was a descendant of senior royal lines on a member of both the Kamehameha Dynasty and Kalākaua Dynasty, and a great granddaughter of King Kamehameha I; her half-brother was Lot Kapuāiwa (Kamehameha V.)

Her mother, Pauahi, died while giving birth to Ruth Keʻelikōlani, and was then cared for by Kamehameha’s wife, Ka‘ahumanu, who herself died six years later. The Princess was then sent to live with her father, Kekūanāoʻa, and her stepmother, Kīna‘u.

Despite the pressures to convert to Christianity, Keʻelikōlani saw value in traditional ways and retained many traditional religious practices.

Although she learned English among other subjects at the Chief’s Children’s School, she was a staunch supporter of the Hawaiian language and traditional cultural practices.  People spoke to her only in Hawaiian.

She was a member of the Privy Council (1847,) the House of Nobles (1855-1857) and served as Governor of the island of Hawaiʻi (1855-1874.)

Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani inherited all of the substantial landholdings of the Kamehameha dynasty from her brother, Lot Kapuāiwa; she became the largest landowner in the islands.

She was godmother to Princess Kaʻiulani. At Kaʻiulani's baptism, Ruth gifted 10-acres of her land in Waikīkī where Kaʻiulani's father Archibald Cleghorn built the ʻĀinahau Estate.

Despite owning Huliheʻe Palace, a Western-style house in Kailua-Kona, she chose to live in a large, traditional grass home on the same oceanfront property.

It is interesting, therefore, that she chose to build Keōua Hale, a large, ornate mansion on her land in Honolulu.

Keōua Hale was a Victorian-style mansion, and the most expansive residence of the time; it was larger than ʻIolani Palace.

It followed the Second Empire architecture, or so-called French style of architecture, and was considered a classical Victorian-style mansion.  The gas-lit interior of the mansion was celebrated for its ornate plaster work and frescoes.

Surrounded by extensive, well-kept gardens, it was characterized by mansard roof, broad lanais, from which lofty flights of steps led down into the gardens, and a large drawing-room upon the ceiling of which was emblazoned the Hawaiian coat of arms.

The house was completed in 1883; however, Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani never lived in the palace. She became ill immediately after the house warming and birthday luau.

Her doctors recommended that she return to Huliheʻe, her Kailua-Kona residence, where they believed she would more quickly regain her health.

She received medical attention, but did not recover.  On May 24, 1883, Keʻelikōlani died at the age of fifty-seven, in her traditional grass home in Kailua-Kona.

At her death, Keʻelikōlani's will stated that she "give and bequeath forever to my beloved younger sister (cousin), Bernice Pauahi Bishop, all of my property, the real property and personal property from Hawaiʻi to Kauaʻi, all of said property to be hers." (about 353,000 acres)

This established the land-base endowment for Pauahi's subsequent formation of Kamehameha Schools at her death.  Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop passed away a year later.

In 1908, the building was converted to Central Grammar School. The present buildings were opened in 1926. The school became a junior high school in 1928, an intermediate school in 1932, and a middle school in 1997.  The site of Keōua Hale is now Central Middle School.

The image shows Keōua Hale.  In addition, I have posted other images of the residence, as well as other images related to Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.


Sunday, July 29, 2012

Commercial Sugar in Hawai‘i

The early Polynesian settlers to Hawaiʻi brought sugar cane with them and demonstrated that it could be grown successfully.

Since it was a crop that produced a choice food product that could be shipped to distant markets, its culture on a field and commercial scale was started as early as 1800 and it continued to grow.

In 1802, sugar was first made in the islands on the island of Lānaʻi  by a native of China.  He came here in one of the vessels trading for sandalwood, and brought a stone mill and boilers, and after grinding off one small crop and making it into sugar, went back the next year with his fixtures, to China.

The first commercially-viable sugar plantation, Ladd and Co., was started at Kōloa on Kaua‘i.  On July 29, 1835 (187 years ago, today,) Ladd & Company obtained a 50-year lease on nearly 1,000-acres of land and established a plantation and mill site in Kōloa.

It was to change the face of Kaua‘i (and Hawai‘i) forever, launching an entire economy, lifestyle and practice of monocropping that lasted for over a century.  A tribute to this venture is found at the Kōloa Sugar Memorial in Old Kōloa Town.

Sugar gradually replaced sandalwood and whaling in the mid-19th century and became the principal industry in the islands until it was surpassed by the visitor industry in 1960.

Early sugar planters shared many challenges: trade barriers, shortages of water and labor, and the lack of markets for their sugar.

Hawaiians were hired to work on the plantation.  This had far-reaching effect on the social and economic make-up of the local society.

This introduced the concept of independence for the Hawaiians.  Workers were paid directly and no longer had to pay a tax to the chiefs.

Workers were initially paid with coins.  Getting enough coins to pay the workers was difficult in the 1830s.  In response, Kōloa Plantation initiated the use of scrip as payment to workers; these were redeemable for purchases at the plantation's store.

However, due to counterfeiting, in 1839, scrip was printed from engraved plates, with intricate waved and networked lines.  This more formal Kōloa Plantation scrip became the first paper money in Hawaiʻi.  Not only was this scrip accepted at the Ladd & Company store, it became widely accepted by other merchants on the island.

Sugar was the dominant economic force in Hawaiʻi for over a century, other plantations soon followed Kōloa.  By 1883, more than 50 plantations were producing sugar on five islands.

Kōloa Plantation set other standards that endured throughout the islands for over 100-years.  In addition to the plantation-owned general store, housing was provided for workers.

Barrack-type buildings or individual homes had space for workers to plant a garden.  The company dairy sold milk to plantation workers.  Medical services were provided.

Hawai‘i’s economy turned toward sugar in the decades between 1860 and 1880; these twenty years were pivotal in building the plantation system.  A century after Captain James Cook's arrival in Hawaiʻi, sugar plantations started to dominate the landscape.

What encouraged the development of plantations in Hawaiʻi?

For one, the discovery of gold and rush of settlement of California opened lucrative avenues of trade in the Pacific.  Likewise, the Civil War virtually shut down Louisiana sugar production during the 1860s, enabling Hawai‘i to compete in a California market that paid elevated prices for sugar.

In addition, the Treaty of Reciprocity - 1875 between the United States and the Kingdom of Hawai‘i eliminated the major trade barrier to Hawai‘i’s closest and major market.  Through the treaty, the US obtained Pearl Harbor and Hawai‘i’s sugar planters received duty-free entry into U.S. markets for their sugar.

At the industry's peak in the 1930s, Hawaii's sugar plantations employed more than 50,000 workers and produced more than 1-million tons of sugar a year; over 254,500-acres were planted in sugar.  That plummeted to 492,000 tons in 1995.

With statehood in 1959 and the almost simultaneous introduction of passenger jet airplanes, the tourist industry began to grow rapidly.

A majority of the plantations closed in the 1990s.

As sugar declined, tourism took its place - and far surpassed it.  Like many other societies, Hawaii underwent a profound transformation from an agrarian to a service economy.

The image is Kōloa Sugar Mill in the 1880s; in addition, I have included some other old Sugar Mills related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.


The Sugar theme, Mill and other Kaua‘i South Shore sites are included as Points of Interest in the Holo Holo Kōloa Scenic Byway.  We are assisting Mālama Kōloa in the preparation of its Corridor Management Plan.  Recently, the project was awarded a Historic Preservation Commendation from Historic Hawai‘i Foundation.

Saturday, July 28, 2012

Ka La Hoʻihoʻi Ea (Sovereignty Restoration Day)

In early 1843, Lord George Paulet, representing the British Crown, overstepped his bounds, landed sailors and marines, seized the government buildings in Honolulu and forced King Kamehameha III to cede the Hawaiian kingdom to Great Britain.

Paulet raised the British flag and issued a proclamation formally annexing Hawaii to the British Crown.  This event became known as the Paulet Affair.

Queen Victoria, on learning these activities, immediately sent an envoy to the islands to restore sovereignty to its rightful rulers.  The man chosen for this task was Rear Admiral Richard Thomas.

The day began early that Monday, July 31, 1843, with soldiers and the public collecting at the location we now refer to as Thomas Square. Rear Admiral Thomas preceded the King in one of his carriages and the King followed on horseback.

After five-months of occupation, the Hawaiian Kingdom was restored and Adm. Thomas ordered the Union Jack removed and replaced with the Hawaiian kingdom flag.

A procession then traveled from the square to ʻIolani palace. The British troops continued back to the harbor to board their stationed ships, in a symbol of withdrawal from the islands.

Shortly thereafter, the King made his way to Kawaiahaʻo church where people assembled for a public thanksgiving service.

It was on the occasion that Kamehameha III was reported to say, "Ua Mau Ke Ea o Ka ʻĀina I Ka Pono" - The life of the land is restored in righteousness. (This statement has since become the official motto of the State of Hawaiʻi.)

Missionary Gerrit Judd and Admiral Thomas stood beside the King, and Judd followed the speech with a translation of Admiral Thomas’ declaration to the King. John Papa Īʻī made a twenty minute speech which included the Act of Grace from King Kamehameha III, pardoning those who cooperated with the British during their reign.

 After the large assembly adjourned, the King proceeded to the wharf and was saluted by British vessels before he went on board the HMS Dublin to dine with Admiral Richard Thomas.

A few days later, on August 3, friends of the King, residents and soldiers, gathered for a large luau offered by the King in Nuʻuanu Valley (at Kaniakapūpū,) and is later remembered as the Lūʻau for 10,000 people.

July 31, 1843 is now referred to as Ka La Hoʻihoʻi Ea, Sovereignty Restoration Day, and it is celebrated each year in the approximate site of the 1843 ceremonies.

From that day, the plot of land on which the ceremonies took place was known as Thomas Square. Kamehameha III later officially gave this name to the area and dedicated it as a public park.

In 1925, a Joint Resolution of the legislative session set aside Thomas Square as a public park and placed it under the management of the Park Board of the City and County of Honolulu. It remains this today.

Thomas Square is approximately 6.4 acres of landscaped lawn across South Beretania Street from the Honolulu Academy of Arts.

The center of the square is marked by a single fountain spurting 20 ft. in the air and cascading into a surrounding pool.

The central area of the park is made cool and shady by the presence of a huge banyan tree. Other areas of the park are shaded by different varieties of banyan, flowering shower trees, and other trees/shrubs.

The square is bounded on all sides by a wide pedestrian sidewalk allowing the interior space has lawn and shaded areas for recreational use.

Celebration events for Ka La Hoʻihoʻi Ea (Sovereignty Restoration Day) are scheduled for noon to 6 pm, Sunday, July 29, 2012 at Thomas Square.

The image is from Google Earth – can others see that Thomas Square eerily appears to be patterned after the British flag? (Intentional, or a very interesting coincidence?)

Friday, July 27, 2012

Waikīkī Aquarium

The beginnings of aquarium history can be traced back to the 1820s.  Through the mid-1800s aquariums displayed rarely exceeded ten gallons, a size used often today in homes and offices.  In the United States, the first public aquarium opened in Boston in 1859.

The Waikīkī Aquarium opened on March 19, 1904; it is the third oldest aquarium in the United States.  Its adjacent neighbor on Waikīkī Beach is the Natatorium War Memorial.

Then known as the Honolulu Aquarium, it was established as a commercial venture by the Honolulu Rapid Transit and Land Company, who wished to "show the world the riches of Hawaii's reefs".

It was also a practical objective of using the Aquarium as a means of enticing passengers to ride to the end of the new trolley line in Kapi‘olani Park, where the Aquarium was located.  (The trolley terminus was across Kalākaua Avenue from the Aquarium, near the current tennis courts.)

Many in the community hoped that the Honolulu Aquarium would help develop a flagging tourism industry with the Aquarium serving as a “point of interest.”

Author Jack London called it a "wonderful orgy of color and form" from which he had to tear himself away after each visit.

When the property lease expired in 1919, the Cooke Estate ceded the Aquarium's property lease to the Territory of Hawai‘i, and the newly formed University of Hawai‘i assumed administration of the Aquarium and the laboratory.

During these early years (1919 - 1973) admissions to the Aquarium were deposited to the State General Fund and did not return to the Aquarium for upkeep.

It was renamed the Waikīkī Aquarium following its reconstruction in 1955.

Compounding the financial and maintenance difficulties was the moving of the research function of the Aquarium to two new University institutions: the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) at Coconut Island in Kāne‘ohe Bay, and the Pacific Biomedical Research Center.

In 1975, when Dr. Leighton Taylor was appointed the third Director many positive changes came to the Aquarium and is credited for saving the aquarium from closing.

The logo, Education Department, Volunteer Program, library, research facility, gift shop, Friends of the Waikīkī Aquarium support organization and the first Exhibits Master Plan (1978) all came into being during his tenure.

By accepting donations, memberships and grants, the Aquarium was able to fund increased services and to renovate exhibits.

In April 2004, after an extensive international search, Dr. Andrew Rossiter was appointed the fifth Director, joining the Aquarium at the onset of its 100th Anniversary celebrations.

His long-term ambition at the Aquarium is to increase public awareness of the ecology and conservation of marine life and reef habitats through aquarium exhibits, research and education.

The Waikīkī Aquarium is open from 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., daily – general admission is $9; kama‘aina - $6

Special hours: Thanksgiving Day (November 22, 2012) 9:00 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. (facility closes at 3:00 p.m.); New Year's Day (January 1, 2013) 11:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. (facility closes at 5:00 p.m.) and is Closed for the Honolulu Marathon Day (December 9, 2012) and Christmas Day (December 25, 2012.)

The image, from the University of Hawai‘i, shows the Waikīkī Aquarium in 1921.  In addition, I have included several other aquarium and related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section (Courtesy of Waikīkī Aquarium) on my Facebook page.

Thursday, July 26, 2012

Native Hawaiian Hospitality Association (NaHHA)

The Native Hawaiian Hospitality Association (NaHHA) was founded in 1997 by George S. Kanahele, Kenneth Brown and other Native Hawaiian professionals to address concerns about how Native Hawaiians and Hawaiian culture were perceived and represented in tourism.

They determined that, in order to have greater success in improving tourism and honoring Hawaiian culture and its people, they would need support; in 1997, they formed NaHHA, a 501 (c)(3) private nonprofit.

NaHHA advocates for the development and advancement of Native Hawaiians in tourism as the best investment in future leaders and in the perpetuation of authentic culture in the industry.

Working to better connect the Hawaiian community and the tourism industry, NaHHA has formed alliances with various Hawaiian organizations and nonprofits, artists and cultural practitioners, and with tourism associations, hotels and private businesses.

These connections and alliances have gained NaHHA recognition as lead agency for the Hawaiian Culture Initiative of the Hawai‘i State Tourism Strategic Plan.

In keeping with their mission, NaHHA recently completed a two-year train-the-trainer program to develop Hawaiians to provide cultural training and consultation.

Ola Hawai‘i, "Hawai‘i Lives" is NaHHA‘s educational program for today‘s ho‘okipa (hospitality) industry, for managers and employees who seek to have a better understanding of the Hawaiian culture.

While the curriculum is designed around Hawaiian values, it honors the cultural diversity of Hawai‘i.

Native Hawaiian culture not only lends fundamental value to Hawaii as a visitor destination but is exploited as a marketing theme in the selling of Hawaiʻi raising expectations that Native Hawaiian experiences are readily and easily accessed.

The reality is that visitors and locals alike are hard-pressed to find native Hawaiian cultural experiences.

Information that will connect them to authentic Hawaiian cultural experiences is difficult to access because it is not included in the mainstream visitor information programs.

NaHHA also sponsors Native Hawaiian Tourism Conferences and dialog with the goal to enable partnerships and inspire actions that result in:

a greater collaboration between Hawaiian businesses/community and the visitor industry
increased integration of Hawaiian culture in hotels and other businesses;
practices that mālama ʻāina - care for our natural environment
creative tourism, empowered communities and successful businesses

In 2006, while I was at DLNR, I had the opportunity to participate as a speaker at the NaHHA Native Hawaiian Tourism Conference.  The conference theme was, "Celebrating Hawaii’s Heritage – Sustaining Our Island Legacy."

I clearly saw the opportunity for the State (and more particularly DLNR) to partner with NaHHA by focusing on cultural matters in the visitor industry venue.

The Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International (HSMAI) awarded a coveted Gold Adrian Award to the Native Hawaiian Hospitality Association's (NaHHA) Ola Hawai'i Manual.  (This is the largest and most prestigious travel marketing competition globally.)

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Puʻu Kukui ("Hill of Enlightenment")

First, a disclosure – it pains me that I have not seen this place firsthand, on the ground or in the air.  I remember, while I was at DLNR, some folks mentioning that I should go see it … I never did.  (I still think about that.)

Someday, I will.  This place looks waaay too cool to miss.

The Pu`u Kukui Watershed Preserve (Pu`u Kukui Preserve) was established in 1988 to protect watershed forests and associated native plants and animals.

A subsidiary of Maui Land & Pineapple, Inc. (ML&P) owns the property and began management programs in August 1988, under a management agreement with The Nature Conservancy of Hawai`i.

The Pu‘u Kukui Preserve stretches from about 480 feet elevation at Honokōhau Stream to the Pu‘u Kukui summit - the highest point on Mauna Kahalawai (West Maui) at 5,788 feet elevation.  It lies between the Kahakuloa and Honokowai sections of the state’s West Maui Natural Area Reserve.  

These three areas, together with the 1,264 acre Kapunakea Preserve (managed by The Nature Conservancy of Hawai‘i), form 13,000 acres of contiguous forests that are protected by the programs of state and private natural area managers.

The Pu‘u Kukui Preserve encompasses a very large area, much of which is remote and extremely rugged.  Access to the Preserve is restricted by ML&P. 

This policy is intended to minimize trampling of fragile soils and rare plants, prevent the spread of weeds by hikers, and protect public safety. 

At over 8,600-acres, the Pu`u Kukui Preserve is the largest privately-owned nature preserve in the state.

The rain forests, shrub lands and bogs of the Pu‘u Kukui Preserve serve as a significant water source for West Maui residents and industries.

It is the summit of Mauna Kahalawai and the West Maui mountainside that form a backdrop to Kapalua Resort, Kā‘anapali Resort and broader West Maui community.  It is home to plant and animal species that exist nowhere else in Hawai‘i, let alone the rest of the world.

It’s also one of the wettest spots on earth (average yearly rainfall at the rain gage since 1928 is about 364 inches;) Pu‘u Kukui is a natural watershed on most of the West Maui community rely for water.

Conservation measures expanded in 1998, when the property was included in the West Maui Mountains Watershed Partnership.

The West Maui Mountains Watershed Partnership, like other Hawai‘i Watershed partnerships is a voluntary alliances of public and private landowners committed to the common value of protecting large areas of forested watersheds for water recharge and conservation values.

This partnership coordinates conservation efforts of the private and public landholding entities of Mauna Kahalawai (West Maui mountains), allowing for management of natural systems regardless of property boundaries. 

The preserve is home to at least 36 species of rare plants, three native forest birds, and at least seven species of rare native tree snails.  It stretches from the 480 foot elevation at Honokōhau Stream to the 5,788 foot elevation at the Pu‘u Kukui Summit.

The rain forest and the shrub lands of the area serve as a significant water source for both West Maui residents and industries alike.

The image outlines the Maui Land & Pine Pu‘u Kukui Watershed preserve.  In addition, I have included some other images that depict some of the waterfalls and other features in and around this area of the West Maui Mountains in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Chief’s Children’s School - (The Royal School)

Founded in 1839, O‘ahu's first school was called the Chief’s Children’s School.  The cornerstone of the original school was laid on June 28, 1839 in the area of the old barracks of ‘Iolani Palace (at about the site of the present State Capitol of Hawaiʻi.)

The school was created by King Kamehameha III; the main goal of this school was to groom the next generation of the highest ranking chief's children of the realm and secure their positions for Hawaii's Kingdom.

Seven families were eligible under succession laws stated in the 1840 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i; Kamehameha III called on seven boys and seven girls of his family to board in the Chief’s Children’s School (two more students were added in 1842.)

The Chiefs’ Children’s School was unique because for the first time Aliʻi children would be brought together in a group to be taught, ostensibly, about the ways of governance.

The School also acted as another important unifying force among the ruling elite, instilling in their children common principles, attitudes and values, as well as a shared vision.

Amos Starr Cooke (1810–1871) and Juliette Montague Cooke (1812-1896), missionaries from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, were selected to teach the 16 royal children and run the school.

(After his experience running the school teaching and training Hawai‘i’s future monarchs, Amos Cooke then co-founded the firm Castle & Cooke which became one of the "Big Five" corporations that dominated the early Hawaiian economy.)

In this school were educated the Hawai‘i sovereigns who reigned over the Hawaiian people from 1855, namely, Alexander Liholiho (King Kamehameha IV,) Queen Emma, Lot Kamehameha (King Kamehameha V,) King William Lunalilo, King David Kalākaua and Queen Lydia Lili‘uokalani.

No school in Hawai‘i has ever produced so many Hawaiian leaders in one generation.

In addition, the following royal family members were taught there: Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop, Princess Elizabeth Kekaaniau Pratt, Prince Moses Kekuaiwa, Princess Jane Loeau Jasper, Princess Victoria Kamāmalu, Prince Peter Young Kaeo, Prince William Pitt Kīnaʻu, Princess Abigail Maheha, Prince James Kaliokalani and Princess Mary Polly Paʻaʻāina.

They ranged upon entry from age two to eleven, and differed widely in their temperaments and abilities, goals and destinies.  But they all had one common bond: their genealogical sanctity and mana as Aliʻi-born.

The school building was square-shaped, about seventy-six square feet in area, with a courtyard in the center and a well.  The thirteen or so rooms included a large classroom, kitchen, dining room, sitting room and parlor, and living quarters for the students and the Cookes.

The entire complex was surrounded by a high wall, apparently intended as much to keep people out as to keep them in.

In 1846 the name was officially changed to Royal School; attendance was restricted to descendants of the royal line and heirs of the chiefs.

In 1850, a second school was built on the site of the present Royal School; it was opened to the general public in 1851.

In 1904, a two-story building was constructed and, in 1967, the present school was built.  A new administration/library building was erected in 2000.

Today, Royal School is centrally located at 1519 Queen Emma Street (you drive by it as you go down Punchbowl Street as you come off the freeway.)  The student body is made up of over 350 students.

Royal School truly has a proud past, as illustrated through the words of its school song: We are Na Ali'i of Royal School; We have a rich and royal past.

Monday, July 23, 2012

Hawaiian Fishponds

In ancient Hawai‘i, fishponds were an integral part of the ahupua‘a.  Hawaiians built rock-walled enclosures in near shore waters to raise fish for their communities and families.  It is believed these were first built around the fifteenth century.

Only in Hawai'i was there such an intensive effort to utilize practically every body of water, from seashore to upland forests, as a source of food, for either agriculture or aquaculture.

The ancient Hawaiian coastal fishpond is a sophisticated land and ocean resource management technique.  Utilizing raw materials such as rocks, corals, vines and woods, the Hawaiians created great walls (kuapā) and gates (mākāhā) for these fishponds.

A fish was kapu to the Hawaiians during its spawning season, to allow a variety of fish to reproduce. Although the chief or commoners were unable to catch fish in the sea at specific time spans, they were available in the fishponds because fishponds were considered a part of the land.

The general term for a fishpond is loko (pond), or more specifically, loko iʻa (fishpond).  Loko iʻa were used for the fattening and storing of fish for food and also as a source for kapu (forbidden) fish.

The two major categories of loko were shore ponds and inland ponds. Hawaiians recognized five main types of fishponds and fishtraps.  The primary ocean-based ponds were:

loko kuapā - what we consider the typical coastal fishpond, artificially enclosed by an arc-shaped seawall and containing at least one sluice gate (mākāhā)
loko pu‘uone, an isolated shore fishpond containing either brackish or a mixture of brackish and fresh water, formed by development of a barrier beach paralleling the coast, and connected to the ocean by a channel or ditch
loko ‘ume‘iki, a shore pond with numerous lanes leading in and out, was actually a very large fishtrap, whose walls were submerged at high tide, enabling fish to enter, and slightly above sea level at low tide. Fish were not continually raised or stored inside these structures, but were trapped and used immediately after capture.

Two forms of inland ponds were used to store fish, as well:
loko wai, a natural freshwater inland pond
loko i‘a kalo, small inland irrigated taro plot ponds

In ancient times, control of one or more fishponds was a symbol of chiefly status and power.  Fishponds after the Great Mahele became private property and part of the adjoining land.

Fishponds are unique in Hawai‘i in that they are considered submerged lands, yet they are real property that can be brought, sold and leased.

The commoner had no absolute right to fish in the ponds, nor in the sector of ocean adjacent to the chief's land - all of such rights were vested in the chiefs and ultimately in the King.

In 1848, when King Kamehameha III pronounced the Great Māhele, or land distribution, Hawaiian fishponds were considered private property by landowners and by the Hawaiian government.

This was confirmed in subsequent Court cases that noted “titles to fishponds are recognized to the same extent and in the same manner as rights recognized in fast land.”

Because of their location in the coastal zone, Hawaiian fishponds are controlled by a regulatory framework where County, State and Federal agencies each exercise some degree of control over activities associated with the pond.

There is a separate chapter in the State laws (Hawaiʻi Revised Statutes -HRS §183B) that deal with fishponds.  Under certain circumstances, reconstruction, restoration, repair, or use of any Hawaiian fishpond are exempt from the requirements of chapter §343 (environmental review laws.)

When I was a kid, there were a couple abandoned and derelict fishponds down the channel near our house on Kāneʻohe Bay, but I never thought of them as ponds.  My first real exposure to fishponds was the pond fronting the Nottage’s grandmother's house on Molokaʻi.

While at DLNR, I remember the fishpond restoration on Maui with Kimokeo Kapahulehua (I still proudly wear the T-shirt from their program "‘Ao‘ao O Na Loko I‘a O Maui - Revitalizing a wall Revitalizing a culture";) likewise, Colette Machado and Walter Ritte showed me fishponds on Moloka‘i and the work school groups were involved in there.

The image is an 1825 drawing by Robert Dampier, artist with Lord Byron, British commander of HMS Blonde. This view was probably drawn from Punchbowl looking toward ʻEwa.  In addition, I have included a small sampling of images and maps of fishponds in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.


Sunday, July 22, 2012

Fort Vancouver

In selecting a new fort and trading post site for the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) on the Columbia River in Oregon, they picked a location about 100-miles from the mouth at an opening in the forest called Jolie Prairie.

The new facility was to serve as the chief supply center for the company’s regional operation.

On March 19, 1825, the HBC opened Fort Vancouver on a bluff above the north bank of the Columbia River where the city of Vancouver, Clark County, is now located (named for British Royal Navy Captain George Vancouver (1757-1798.))

Yes, this is the same George Vancouver how first visited the islands as midshipman with Captain James Cook in 1778 and later led the expedition around the globe (and introduced the first cattle in Hawai‘i with a gift to Kamehameha I – he also discovered the Columbia River.)

But that is not the only Hawai‘i link to Fort Vancouver.  However, before we go there, here’s some more background.

Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) was a fur trading company that started in Canada in 1670.  Fast forward 150-years and in 1821 it merged with its competitor and this expansion added territory on the Pacific.

So, Fort Vancouver became part of the expansion and establishment of forts and trading posts along the Pacific Northwest.  Then, in 1829, HBC landed its first trading ship in Honolulu.

One of its primary ‘missions’ of that trip was that HBC was looking for a labor pool to help with its operations (they were also there to establish a trade business, as well as test the market for its primary products - lumber and salmon.)

A goal of the trip was to recruit a few seasoned seamen for HBC on the Northwest Coast, including "two good stout active Sandwich Islanders who have been to sea for 1, 2, or 3 years."

At that time, Hawaiians had already played an important part in establishing the economic institutions of the Pacific Northwest.  They provided the food and built the shelters of the fur traders and the early missionaries.

They had worked on many of the merchant ships plying between Hawaii, China, Europe and the Northwest.  From the earliest Hawaiians who came as seamen or contract workers, to the ones who worked at Fort Vancouver and elsewhere along the Pacific Coast, they all made an important contribution to the development of the area.

As early as 1811, HBC had already hired twelve Hawaiians on three year contracts to work for them in the Pacific Northwest.  By 1824, HBC employed thirty-five Hawaiians west of the Rocky Mountains.

Over the years, HBC’s Fort Vancouver had a unique relationship with the Hawaiian or “Sandwich” Islands, the nineteenth century trade hub of the Pacific.

During peak season, when the fur brigades returned to rest and re-supply, the settlement contained upwards of 600 inhabitants. For many years, the village was the largest settlement between Yerba Buena, (present day San Francisco, California) and New Archangel (Sitka, Alaska).

In the late-1830s Fort Vancouver became the terminus of the Oregon Trail. When American immigrants arrived in the Oregon Country during the 1830s and 1840s, and despite the instructions from the Hudson's Bay Company that the fort should not help Americans, John McLoughlin, supervisor of the Columbia District, provided them with essential supplies to begin their new settlements.

Not only was the village one of the largest settlements in the West during the fur trade era, it was also unmatched in its diversity. The Hudson's Bay Company purposefully hired people from different backgrounds, thus providing opportunities in the fur trade business to a variety of people from both the Old World and the New.

Few of the village spoke English, though French, Gaelic, Hawaiian and a variety of Native American languages were often heard.  In order to communicate with one another, most villagers learned Chinook Jargon, a mix of Chinook, English and French.

Hawaiians worked as trappers, laborers, millers, sailors, gardeners and cooks; however HBC employed more people at agriculture than any other activity.  The daily routine was work from sun up to sun down, with only Sundays off.

In 1840, Kamehameha III, faced with the seeming threat of racial extinction due to depopulation by both emigration and disease, enacted a law that required captains of vessels desiring to hire Hawaiians to obtain the written consent of the island governor and sign a $200 bond to return the Hawaiian back to Hawai‘i within a specified time.

HBC Governor Simpson, on a visit to Hawaii in 1841, reported, “About a thousand males in the very prime of life are estimated annually to leave the islands, some going to California, others to the Columbia, and many on long and dangerous voyages, particularly in whaling vessels, while a considerable number of them are said to be permanently lost to their country, either dying during their engagements, or settling in other parts of the world.”

In December 1845, the Hawaiian Government considered an act providing, “that all persons who shall hereafter introduce into the Oregon Territory any Sandwich Islanders ... for a term of service shall pay a tax of five dollars for each person introduced.”

By 1849, the Hawaiian population at Fort Vancouver exceeded that of the French Canadians, due to the declining importance of furs and the rising export business of Fort Vancouver’s agricultural production and the consequent larger use of Hawaiian workers.

The number of Hawaiians working as contract laborers for the Company grew steadily.  The large number of Hawaiian workers in the village led to the name "Kanaka Town" in the early 1850s - "Kanaka" is the word for "person" in the Native Hawaiian language.  (At its peak, the village was home to around 535 men, 254 Indian women and 301 children.)

Several circumstances combined to bring an end to HBC’s activities at Fort Vancouver.  The decline of the fur trade, the arrival of numerous American settlers to the newly organized Oregon Territory, the settlement of the boundary dispute with Great Britain which put the area under American sovereignty, all combined to hasten the decision to move the headquarters to Victoria, British Columbia.

In 1859, Hudson’s Bay Company withdrew from Fort Vancouver, the same year the decision was made to close the HBC trading facility in Honolulu.

The image shows the layout of Fort Vancouver Village in 1846.  In addition, I have added other images and maps in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.


© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Saturday, July 21, 2012

Laukanaka Ka Hula … "A Multitude of Hula Groups Gather" – Prince Lot Hula Festival

The 35th Annual Prince Lot Hula Festival is taking place at Moanalua Gardens on Saturday, July 21, 2012, from 9 am to 4 pm, hosted by the Moanalua Gardens Foundation (MGF.)

The largest non-competitive hula event in Hawai‘i, the festival is held each year to honor Prince Lot Kapua‘iwa who reprised the once banned hula in the district of Moanalua.

"Our theme is based on a traditional ‘oli that talks about groups of hula people coming together to celebrate hula.  Our theme Laukanaka Ka Hula … "A Multitude of Hula Groups Gather" speaks to people from all over who appreciate and love all aspects of hula.," said Alika Jamile, MGF Executive Director and President.

"Our opening ceremonies will include a special ho‘ike (show) in honor of noted kūpuna who have made important contributions to our Hawaiian culture and the hula," Jamile stated.

"Some of Hawai‘i's most celebrated hula hālau will be invited to next year's festival," said Alika Jamile, MGF Executive Director and President.  "In 2012, we plan on adding more cultural activities and workshops to enhance the experience for visitors and local residents alike," Jamile said.

The event will feature both hula kāhiko (ancient) hula and chant, and ‘auana (modern) hula performances.  Dancers will perform on one of the few remaining pa hula (hula mounds) in Hawai‘i.

Local food and refreshments will be available for purchase throughout the day. Limited edition tee shirts and a souvenir button will be on sale. Proceeds from these merchandise sales will help cover the costs of the festival.

Festival sponsors and supporters include the Hawaii Tourism Authority, State Foundation on Culture and the Arts, the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, the City and County of Honolulu, the National Endowment for the Arts, Aloha Pacific Credit Union, Hawaiian Airlines, Kamehameha Schools, ING Direct, Servco Foundation, the Hawai‘i Visitors and Convention Bureau, the O‘ahu Visitors Bureau, the Honolulu Star Advertiser, MidWeek and other businesses.

A non-profit organization founded in 1970, Moanalua Gardens Foundation (MGF) is committed to preserving and perpetuating the native culture, environment, and people of Hawai‘i through education, celebration and stewardship of Kamananui Valley and Moanalua Gardens.

Named in memory of King Kamehameha V, Prince Lot, the festival was founded in 1978 by MGF and now attracts up to 10,000 residents and visitors each year.

Moanalua was a favorite recreation spot for Prince Lot, who is credited with reviving the hula in the district of Moanalua. His summer cottage can be found on the gardens' grounds.

There is no charge to attend the festival, however, a button donation to MGF is requested to raise funds to support the event.

The public, and visitors, are welcome and encouraged to bring their beach chairs and mats and enjoy the fun, food and festivities under the shady monkeypod trees of Moanalua Gardens.

In addition to the festival announcement here, I have posted some images from Moanalua Gardens Foundation on last year’s Prince Lot Hula Festival in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.


Friday, July 20, 2012

Māhā‘ulepū Heritage Trail – Po‘ipū, Kaua‘i

Kaua‘i’s South Shore coastline, features a fascinating hike along the Māhā‘ulepū Heritage Trail, a 4-mile round trip stretching from Keoneloa Bay to Kawailoa Bay.

Along the way, there are natural and cultural features and tons of scenic sites – the following summarizes some of the:

1. Keoneloa Bay - “Long Sand, Long Beach”

This is a long stretch of sandy beach on the far eastern end of the Po‘ipū resort area, fronted by The Grand Hyatt Kauai Resort & Spa and a county park facility.

It is also known as Shipwreck Beach, named for the wreckage an old, wooden fishing boat on the beach back in the 1970s (that has long since disappeared.)

2. Makahuena - “Rough Face” & Makawehi - “Calm Face”

The unusual cliff formations were formed from sand dunes that have been weathered by wind and surf over the centuries. These ancient limestone sea cliffs have been virtually sandblasted by a combination of wind, salt and water.

Today Makawehi point is being undercut by continual wave erosion. The huge blocks of limestone that lie at the base of these cliffs are examples of that erosion.

3. Pā‘ā Dunes – “Fence of Lava Rock” or “Dry and Rocky”

About 8,000 years ago, dunes began forming atop Makawehi as sections of the sandy shoreline accumulated a reddish fossil soil overlay.  

The tradewinds blowing from the northeast or mauka (mountain) side of this area have had the most dominant influence determining the shape of the dunes along this section of coast, with kona winds from the southwest having a minor influence.

4. Pinnacles

Sandstone-limestone pinnacles are usually formed by rain-water washing down along vertical fractures in the limestone.  Pinnacles can be seen in stark formation to the right of a small bay just before the climb to the golf course.

5. Heiau Ho‘ouluia - “Fishing Temple”

This site is thought to have been a place of worship where fish were offered to the god of the sea, to ensure good fishing.

6. Punahoa - “To Bind or Lash”

Punahoa is composed of a very thick accumulation of coastal sand dunes that formed around 350,000 years ago. They are the oldest sand dunes of this region, carved by the tradewinds which formed all the dunes of this coast.

Along this area are short pieces of pipe anchored into the lava rock to hold fishing poles. This shoreline has been popular for centuries among local fishermen, catching primarily shoreline game fish such as ulua, papio (juvenile ulua) and oio.

7. Makauwahi Sinkhole - “Fear, Break Through”

The Makauwahi Sinkhole is a small portion of the largest limestone cave found in Hawaii. Paleoecological and archaeological excavations of the sediment that has filled the pond in the sinkhole put its age at some 10,000 years, and have revealed at least 45 species of bird life.

More importantly, the findings of this study show how the first humans that inhabited Kauai affected the pre-human natural environment. It is one of only a handful of sites in the world that show such impact.

8. Māhā‘ulepū Beach-“And Falling Together”

Māhā‘ulepū’s name comes from a legendary battle that occurred in the 1300s when Kalaunuio Hua, a Big Island ruler, made an attempt to take over all the Hawaiian islands.

By nightfall, it was evident that Kalaunuio Hua had lost the battle and became a prisoner to Kukona. Thus began the historical distinction of Kauai as an island that was never conquered.

9. Wai‘ōpili Petroglyphs - “Water Against”
In 1887, Kauai resident JK Farley discovered carved drawings or petroglyphs on a rock at Māhā‘ulepū Beach near the mouth of the Wai‘ōpili Stream.  The carvings are normally covered by beach sand, but if tides and ocean conditions are right the petroglyphs can occasionally be seen.

North of Māhā‘ulepū Beach is a large petroglyph boulder which contains two cup-like carvings at the top. One of the carvings contains a pecked out groove from the cup and runs along the edge of the boulder.

The image shows the trail layout.  The Māhā‘ulepū Heritage Trail is a project of the Po‘ipū Beach Foundation.  In addition, I have added images of sites along the trail in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

Thursday, July 19, 2012

Mauka-Ewa Corner of Richards and Hotel Streets

I wasn’t sure what to call this post.  It includes a little bit of history and is essentially a discussion of the evolution of the site and building that now houses the Hawai‘i State Art Museum.

The uses evolved from scattered homes to the Hawaiian Hotel to the Armed Forces YMCA to Hemmeter Corporation headquarters to No. 1 Capitol District Building, and now to the Hawai‘i State Art Museum and State offices.

Here’s a little bit of history.

Back in the mid-1800s, the growth of steamship travel between Hawai‘i and the West Coast of the United States, Australia and New Zealand caused a large increase in the number of visitors to the islands.

The arrival and departure of Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain,) the Duke of Edinburgh and others included envoys, politicians, merchants and opportunists, created the need of good hotel accommodations to lodge similar visitors.

The Hawaiian Hotel was proposed in 1865, but not laid down until 1871.  The Hotel was located on the Mauka-Ewa corner of Hotel Street and Richards Street and was formally opened by a ball on February 29, 1872.

The Hawaiian Hotel was later called the Royal Hawaiian Hotel, because King Kamehameha V felt adding "Royal" to the name would give it regal feel.

Therefore, first "Royal Hawaiian Hotel" was not in Waikīkī;l rather, it was in downtown Honolulu (the later one, in Waikīki, opened over fifty years later, in 1928.)

In 1879, the Royal Hawaiian Hotel was surrounded by dwellings, including several thatched-roof hale, but the hotel expanded over the next twenty years and replaced most of the residences.

Reportedly, Kalākaua kept a suite there; the Paradise of the Pacific noted it was "one of the coolest buildings in the city.”  (I’m not sure that this is the same “cool” that I refer to as “waaay cool.”)

By 1900, the last dwellings and a doctor's office were located on the corner of Beretania and Richards Streets.  These were all gone by 1914.

In November 1917, the Royal Hawaiian Hotel was purchased by a group of local businessmen and became the official headquarters of the Armed Services YMCA in Hawai‘i.

In 1926, the hotel was demolished and the present building was constructed.  The Army and Navy YMCA building was erected on the site of the former Royal Hawaiian Hotel in 1927.

Through the middle of the century, the downtown "Y" was a popular destination for service men from all branches of the military.

By the mid-1970s, an increasing number of junior enlisted personnel were married with children.

The Armed Services YMCA responded to the changing needs of the military by opening family centers at Aliamanu Military Reservation, Iroquois Point Housing, Marine Corps Base Hawaii-Kaneohe, Wheeler/Schofield and Tripler Army Medical Center.

The building was rehabilitated in the late-1980s by Hemmeter Corporation, when it was renamed No. 1 Capitol District Building.

This remodeled office complex became the Hemmeter Corporation Building.  After completion in 1988, the historic building served as Hemmeter Headquarters for several years.

Hemmeter Design Group earned national awards for the redevelopment of the historic YMCA building in downtown Honolulu.

Today, the Hawai'i State Art Museum (managed by the Hawai'i State Foundation on Culture and the Arts) and several State offices are housed in the historic Spanish-Mission style building.

The Hawai‘i State Art Museum opened in the fall of 2002.  The museum is located on the second floor of the No. 1 Capitol District Building.

The museum houses three galleries featuring (and serves as the principal venue for) artworks from the Art in Public Places Collection.

The image shows the No. 1 Capitol District Building.  In addition, I have added some related images and maps in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

Baldwin House – Lāhainā, Maui

The oldest house in Lāhainā, construction on the Baldwin House began on this coral-and-rock structure in 1834 and was completed in 1835.

The thick walls were made of coral and stone.  The structure was sturdy consisting of hand-hewn timbers.  In 1840, a bedroom and study was added, and in 1849, an entire second story was completed.

The home itself, the household furniture, the aged photographs and artifacts, the displays and library present a picture of the missionary who was both a physician and a constructive community force.

The faithful restoration of the Baldwin Home by the Lāhainā Restoration Foundation is based on careful documentary and archeological research.

It is part of the Lāhainā National Historical American Buildings Survey.  It was deeded to the Lāhainā Restoration Foundation by the HP Baldwin Estate in 1967.  It can never be sold and will remain in the Public Domain in perpetuity.

The owner, the Reverend Dwight Baldwin had his medical training at Harvard College prior to his theological studies.  He was one of the early missionaries to Hawai‘i.
On December 3, 1830, he married Charlotte Fowler (1805–1873), the daughter of Deacon Solomon Fowler of North Branford, Connecticut.

Shortly thereafter, on December 28, 1830, they sailed on the ship New England from New Bedford, Massachusetts with the Fourth Company of American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions; they arrived in Hawai‘i on June 21, 1831.

His educational background coupled with many natural abilities guided him to be helpful in the establishment of a system of just and democratic laws and most importantly the education of the Hawaiian people who learned much besides religion.

They were taught reading and writing in Hawaiian and English trained in agriculture and mechanics, studied the practical arts in the high school above Lāhainā; and finally learned to understand constitutional government, diplomacy and finance.

As a practicing physician, Rev. Baldwin treated and helped save the people of Maui, Moloka‘i and Lāna‘i.

A series of epidemics swept through the Hawaiian Islands, whooping cough and measles, soon after followed by waves of dysentery and influenza; then, in 1853, a terrible smallpox epidemic.

Although precise counts are not known, there were thousands of smallpox deaths on O‘ahu; Baldwin is credited with keeping the toll to only a few hundred on Maui.

Dwight Baldwin was patriarch of a family that founded some of the largest businesses in the islands.  His son, Henry Perrine Baldwin (1842–1911) and Samuel Thomas Alexander (1836–1904; also son of a missionary) met in Lāhainā, Maui.

They grew up together, became close friends and went on to develop a sugar-growing partnership that spanned generations and left an indelible mark on Hawai‘i – Alexander & Baldwin (one of Hawai‘i’s Big Five companies.)

In addition, sons Henry Perrine Baldwin and David Dwight Baldwin laid the foundation for what is now known as Maui Land & Pineapple Company, Inc in the late 1800s through the acquisition of land and formation of associated companies.

In 1870 Dwight and Charlotte moved to Honolulu as their health deteriorated and lived with their daughter Harriet (called "Hattie").  Charlotte died October 2, 1873, and Dwight died on January 3, 1886; they are buried at the Kawaiahaʻo Church cemetery.

Lāhainā Restoration Foundation oversees and maintains 11 major historic structures in Lāhainā and provides tours of the Baldwin House.  Hours of Operation: Open Daily from 10 am – 4 pm ($5 Kama‘āina admission); Candlelit Tours Fridays 6 pm - 8:30 pm ($6 Kama‘āina admission)

Image shows the Baldwin House.  In addition, more images of the Baldwin House are in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Pā‘aiea Pond

It is said there once was a very large fishpond extending from Ka‘elehuluhulu, adjoining the region of Mahai‘ula (now part of Ke Kahakai State Park,) running south past Ka-Lae-O-Keāhole to as far south as Wawaloli on the boundary of ‘O‘oma (the beach park within the Natural Energy Laboratory,) in North Kona on the Big Island.

This is the present area of Kona International Airport.

This fishpond, known as Pā‘aiea, was reportedly three-miles long and a mile-and- a-half wide; it was the large fishpond of Kamehameha.

The pond was so large that fishermen going to Kailua and further South, often took a short cut by taking their canoes into the pond and going across, thus saving time against the strong sea breeze and current from Keāhole.

There was a famous saying about this fishpond: O na hoku o ka lani, o Pā‘aiea ko lalo - The stars are above, Pā‘aiea below.

The reason for this saying was because of its exceptionally large size.  Within the wide waters of this pond were numerous little islets that were compared to the stars in the heavens.

Pā‘aiea Pond was reportedly destroyed by the 1801 eruption and lava flow from Hualālai.

Two parts to a story relate to the cause of its destruction.

The first suggests that one day an old woman appeared at the large canoe shed of Kepa‘alani (the konohiki or overseer of the pond.)

Another man, Kapulau, asked:  "Malahini?" (newcomer)

She replied "I am a Kama‘āina, not exactly a total stranger, but I do not often come down here to the seashore.  Living in the restful uplands, and hearing that there was plenty of fish down at the beach, I hastened down to see if the fishermen would give me a bit of palu."

The konohiki replied, “"No! You cannot have fish, palu, shrimps or anything.  It all belongs to the Chief, and only the Chief can give them to you.”

"Well! That is all. I now return to the uplands without even a grain of salt."  The old woman stood up and turned around to go.

When she came to Kapulau's house, she was urged to remain and have something to eat.  She consented and sat down.  When she had finished her meal, Kapulau gave her a fish.

The old woman stood up, and before starting to go, she gave these instructions to her host: "Tonight, you and your wife put up a lepa (kapa cloth on end of a stick, as used to mark a taboo area) back of your house and here on your fence."  They followed her instructions.

In the second part of the story, this same old woman soon afterwards appears at a village called Manuahi which was on the Western slope of Hualālai, and where two girls who figure in this story, lived; they were roasting bread-fruit.

The name of one of these girls was Pahinahina and the name of the other was Kolomu‘o.  As soon as the old woman saw then she inquired:  "For whom are you roasting your bread-fruit?"

Kolomu‘o answered:  "I am roasting my bread-fruit for La‘i.  That is my God and the God of my parents."

Then the old woman turned and asked Pahinahina, the other girl, "and for whom, pray, are you roasting your breadfruit?"  "For Pele," Pahinahina replies.

Then they ate the breadfruit.

Then the old woman asked Pahinahina:  "Where is your house?”  Pahinahina told her they shared a house, but the families lived on respective end of it.  The old women then told her, "When your parents come home, you tell them to put up a lepa on the end of your part of the house."  They complied.
That night, the people living at the beach saw an eruption on Mountain of Hualālai and as they saw the lava flow they realized that the old woman whose request for fish, palu and shrimps had been refused, could have been no other than the Goddess Pele.

The lava came and destroyed the great fishpond of Pā‘aiea, dried its water and filled and covered it with black rocks.
However, two places were spared.

There remained only that very small portion of the fishpond, close to Ho‘ona (within the Natural Energy Laboratory property at Keāhole Point.)

Also, the area where Pahinahina and her family lived was left untouched, and this open space bears the name of Pahinahina to this day (it is below the old headquarters at Hu‘ehu‘e Ranch).

It is said that because of this event that the lands of Manuahi came to be called Ka-ulu-pulehu (the roasted breadfruit (‘ū is short for ‘ulu,)) and this has been shortened to Ka‘ūpūlehu.

The image is an 1888 map done by Emerson, the State Surveyor at the time.  I lightly shaded the 1801 lava flow inundation area to help see the spread of the lava flow.  Keāhole Point (and Ho‘ona) is at the bottom of the inundation area.

(Sorry, I have not found any pre-1801 maps noting inland features for this area – back then, folks were mostly charting ocean depths and coastal features.)

Monday, July 16, 2012

Hawaiian Money

Ancient Hawaiians did not use money.  They provided for themselves or simply traded for the things they needed.

 As commerce came to Hawai‘i, initial transactions included trading – sandalwood became the primary medium of exchange for Ali‘i, who traded it for western goods.

The adoption of a Western style economy created a demand for money.  At first, this money consisted of coins carried in from the variety of countries having interest in the islands.


This source proved unreliable and coins were in chronically-short supply.

King Kamehameha III set out to rectify the shortage of coinage and currency by including a provision for a Hawaiian monetary system in his new legal code of 1846.

This system provided for a unit known as the dala, which was based on the American dollar.  The dala was divided into 100 keneta (cents.)

Several denominations of fractional silver coins were included in this system, as well as a copper piece to be valued at one keneta.

As prescribed by law, these copper pieces bore on their obverse a facing portrait of Kamehameha III with his name and title Ka Moi (the King).

Hawaii's first coins were issued in 1847.  They were copper cents bearing the portrait of King Kamehameha III.  The coins proved to be unpopular due to the poor quality image of the king.

Although it is claimed the denomination was misspelled (hapa haneri instead of hapa haneli), the spelling "Hapa Haneri" was included until the end the 19th century.

The spelling "Haneri" (Hawaiian for "Hundred") appears on all $100 and $500 Hawaiian bank notes in circulation between 1879 and 1900.

In 1883, silver coins were issued in denominations of one dime (umi keneta), quarter dollar (hapaha), half dollar (hapalua) and one dollar (akahi dala).

The vast majority of these coins were struck to the same specifications as current US coins by the San Francisco Mint.

Hawaiian coins continued to circulate for several years after the 1898 annexation to the United States.

In 1903, an act of Congress demonetized Hawaiian coins, and most were withdrawn and melted, with a sizable percentage of surviving examples made into jewelry.

Paper Money

As early as 1836, with coins in shortage, private Hawaiian firms began to issue paper scrip of their own redeemable by the issuing company in coins or goods.

At Kōloa Sugar Plantation, script was issued in payment for services and redeemable at the plantation store; it started with simply a notation of denomination and signature of the owner on cardboard. 

However, due to counterfeiting, in 1839, script was printed from engraved plates, with intricate waved and networked lines.

This more formal Kōloa Plantation script became the first paper money from Hawai‘i.  Not only was this script accepted at the Plantation store, it became widely accepted by other merchants on the island.

In early 1843, apparently, the Lahainaluna Mission Seminary first issued its own paper money.

The Hawaiian government occasionally issued its own banknotes between 1847 and 1898 in denominations of $10, $20, $50 and $100 Hawaiian Dollars.

However, these notes were only issued in small numbers and US notes made up the bulk of circulating paper money.

In 1895, the newly formed Republic of Hawai‘i issued both gold and silver coin deposit certificates for $5, $10, $20, $50 and $100.  These were the last Hawaiian notes issued.

The image shows printed note from Kōloa Plantation (Ladd & Company.)  In addition, I have included some of the coins and banknotes issued in Hawai‘i in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.