Saturday, March 30, 2013

Hui Panalāʻau

Part of the equatorial “Line Islands” and “Pacific Remote Islands,” Baker, Howland and Jarvis Islands were first formed as fringing reefs around islands formed by volcanoes (approximately 120-75 million years ago). As the volcanoes subsided, the coral reefs grew upward forming low coral islands.

Howland Island lies 1,650 sea miles to the southwest of Honolulu, and 48 miles north of the equator. It and Baker Island, which lies about 35 miles to the south and a little east, are located northwest of the Phoenix group, and are 1,000 miles west of Jarvis.

There is evidence to suggest that Howland Island was the site of prehistoric settlement, probably in the form of a single community utilizing several adjacent islands. Archaeological sites have been discovered on Manra and Orona, which suggest two distinct groups of settlers, one from eastern Polynesia and one from Micronesia.

US whaling ships first sighted the islands in 1822.  The islands are habitat for birds.  Alfred G Benson and Charles H Judd took formal possession of the islands (as well as Jarvis Island) in 1857 in the name of the American Guano Company of New York (consistent with the Guano Act of August 18, 1856.)

The Guano Act stated that “when any citizen of the United States discovers a guano deposit on any island, rock, or key, not within the lawful jurisdiction of any other government, and takes peaceable possession thereof, and occupies the same island, rock, or key, it appertains to the United States.”

“The Peruvian Government has monopolized the supply of Guano throughout the United States … on account of said monopoly, the Farmers of this country have hithertofore been obliged to pay for said article about $50 a ton … it is the duty of the American Government to assert its sovereignty over any and all barren and uninhabitable guano islands of the ocean which have been or hereafter may be discovered by citizens of the United States …” (American Guano Company Prospectus, 1856)

“This Company own(s) an island in the Pacific Ocean, covered with a deposit of more than two hundred million tons of ammoniated guano and have dispatched a ship, agent, and men, to maintain possession thereof.” (American Guano Company Prospectus, 1856)

Rich guano deposits were mined throughout the later part of the 19th century, however, the guano business gradually disappeared, just before the turn of the century.  Thoughts of and activities on the islands disappeared.

Then, in mid-1930s, the US Bureau of Air Commerce (later known as Department of Commerce) was looking for sites along the air route between Australia and California to support trans-Pacific flight operations (non-stop, trans-Pacific flying was not yet possible, so islands were looked to as potential sites for the construction of intermediate landing areas.)

The United States reasserted its claim to the islands in 1935 (followed by President Franklin D Roosevelt issuing Executive Order 7368 to clarify American sovereignty and jurisdiction over the islands, on May 13, 1936.)

To affirm a claim, international law required non-military occupation of all neutral islands for at least one year.  An American colony was established.

The US Bureau of Air Commerce believed that native Hawaiian men would be best suited for the role as colonizers and they turned to Kamehameha Schools graduates to fill the role.

“They looked for someone that had some Hawaiian background. And that’s why they came to Kamehameha Schools to see if they can get someone from the school to participate because of our descendance as part-Hawaiians, that we would be used to the South Pacific or wherever.”  (James Carroll, colonist)

School administration selected the participants based on various academic, citizenship and ROTC-related criteria, as well as their meeting specified requirements for the job: “The boys have to be grown-up, know how to fish in the native manner, swim excellently and handle a boat, that they be disciplined, friendly, and unattached, that they could stand the rigors of a South Seas existence.”

On March 30, 1935, the United States Coast Guard Cutter Itasca departed in secrecy from Honolulu Harbor with 6 young Hawaiians aboard (all recent graduates of Kamehameha Schools) and 12 furloughed army personnel, whose purpose was to occupy the barren islands of Baker, Howland and Jarvis for 3-months.

“Once you get there, you wish you never got there. You know, you’re on this island just all by yourself and it’s, you know, nothing there at all. Just birds, birds, millions and millions of birds. And you just don’t know what to do with yourself, you know. It takes you a while to adjust to that, but once you adjust to it, it’s fine.”  (Elvin Mattson, colonist)

The American colonists were landed from the Itasca, April 3, 1935. They have built a lighthouse, substantial dwellings and attempt to grow various plants.

Cruises by Coast Guard cutters made provisioning trips approximately every three months to refit and rotate the colonists stationed on each island. Soon plans were put into place to build airfields on the islands and permanent structures were built.

In addition to their basic duties of collecting meteorological data for the government, the colonists kept busy by building and improving their camps, clearing land, growing vegetables, attempting reforestation and collecting scientific data for the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum.

In their free time, they would fish, dive, swim, surf/bodysurf, lift weights, box, play football, hunt rats, experiment with bird recipes, play music, sing and find other ways of occupying themselves.

Tragedy struck twice: Carl Kahalewai, a graduate of McKinley High School, died of appendicitis while he was being rushed home for an emergency operation; and on December 8, 1941, when the islands of Howland and Baker were bombed and shelled by the Japanese, Joseph Keliʻihananui and Richard “Dickie” Whaley were killed.

Howland Island played a role in the tragic disappearance of Amelia Earhart and Fred J Noonan during their around-the-world flight in 1937. They left Lae, New Guinea and headed for Howland Island; the Itasca was at Howland Island to guide Earhart to the island once she arrived in the vicinity – they didn't arrive and were never seen again.  A lighthouse (later a day beacon) was built on Howland Island in Earhart’s honor.

The colonists were removed, following Japanese attacks on the islands in 1942. US military personnel occupied the islands during World War II. The islands have remained unoccupied since that time, but they are visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife personnel because the islands are a National Wildlife Refuge and later part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument.

During the 7 years of colonization (1936-1942,) more than 130 young men participated in the project, the majority of whom were Hawaiian; none of the islands were ever used for commercial aviation, but the islands eventually served military purposes.  (Pan American Airways used Canton (Kanton) Island for its trans-Pacific flight flying boat operations.)

As early as 1939, members of previous trips formed a club to “perpetuate the fellowship of Hawaiian youths who have served as colonists on American equatorial islands.” Initially they were called the “Hui Kupu ʻĀina,” which suggests the idea of sprouting, growing and increasing land. By 1946 the group’s name had changed to “Hui Panalāʻau,” which has been variously translated as “club of settlers of the southern islands,” “holders of the land society” and “society of colonists.”

(Lots of information and images here are from Bishop Museum.)  The image shows four of the colonists (BishopMuseum;)  In addition, I have added other related images and maps in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Friday, March 29, 2013

Hanauma Bay

About 4-million years ago, the Waianae volcano started the formation of the island of Oʻahu. About 2.5-million years ago, the Koʻolau volcano erupted on the ocean floor, and continued to grow in elevation until about 1.7-million years ago.

More than 30 separate eruptions flowed out over the eroded landscape and onto the fringing reef about half a million years ago with a series of volcanic vents opened along the southeast shoreline of O‘ahu forming now-identifiable features including Diamond Head, Punchbowl and Hanauma Bay.

It's not clear how the bay got its name, but there are several varying explanations.  In place names, hana refers to a bay or valley. Uma can have multiple meanings:

1) Uma can refer to a curve, as in the natural geological formation of the crescent shape of the bay.

2) Another meaning refers to the sport of hand-wrestling, uma, where opponents knelt with elbows on the ground and right hands locked together and tried to force the other down. Hanauma Bay was known as a place where ali‘i would gather to play uma, as well as other recreational activities.

"Queen Kaahumanu came by canoe and went to Hanauma where Paki was the konohiki over the realms of the [legendary] chiefesses Ihiihilauakea and Kauanonoula. These were the hula dancers, Mrs. Alapai, Mr. Hewahewa, and Mr. Ahukai, who gathered for the love of and to entertain royalty. The men played the game of uma. One man gripped the hand of the other and pushed to get it down. Women joined in and a whole month was spent there. That was why the place was called Hanauma, a noted place." (Reportedly in Hoku o Hawaii, February 11, 1930

3) The stern of a canoe is also known by the term uma. Traditional Hawaiian navigators would ride a strong current across the Ka‘iwi Channel from Ilio Point on Moloka‘i to Hanauma Bay with relatively little effort.

Thus, three suggested meanings for Hanauma Bay are: curved bay, hand-wrestling bay and canoe stern bay.

In 1928, the City and County of Honolulu established Koko Head Regional Park - the land encompassing Koko Head, Hanauma Bay and Koko Crater - by purchasing it from Bishop Estate. A deed restriction limited its use to public parks and rights of way.

In the 1930s the road along Hanauma Bay's corner of Oahu was paved and a few other amenities provided that made it easier to visit the beach and reef. After closure during World War II, the Bay area reopened and became even more visitor friendly after blasting in the reef for a transoceanic cable provided room for swimming.

In 1956, the City sold the Hawaiian Telephone Company an easement through the bay or the first leg of a new trans-Pacific undersea telephone cable. A 200-foot wide channel was blasted through Hanauma Bay for the installation of the first trans-Pacific telephone cable reaching from Hawaiʻi to California.

Hanauma Bay became Hawaiʻi's first Marine Life Conservation District (MLCD,) in 1967.  Established to conserve and replenish marine resources, MLCDs provide fish and other marine life with a protected area in which they can grow and reproduce.  While state laws restrict the taking of all marine life within the Hanauma Bay MLCD, snorkeling, diving, underwater photography and other similar passive activities are allowed.

More changes in the 1970s by the City cleared more area in the reef for swimming, made an additional parking lot, and shipped in white sand from the North Shore, leaving Hanauma Bay increasingly more attractive for daytime use.

By 1990 overuse of the beach and surrounding area was a real problem, with visitors walking on the reef, swarming the surrounding areas, and parking on the grass and on the sides of the road.

A few years later, in 1998, an admission fee was charged, further reducing the number of visitors. The city charges non-residents (now $7.50 per person) to enter the bay; Hawaiʻi residents get in free. Parking costs $1. Then in August 2002, the Marine Education Center was opened at the entrance to the bay.

Through a mandatory video and displays, all visitors to the park learn about reefs, the nature preserve and its rules, and how to protect the marine life.  The UH Sea Grant Hanauma Bay Education Program is an excellent model and example for effective on-site resource education and protection.

Through these programs, the marine life is protected and park visitors (whether residents or tourists) are provided guidelines for appropriate behavior in the marine environment.  The benefit goes beyond Hanauma, people can apply what they learn every time they enter the ocean.

Through their outreach program (every Thursday, excluding holidays,) public presentations are made by university researchers, graduate students, resource conservation managers and renowned marine biologists, among others, for the benefit of community members.

Today Hanauma Bay sees an average of 3,000 visitors a day, or around a million visitors a year. The majority are visitors to the Islands.

The image shows the early days at Hanauma Bay (Hawaiʻi State Archives.)  In addition, I have included other images of the bay in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Thursday, March 28, 2013

Did The Mongoose Idea Work for Sugar?

OK - in reading this, remember, this discussion is not in defense of the mongoose – nor whether the importation was a good idea.

Rather, it is addressing the age-old urban legend about the apparent conflicting activity habits of each.  I repeatedly hear that mongoose don’t kill rats – primarily because their activity times are different.

Contrary to the diurnal (behavior characterized by activity during the day and sleeping at night)/nocturnal (behavior characterized by activity during the night and sleeping during the day) conflict between the mongoose and rat – and apparent loss of the predator-prey relationship - reporting at the time of the introduction of the mongoose state sugar producers saw a marked reduction in the pesky rats in their plantations.

Pacific Sugar Mill on the Hāmākua Coast had the distinction of introducing the first mongoose into Hawaiʻi. In 1883, WH Purvis imported them from India and Africa for rat control on the plantation.

Later, Joseph Marsden ('Mongoose Joe,') former Commissioner of Agriculture, is credited with expanding the import.  “He brought the little animal from Jamaica, where it had the reputation of a good rat exterminator”.  (Hawaiian Gazette, March 16, 1906)

“At that time there were considerable portions of our cane fields that were so badly damaged by rats that they were not worth harvesting and now rat eaten cane is almost unknown.”  (HA Baldwin – Maui News, August 5, 1921)

“The ravages of rats in the cane fields of Hāmākua previous to the introduction of the mongoose were so alarming as to cause fears that cane culture would have to be abandoned.  As soon as a cane field was planted it seemed to be a new breeding ground for the rats, which appeared to exist by the hundreds of thousands.”  (Evening Bulletin, December 5, 1898)

“The next importation was by the Hilo planters, who in 1883 sent Mr. Jonathan Tucker to Jamaica in the West Indies to procure mongoose for them. Mr. Tucker returned with 72 mongoose in good condition, which were liberated in the cane fields in Hilo.  They soon increased in numbers, and the ravages of the rats correspondingly diminished.” (Evening Bulletin, December 5, 1898)

“The planters of Hāmākua, hearing of the good work done by the mongoose in Hilo, decided to import some on their own account (in 1885.”)  (Evening Bulletin, December 5, 1898)

"Many people feel that the mongoose has failed as an enemy of the rat, but the records, both in Hawaiʻi and Jamaica, indicate that the rats have been reduced to an appreciable extent by the mongoose.”  (Maui News, August 12, 1921)

“Evidence in favor of the mongoose may be seen today in Kauaʻi.   The mongoose has not been introduced on that island, and the rat menace is in general more serious there than it is with the other islands of Hawaiʻi.”  (The Garden Island, August 23, 1921)

In less than two years after the importation of the mongoose, the rats were so diminished that it was and is now a rare thing to see a stick of cane that is eaten, and the plantations have so extended their plantations that they now grind nearly all the year, giving employment to double and treble the number of hands with a corresponding benefit to the trade of Honolulu.  (Evening Bulletin, December 5, 1895)

“When they set the mongoose to work he soon cleaned the cane fields of mice and then went for the rats which speedily met a similar fate.  Having exterminated all those he next went for eggs next for chickens and then he went for the henroosts and fowls.”  (The Independent, April 25, 1898)

“There is no doubt that the mongoose has saved the planters of Hāmākua thousands of dollars. In former years it was no uncommon thing to see one-fourth and even one-half of the cane left on the fields, the rats having rendered that portion unfit for grinding by eating the stalks near the ground.” (The Garden Island, August 23, 1921)

“The drawback to the Mongoose is that he does not confine his menu to rats but varies it with all kinds of barnyard fowl and eggs and also ground-nesting game birds form a good part of his dietary. Another regrettable thing about him is that he is very fond of our field lizards or skinks which have an important part to play in the ‘balance of nature.’” (HA Baldwin – Maui News, August 5, 1921)

“These lizards feed on ticks among other things and since the advent of the Mongoose and the consequent scarcity of lizards ticks have become a bothersome pest to stock raisers. Ticks, however, in sufficient quantities are said to be deadly to the Mongoose and to keep him down in numbers.” (HA Baldwin – Maui News, August 5, 1921)

“The lizard is the natural enemy of bugs and insects including mosquitoes, as he lives on nothing else and never in any way harms plant life.  When I first came to the Kona district in 1886, the country was well stocked with lizards and all kinds of fruits were growing in pro fusion.”  (Coerper – Maui News, April 15, 1905)

“Kitchen gardens contained cabbages, tomatoes and all other varieties of vegetables which were free from insect pests; and while the leaf hopper could be found in the canefields he was kept so well in check by the lizard that he never caused any trouble.”  (Coerper – Maui News, April 15, 1905)

“But later on when the mongoose came, he commenced a campaign of destruction on the lizard with the result that the lizard decreased and the pests increased to such an extent that today almost nothing can be raised in the district and fruit trees that used to bear a heavy crop of fruit are now barren and pest ridden.”  (Coerper – Maui News, April 15, 1905)

OK, again, before anyone goes off on the consequence to native birds, etc, remember the context of this summary –it’s about whether mongoose rid rats from the cane fields.

I prepared this because, until looking closer into it, I, too, believed that because of the diurnal/nocturnal relationship, they never saw each other.  However, based on the reports back then, from the sugar planters’ perspective, it worked; damage due to rats gnawing at the sugar was reduced to a level of nominal impact.

Unfortunately, like many other bad decisions that were made before adequate analysis of unintended consequences, the mongoose is negatively impacting many other areas in our Islands … and, except for some remnant operations, sugar (and its problems with rats) is effectively gone.

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Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Waipi‘o, Hāmākua, Hawaiʻi

Waipi‘o (“curved water”) is one of several coastal valleys on the north part of the Hāmākua side of the Island of Hawaiʻi. A black sand beach three-quarters of a mile long fronts the valley, the longest on the Big Island.

The Waipiʻo Valley was once the Royal Center to many of the rulers on the Island of Hawaiʻi, including Pili lineage rulers - the ancestors of Kamehameha.  Līloa and his son ʻUmi ruled from Waipiʻo.  The Valley continued to play an important role as one of many royal residences until the era of Kamehameha.  (UH DURP)

In the 1780s, warring factions were fighting for control. The island of Hawaiʻi was in internal struggle when one of the aliʻi nui, Kalaniʻōpuʻu, died.  He passed his title to his son Kīwalaʻo and named his nephew, Kamehameha, keeper of the family war god, Kūkaʻilimoku.

Kīwalaʻo was later killed in battle, setting off a power struggle between Keōua, Keawemauhili and Kamehameha.  The 1782 Battle of Mokuʻōhai gave Kamehameha control of the West and North sides of the island of Hawaiʻi.

It was off the coast of Waimanu, near Waipiʻo, that Kamehameha overpowered Kahekili, the Chief of Maui Nui and O’ahu, and his half-brother, Kāʻeokūlani of Kauaʻi (1791.)

This was the first naval battle in Hawaiian history - Kepuwahaulaula, - known as the Battle of the Red-Mouthed Guns (so named for the cannons and other western weapons;) from here, Kamehameha continued his conquest of the Islands.

Many significant sites on the Island of Hawaiʻi were located in Waipiʻo:

Honuaʻula Heiau - “… all the corpses of those slain in battle were offered up in the heiau of Honua‘ula in Waipi‘o … when ʻUmi-a-Līloa laid the victims on the altar in the heiau—the bodies of the fallen warriors and the chief, Hakau - the tongue of the god came down from heaven, without the body being seen. The tongue quivered downward to the altar, accompanied by thunder and lightning, and took away all the sacrifices.” (Kamakau)

Pakaʻalana Heiau - “The puʻuhonua of Pakaʻalana was 300-feet to the southwest of Honua‘ula Heiau …There are many references to this famous place…[Fornander notes:…the tabus of its [Waipi‘o] great heiau were the most sacred on Hawaii, and remained so until the destruction of the heiau and the spoliation of all the royal associations in the valley of Waipi‘o by Kāʻeokūlani, king of Kauai, and confederate of Kahekili, king of Maui, in the war upon Kamehameha I, in 1791 ...” (Stokes)

Hokuwelowelo Heiau - “The heiau is a small pen near the edge of the sea cliff, overlooking the mouth of Waipi‘o valley….This heiau is said to have been “built by the gods” and was the place where the famous Kihapu was guarded until it was stolen by the thief-dog, Puapualenalena .” (Stokes)

Moaʻula Heiau - “The site is at the foot of the steep northwest cliff bounding Waipi‘o valley, 2,500 feet from the sea. According to local information, Moaʻula was built by Hākau but was not dedicated at the time of ‘Umi’s rebellion. After ʻUmi killed Hākau, he dedicated the heiau and used Hākau’s body for the first offering.  (Stokes)

Fornander recounts that the great high chief ʻUmi “built large taro patches in Waipiʻo, and he tilled the soil in all places where he resided.” So it is readily apparent that the valley was intensively cultivated from long ago.

The valley floor was once the largest wetland kalo (taro) cultivation site on the Big Island and one of the largest in the Islands; but only a small portion of the land is still in production today.

Waipiʻo was a fertile and productive valley that could provide for many.  Reportedly, as many as 10,000-people lived in Waipiʻo Valley during the times before the arrival of Captain Cook in 1778.

Kalo cultivation and poi production in traditional Hawaiian was the mainstay of the Hawaiian diet. In the later part of the 19th-century and early half of the 20th-century its commercial manufacture became an important economic activity for the residents of Waipi‘o Valley.

William Ellis in 1823 described valley walls that “were nearly perpendicular, yet they were mostly clothed with grass, and low straggling shrubs were here and there seen amidst the jutting rocks.” The valley floor he described as “one continued garden, cultivated with taro, bananas, sugar-cane, and other productions of the islands, all growing luxuriantly.”

Workers were seen carrying back “loads of sandal wood, which they had been cutting in the neighbouring mountains.” Isabella Bird, viewing the valley from the pali above in 1873, described “a fertile region perfectly level…watered by a winding stream, and bright with fishponds, meadow lands, kalo patches, orange and coffee groves, figs, breadfruit, and palms.”

Waipiʻo was the greatest wet-taro valley of Hawaiʻi and one of the largest planting areas in the entire group of islands. In 1870, the Chinese started rice farming in areas which were previously cultivated in taro. In 1902 Tuttle estimated 580 acres cultivated in rice and taro in Waipiʻo. Rice crop production came to an end in 1927 when it could no longer compete with the lower-cost California rice.  (UH DURP)

By 1907, Waipiʻo Valley had four schools - one English, three Hawaiian. It had five stores, four restaurants, one hotel, a post office, a rice mill, nine poi factories, four pool halls and five churches. (UH DURP)

Tidal waves came in 1819 and 1946 destroying crops, destroying the fertility of the land with salt intrusion and in 1946, destroyed the people’s spirit. “The brutal 55-foot waves ... came in at an angle, hitting the Waimanu side of the pali, deflecting up the flat and then circling down the Wailoa River in torrents” (UH DURP)

There is limited access (due to the steep and narrow roadway) into the valley.  Warning signs at the top of the extremely steep and narrow Waipiʻo Valley access road restrict use to 4-WD vehicles in low range to keep a reduced speed and to save your vehicle’s brakes.

The image shows horseback riders heading down into Waipiʻo Valley in 1909 (the present access into the valley is near the ocean.)  In addition, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Tuesday, March 26, 2013

Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Piʻikoi

Prince Kūhiō was born in Kōloa on the island of Kauaʻi on March 26, 1871. His father, Kahalepouli, was a high chief and the son of Kaumualiʻi, the last King of Kauaʻi; his mother was Princess Kinoiki Kekaulike, sister of Queen Kapiʻolani (wife of King Kalākaua.)  He had two brothers, David Kawananakoa and Edward Keliʻiahonui.

Orphaned after his father died in 1880 and mother in 1884, Prince Kūhiō was adopted by King David Kalākaua’s wife, Queen Kapi‘olani, who was his maternal aunt.

His early education was at the Royal School and Punahou. He studied four years at St. Mathews College of California. Later, he was a student at the Royal Agricultural College in England, finishing his formal education in a business college there.

Upon the assumption of the Kalākaua dynasty to the throne of the Hawaiian Kingdom, a proclamation ending the Kamehameha Dynasty also declared Kūhiō a royal prince. King David Kalākaua, also Kūhiō’s uncle, then appointed him to a seat in the royal Cabinet administering the Department of the Interior.  (Prince Kuhio Hawaiian Civic Club)

The overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893 and establishment of the Republic of Hawaiʻi brought about abrupt changes.  Kūhiō was then about 21 years of age.

Two-years later, there was a counter-revolution attempting to reinstate Liliʻuokalani as Queen.  Prince Kūhiō took part in the revolution.  He was arrested and sentenced to imprisonment for a year.  While he was in prison he became engaged to Elizabeth Kahanu Kaʻauwai and, after his release, married her on October 8, 1896.

In 1900, Robert Wilcox (an Independent) defeated Republican Samuel Parker and Democrat Prince David Kawānanakoa (Kūhiō's older brother) as Hawaiʻi's first delegate to Congress  Wilcox ran for re-election, but Prince Kūhiō (a Republican) defeated him and served as Hawaiʻi's delegate from 1903 until his death in 1922.

"Prince Kalanianaʻole was a prince indeed - a prince of good fellows and a man among men; a man of sterling sincerity and strong convictions - he always stood for what he deemed right-yielding to no weakness, and manly always."  (Congressional Record, 1923)  Prince Kūhiō restored the Royal Order of Kamehameha I and established the Hawaiian Civic Club.

The Order of Kamehameha I was established on April 11, 1865 by King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa) to honor the legacy of his grandfather, the unifier of the islands, Kamehameha the Great.    The Order was reorganized by Prince Kūhiō in 1902.

The Hawaiian Civic Clubs were organized in 1918 and were formed to provide scholarship aid for the education of Hawaiian students; preserve and promote the Hawaiian heritage, traditions, language and culture; improve the conditions of the Hawaiian people and community at large; and perpetuate the values that dignify all human life.

Kūhiō was often called Ke Ali‘i Maka‘āinana (Prince of the People) and is well known for his efforts to preserve and strengthen the Hawaiian people.

"A pure-blooded Hawaiian, a member of a diminishing race, it was natural and greatly to his credit that he devoted much serious thought and energy to their rehabilitation – it was a work of love on his part.  He saw the tendency of his people to flock to the larger cities where their life in crowded tenements, learning the vices of the white man, was leading to racial extinction, and he devoted himself to getting them back to the land."  (Congressional Record)

"His efforts in this line culminated in the passage in 1921 by this Congress of the Hawaiian Homes Commission act, a measure to provide homesteads for native Hawaiians for an indefinite term at a nominal rental and for government loans to the settlers.  The Prince was made one of the commissioners and took great interest in the practical carrying out of his dream."  (Congressional Record)

"Kuhio on February 11 introduced a resolution in congress providing for statehood for Hawaiʻi under qualifications to be fixed by congress, and giving Hawaii half of the federal revenues derived from here for territory's public works for a period of 20 years."  (Maui News, February 28, 1919)   This first bill in Congress calling for Hawaiʻi statehood didn't pass.  (After several other related bills by others, Hawaiʻi achieved statehood on August 21, 1959.)

"Prince Kalanianaole was an unusual man. There was much of the magnetic about him. He possessed a kindliness and a courtliness that instinctively attracted people to him and made him a most welcome guest at every gathering. While his was the philosophy of optimism and he always looked with confidence toward the future, still it seemed to me that there was ever present the element of pathos in his fine character."  (Congressional Record)

"At Pualeilani through the night of vigil, while the Prince was sitting in his armchair, himself knowing that death could not long be barred from entrance to his chamber, he sat with his face toward the open door facing Kalākaua Avenue, his lessening vision drinking in deeply of the green verdure across the way in what was formerly the great acres of his aunt the Queen Dowager Kapiʻolani, in whose home he had spent so many happy days of his boyhood and young manhood. Sitting by his side was Princess Kalanianaʻole. She held his hand closely. The Prince smiled often as his eyes met those of his sweetheart Princess and he appeared to be hoping that her last view of him would be a memory of him still smiling."  (Congressional Record, 1923)

Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Piʻikoi died on January 7, 1922 of heart disease.  He was given the last state funeral for an Ali‘i; he is buried at Mauna ‘Ala, the Royal Mausoleum.

The territorial Legislature passed a resolution in 1949, establishing March 26 as a territorial holiday in honor of Prince Kūhiō; Prince Kūhiō Day continues as an official holiday in the State of Hawaiʻi.  It is celebrated annually on March 26, to mark the birth of Prince Kūhiō.

The image shows a photo of Prince Kuhio in the 1890s.  In addition, I have included other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Monday, March 25, 2013

University of Hawaiʻi – Mānoa

“An act to establish the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts of the Territory of Hawai‘i” was passed by the Hawai‘i’s Territorial Legislature and was signed into law by Governor George Carter on March 25th, 1907.

The University of Hawaiʻi began as a land-grant college, initiated out of the 1862 US Federal Morrill Act funding for “land grant” colleges.

The Morrill Act funded educational institutions by granting federally-controlled land to the states for them to develop or sell to raise funds to establish and endow "land-grant" colleges.

Since the federal government could not "grant" land in Hawaiʻi as it did for most states, it provided a guarantee of $30,000 a year for several years, which increased to $50,000 for a time.

Regular classes began in September 1908 with ten students (five freshmen, five preparatory students) and thirteen faculty members at a temporary Young Street facility in the William Maertens' house near Thomas Square.

The Territory had just acquired the Maertens' property as a potential site for a new high school. Instead, it became temporary quarters for the new college.

Planning for a permanent University campus originally called for Lahainaluna on Maui as the site; Mountain View, above Hilo, was also considered.

The regents chose the present campus location in lower Mānoa on June 19, 1907. In 1911, the name of the school was changed to the “College of Hawaiʻi.”

The campus was a relatively dry and scruffy place, “The early Mānoa campus was covered with a tangle of kiawe trees (algarroba), wild lantana and panini cactus”.  It appears the first structures built were a poultry shed and a dairy barn.

1909 marked the beginning of the school’s first football team, called the Fighting Deans; the team played its opening game against McKinley High School ... and won.

In 1912, the college moved to the present Mānoa location (the first permanent building is known today as Hawaiʻi Hall.)  The first Commencement was June 3, 1912.

The "orienting" of the new campus was determined by the Morrill Act, which saw "land grant" colleges as occupying large squares or rectangles, arranged by surveyors along the cardinal points of the compass. Thus the original quadrangle of so many campuses (including UH) is laid out on a true compass base, ignoring in the process our mauka/makai orientations, ignoring the flow of the trade winds.

With the addition of the College of Arts and Sciences in 1920, the school became known as the University of Hawaiʻi.  The Territorial Normal and Training School (now the College of Education) joined the University in 1931.

The University continued to grow throughout the 1930s. The Oriental Institute, predecessor of the East-West Center, was founded in 1935, bolstering the University’s mounting prominence in Asia-Pacific studies.

World War II came to Hawaiʻi with the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. Classes were suspended for two months and gas masks became part of commencement apparel. In 1942, students of Japanese ancestry formed the Varsity Victory Volunteers and many later joined the 442nd Regiment and 100th Infantry Battalion.

Statehood brought about a significant shift in the relationship of the University to the land it occupied.  Under territorial government, the land was really on loan; the Territory had title.

The new state constitution stated, "The University of Hawaii is hereby established as the state university and constituted a body corporate. It shall have title to all the real and personal property now or hereafter set aside or conveyed to it. ... "

One effect has been that now the State may occasionally choose to lease land to the University, rather than set it aside, because once given, such land becomes University property.

UH Mānoa’s School of Law opened in temporary buildings in 1973. The Center for Hawaiian Studies was established in 1977 followed by the School of Architecture in 1980.

The School of Ocean and Earth Sciences and Technology was founded eight years later and in 2005 the John A Burns School of Medicine moved to its present location in Honolulu's Kakaʻako district.

From its initial enrollment of 10 in 1907, the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa now schools over 20,000.

In the 1950s, after three years of offering UH Extension Division courses at the old Hilo Boarding School, the University of Hawai‘i, Hilo Branch, was approved; the UH Community Colleges system was established in 1964.

Today, the University of Hawai‘i System includes 3 universities (Mānoa, Hilo and West Oʻahu,) 7 community colleges (Kauaʻi, Leeward, Honolulu, Kapiʻolani, Windward, Maui and Hawaiʻi) and community-based learning centers across Hawai‘i.

The fall 2012 opening enrollment for the University of Hawai‘i System reached yet another high in the institution’s history with over 60,600 students.

The image shows an aerial view of the initial UH-Mānoa campus in late-19102 (UH Manoa.)  In addition, I have added other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Sunday, March 24, 2013

The Skate

On April 11, 1900, the Navy purchased the Holland VI, an internal combustion, gasoline-powered submarine from John P Holland for $160,000, after demonstration trials off Mount Vernon, Virginia. This marks the official birth date of the US Navy's Submarine Force.

Even before the United States entered World War I, the submarine was recognized for its deadly role in warfare as German U-boats torpedoed and sank British shipping in the Atlantic.

Military submarines made their first significant impact in World War I; U-boats saw action in the First Battle of the Atlantic, and were responsible for the sinking of Lusitania, and this is often cited among the reasons for the entry of the United States into the war.

USS F-4, an F-class US submarine, was originally named Skate, making her the first ship of the United States Navy named for the skate (a type of ray.) She was renamed F-4 on November 17, 1911.

The F-4 and three other F-class submarines, the F-1, F-2 and F-3, along with their support vessel, the tender USS Alert, made up the First Submarine Group, Pacific Torpedo Flotilla, participating in the development operations of that group along the west coast, and from August 1914, in Hawaiian waters.

They were the first US submarines to be stationed to the new naval facility at Pearl Harbor.

While on a training mission, on Thursday, March 25, 1915, the US submarine Skate (F-4,) with a crew of twenty-one men, exploded and sank in fifty fathoms of water three-quarters of a mile off of Honolulu harbor.

There had been other submarine fatalities and accidents in world history, but this was the first submarine disaster in US naval history.

There were round-the-clock attempts to make contact with the submerged vessel. It was lodged three hundred feet below the surface, and divers could not reach it.

After dragging cables across the ocean floor in the area in attempts to snag and locate the submarine, it was caught late in the morning of the 26th.

The 142' long submarine, with a diameter of about 15', displaced 330 tons and could not be moved. Using a combination of hard hat divers, cables, chains and heavy scows with winches, the F-4 was incrementally raised and moved closer to shore over the next two months.

Frank William Crilley, a Chief Gunner's Mate, made dives to over 300 feet during salvage operations on the sunken Submarine. On April 17, 1915, he rescued a fellow diver who had become entangled at a depth of 250 feet.

For his heroism on this occasion, Frank William Crilley was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1929.

Five months passed before the submarine could be hauled to the surface.

After so many months underwater, only four of the 21 dead aboard the submarine could be identified. The 17 remaining bodies were sealed in four caskets and shipped to Arlington National Cemetery, where they were buried in a common grave.

Their headstone, the size of an individual marker, was marked simply "17 Unknown U.S. Sailors Victims of the USS F-4 March 25 1915."

The headstone was going to be replaced and destroyed, but it was retrieved and is now part of the Bowfin Museum in Pearl Harbor.

After the drydock examinations of F-4, the vessel was towed by the tugboat Navajo, using the six pontoons, to "an out of the way spot at Pearl Harbor" with a depth of fifteen to twenty feet that was "as nearly beached as possible" with "the pontoons keeping her clear of the harbor floor".

Apparently the F-4 was left in this spot, to "rot in the mud bank" presumably near the head of Magazine Loch.

Periodically since, the Navy has announced plans to either destroy or examine the F-4 - the oldest surviving U.S. Navy submarine -- but because of the deep silt in Pearl Harbor, the exact location is unknown.

In 1957, a more successful Skate was commissioned (the third US submarine named Skate.)  It was the first production model of a nuclear-powered submarine to make a completely submerged trans-Atlantic crossing (1958) and the first to surface at the North Pole (1959).

The image shows F-4, the Skate. In addition, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Saturday, March 23, 2013

Wailua Heritage Trail

From Kauaʻi’s eastern shore to Mount Waiʻaleʻale, Wailua welcomes each day and reveals its beauty as the sun rises. The sandy beaches, gentle Wailua River, verdant uplands and lofty mountains graced by waterfalls are warmed by the sun and cooled by easterly tradewinds. Discover Wailua’s beauty and history.

This interpretive project is sponsored by the Hawai‘i Tourism Authority under a Heritage Corridor Program grant.

1-Wailua Bay
In ancient times, Wailua served as a main port of entry to Kauaʻi—a gateway that also ushered and welcomed the daily rising of the sun. Stories tell of the arrivals of famous voyagers, chiefs, and deities including, Moʻikeha, Kaweloleimakua and Hiʻiakaikapoliopele. The legendary surf sites of Makaiwa, Kaʻōhala and Kalehuawehe are also located here.

2-ʻOpaekaʻa Falls
ʻOpaekalaʻole are native fresh water shrimp that were once plentiful in the mountain streams throughout Kauaʻi. Translated, “ʻOpaekaʻa” means “rolling shrimp” alluding to its one-time abundance and images of ʻopae tumbling over in the cascade of the waterfall. Kamokila and Kawelowai were giant moʻo or lizard ʻaumakua—spirit guardians that watched over the fresh water and land resources of Wailua.

Steeped in Hawaiian oral traditions, Waiʻaleʻale mountain represents the piko or navel of Kauaʻi. Its peak, Kawaikini is the highest point on the island at 5,243 feet. Reputed as one of the world’s wettest spots, it averages 400- to 600-inches of annual rainfall. It is also home to Kauaʻi’s main watershed, Alakaʻi.

"Sleeping Giant" This celebrated mountain served as a prominent setting for the illustrious battle that was fought between the powerful warrior chiefs known as ʻAikanaka and Kaweloleimakua in the 17th century. The popularized name, “Sleeping Giant” comes from the legend that tells of Puni who fell asleep upon the ridge and eventually turned to stone.

5-Maunakapu and Wailua River
The mountain ridges of Maunakapu and Nounou divided the Wailua ahupuaʻa into two sections. Wailua Kai, traditionally referred to as, “Wailuanuiahoʻano,” encompasses about 2,800-acres of land seaward. Wailua Uka is comprised of more than 17,455-acres. Altogether, the valley provided all of the resources and necessities to support the chiefly retinues, along with the populace of makaʻāinana who cultivated the lands and provided labor for the ruling aliʻi.

This is part of “the long spine of Kane,” an ancient pathway that once led to the summit of Waiʻaleʻale. Chiefly pilgrimages were taken to reach Kaʻawakoa heiau that was dedicated to the god, Kane. Ceremonies were conducted there to ensure a continuous supply of fresh water to sustain the people and lands of Kauaʻi. Other surrounding mountain landmarks here include Maunakapu to the south, Nounou to the north, and ʻAʻahoaka and Waiʻaleʻale to the west.

7-Holoholokū and the Royal Birthing Stones
Oral traditions tell of the sacred births of Kauaʻinui and Wailuanuihoʻano and the establishment of this area as a birthing site reserved for royalty. It is still considered as one of Hawaiʻi’s most sacred sites. Kauaʻi’s king, Kaumualiʻi was the last chief to be born here.

8-Hikinaakalā at Hauola
On the southern banks near the Wailua river mouth is Hauola —a place long associated with the traditional practices of health and healing. The adjacent Hikinaakalā Heiau served as a place to worship the sun. It is said that the entirety of Wailuanuiahoʻano was a puʻuhonua or sanctuary of peace and safety.

"Fern Grotto" was known to the ancients as Maʻamaʻakualono, this area was dedicated to the akua nui or major god, Lono. Mostly associated with the occupations of agriculture and cultivation, Lono was also important in the practices of healing. The popularized name, “Fern Grotto” comes from the long Boston Sword ferns which hang downward over the cave.

Text and many images are from the Wailua Heritage Trail website - click here for more information. 

In addition, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Friday, March 22, 2013

Honolulu Rapid Transit (HRT)

Nuʻuanu Valley was the first of the valleys to undergo residential development because it was convenient to the town (when most people walked from town up into the valley.)

In 1888, the animal-powered tramcar service of Hawaiian Tramways ran track from downtown to Waikīkī. In 1900, the Tramways was taken over by the Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Co (HRT.)

HRT initially operated electrically powered streetcars on tracks through Honolulu streets.  Power came from overhead wires.  Its “land” component included investments into the construction and operation of the Honolulu Aquarium (now the Waikīkī Aquarium), a popular attraction at the end of the Waikiki streetcar line.

In addition to service to the core Honolulu communities, HRT expanded to serve other opportunities.  In the fall of 1901, a line was also sent up into central Mānoa.

The new Mānoa trolley opened the valley to development and rushed it into the expansive new century. In particular, it would help to sell a very new hilltop subdivision, "College Hills," and also expand an unplanned little "village" along the only other road, East Mānoa.  (Bouslog)

The rolling stock consisted of ten 10-bench cars; fifteen 8-bench cars; two closed cars; eight convertible cars and ten trailers.  (Electrical Review 1902)

For the line work, wooden poles thirty feet long were used and placed about 100-feet apart. The necessary span wires are so placed to allow the trolley wire, which was 4/0 copper wire, about twenty-feet above the track.  (Electrical Review)

“The company operates on twenty miles of trackage, which is continually being extended to anticipate the demands of traffic. The overhead trolley system is in vogue, with power supplied from a modern generating plant operated by oil fuel. The entire equipment conforms to the latest offered by modern invention, providing for safety, durability and comfort.”  (Overland Monthly, 1909)

“The company's service extends to Waikiki beach, the famous and popular resort of the Hawaiian and tourist, and where the aquarium, the property of the company, is one of the great objects of attraction. Kapiolani Park, the Bishop Museum, the Kahauki Military Post, the Royal Mausoleum, Oahu College and the Manoa and Nuuanu valleys are reached by the lines of this company.”  (Overland Monthly, 1909)

Bus service was inaugurated by HRT in 1915, initially using locally built bodies and later buses from the Mainland (acquired in 1928.) Trolley buses operated on a number of HRT routes from January 1938 to the spring of 1958. Electric street cars, first used by HRT on August 31, 1901, were withdrawn early in the morning of July 1, 1941.  (Schmitt)

“At two o’clock on the afternoon of June 31, 1941, car 47 left the HRT carhouse. Number 47’s run that day was unusual. To begin with, it was an old open car, one of those originally built about 1908. In addition, the car sported one of the largest leis ever made, which circled it completely. At the controller was George Bell, son of Jack Bell who ran HRT’s first car in 1901. The car ran over the remaining rail line all afternoon and evening … The end finally came at 1:30 a.m. on July 1, 1941.”  (Hawaiian Tramways)

The streetcars were replaced completely by buses (first gasoline and later diesel buses.)

Entrepreneur Harry Weinberg from Baltimore began investing in HRT in 1954 and methodically proceeded to take over HRT in 1960.  After Weinberg took control of HRT he went on to continue investing in real estate and other corporations.

The confluence of several milestone developments up to mid-1960s became the precursors of an unfolding drama that culminated in a battle of titanic proportions that led to the transfer of the company from private hands to public ownership by the City & County of Honolulu.  (Papacostas – ASCE)

First came the establishment of the Public Utilities Commission (PUC) in 1913; HRT started to spin off non-utility properties and operations to a subsidiary (Honolulu Ltd) to avoid regulatory oversight.  Then, in April 1937, the US Supreme Court validated the 1935 National Labor Relations Act that strengthened to role of labor (or trade) unions.  The thirds came from the US Congress in the form of “The Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964,” which provided funding for urban mass transit systems. (Papacostas – ASCE)

Through this provision, Frank F. Fasi, who was first elected mayor of the City & County of Honolulu in 1969 and who was destined to become the longest-serving person in that capacity initiated definite moves toward the ultimate take-over of HRT.  (Papacostas – ASCE)

Bernard W. Stern states in his book on Rutledge Unionism, “as early as 1970 the Federal Department of Transportation, in response to an inquiry, advised Honolulu Mayor Frank Fasi that Honolulu was eligible to receive two-thirds of the acquisition costs of HRT, Wahiawa Transport, and Leeward Bus Company.” The “Wahiawa” and “Leeward” companies were suburban lines, the first also being run under majority ownership by Weinberg.  (Papacostas – ASCE)

The company suspended all service after December 31, 1970, because of a labor dispute, and was succeeded a few months later by MTL, Inc. (a new management company established by the City and known as Mass Transit Lines (MTL.)  (Schmitt)

As a consequence of court decisions, the March 22, 1973 issue of the Honolulu Advertiser declared that finally “Weinberg, City agree to quick takeover of site.”  (Papacostas – ASCE)

The image shows the Honolulu Rapid Transit Powerhouse and Car Barn in 1909 (Overland Monthly;) in addition, I have added other images to a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Thursday, March 21, 2013

John Adams Cummins

John Adams Kuakini Cummins was born March 17, 1835 in Honolulu. He was a namesake of island governor John Adams Kuakini (1789–1844), who had taken the name of John Quincy Adams when Americans first settled on the islands in the 1820s.

His father was Thomas Jefferson Cummins (1802–1885) who was born in Lincoln, England, raised in Massachusetts and came to the Hawaiian Islands in 1828. His mother was High Chiefess Kaumakaokane Papaliʻaiʻaina (1810–1849) who was a distant relative of the royal family of Hawaiʻi.

In the 1840s, his father first developed a cattle ranch and horse ranch. Facing diminishing returns in the cattle market, in the 1880s, John began to grow sugar cane in place of cattle. This plantation was known as the Waimanalo Sugar Company.

He married Rebecca Kahalewai (1830–1902) in 1861, also considered a high chiefess, and had five children with her, four daughters and one son.

Cummins was elected to the House of Representatives in the legislature of the Hawaiian Kingdom in 1874. King Kalākaua appointed him to the Privy Council on June 18, 1874 shortly after Kalākaua came to the throne.

Even though Cummins voted against former Queen Emma in the election, she asked him to manage a trek for her around the islands in November 1875.

He had staged a similar grand tour the year before for Kalākaua. Emma was not disappointed.

Although many ancient Hawaiian customs had faded (due to influence of conservative Christian missionaries, for example), Cummins staged great revivals of ceremonies such as traditional hula performance.

In the legislature he advocated for the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 with the United States, which helped increase profits in the sugar industry, and his fortunes grew.

The sugar industry became a huge success and gave way to other innovations in the area. For instance, the use of railway tracks and locomotive were due to the boom of the sugar business.

Cummins left the sugar business to William G Irwin, agent of Claus Spreckles, and developed a commercial building called the Cummins Block at Fort and Merchant streets in Downtown Honolulu.

In 1889, he represented Hawaiʻi at the Paris exposition known as Exposition Universelle. On June 17, 1890 Cummins became Minister of Foreign Affairs in Kalākaua's cabinet and thus was in the House of Nobles of the legislature for the 1890 session.

When Kalākaua died and Queen Liliʻuokalani came to the throne in early 1891, she replaced all her ministers. Cummins resigned February 25, 1891.  He was replaced by Samuel Parker who was another part-Hawaiian.

Cummins was elected to the 1892 session of the House of Nobles, on the Hawaiian National Reform Party ticket. He also organized a group called the Native Sons of Hawaii which supported the monarchy.

After the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi in early 1893, Liliʻuokalani asked Cummins to travel to the continent to lobby for its help in restoration of the monarchy.

The task, which included Parker and Hermann A Widemann, ended in failure. However, on the voyage to the west coast, William T Seward, a former Major in the American Civil War who worked for Cummins and lived in one of his homes, smuggled guns and ammunition for the failed 1895 counter-revolution.

Thomas Beresford Walker, Cummins' son-in-law (married to his eldest daughter Matilda,) was also implicated in the plot. Cummins was arrested, charged with treason and convicted. He was sentenced to prison, but released after paying a fine and agreeing to testify against the ones actively involved in the arms trading.

He died on March 21, 1913 from influenza after a series of strokes and was buried in Oʻahu Cemetery. Well liked, even his political opponents called him "the playmate of princes and the companion and entertainer of kings".  The territorial legislature had tried several times to refund his fine, but it was never approved by the governor.

His funeral was a mix of mostly traditional symbols of the Hawaiian religion, with a Christian service in the Hawaiian language, attended by both royalists and planners of the overthrow.

Cummin’s great-grandson (through his daughter Jane Piikea Merseberg) was Mayor Neal Blaisdell.  The image shows John Adams Kuakini Cummins.   In addition, I have included other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Wednesday, March 20, 2013

Moanalua Community Church

Built in 1958, it’s still pretty young in terms of “historic property” (50+ years old.)  But in 2004, in my role as State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO,) I weighed in on the importance of keeping the structure intact.

You see, back then, the Navy was looking to redevelop the Moanalua Shopping Center – in it is Moanalua Community Church (originally built as Pearl Harbor Memorial Community Church.)

The church had its start as a chapel for sailors in World War II and now serves the surrounding community, including military personnel.

Once you see it, you immediately recognize and appreciate its importance.

Its feature is a stained-glass window that covers one whole wall of the A-frame building; it’s described as the "largest connected stained-glass window in Hawaiʻi" and one of the largest stained glass panels in the United States.

You get no sense of the uniqueness of the window from the outside; but once inside … Wow!

The unique stained glass window was designed in 1957 by John Wallis, formerly of the Wallis-Wiley Studio located in Pasadena, California. John Wallis was a prolific and notable stained glass artist who worked in the medium for over 70 years.

Designer John Wallis of California wove the ideas of the 1950s congregation into his creation.  People from a variety of cultures surround a large figure of Christ over the quotation "For You Are All One in Christ Jesus."

The artist describes it as, “The central feature of this window is a majestic figure of Christ drawing unto Himself people of all nations. They are shown coming to Him from all parts of the world as indicated by the varying landscapes, the streams and oceans of water and the different forms of architecture. At His feet is shown the Anchor, traditional Christian symbol, representing the thought that Christ is the ‘anchor of the soul, both sure and steadfast.’”  (Wallis)

A map of Pearl Harbor, aircraft and ships depicting battles from the Revolutionary War to World War II and military insignia are there, along with Jewish, Muslim, Hindu and Confucian symbols.

An article in the Honolulu Advertiser dated October 26, 1959 called the window: “... a tribute to all of the men and women of our military services - both dead and living who have defended American freedom in times of national emergency”.

Stained glass in the window consisted of 140 separate sections, each filled with 12 to 20 individual pieces of hand painted imported and domestic glass.  The entire A-frame front consists of the stained glass wall panel including the double entrance doors.  The only other stained glass window in Hawaiʻi designed by Wallis is located in Saint Andrews Episcopal Cathedral.

The first service in the church was held on July 20, 1958; although the stained glass window was not it place at that time.

After the stained glass window was in place; a dedication ceremony for the church took place on Sunday August 24, 1958. On September 3, 1958, at a celebratory dinner, an elongated hexagonal-shaped "time capsule" was sealed in the pavement at the front entrance to the church and marked with the date 1958.

From 1941 through 1945, prior to the establishment of the Pearl Harbor Memorial Community Church, the congregation met at a WWII Navy chapel located in the Pearl Harbor Housing Area 1, later known as Hale Moku.

The congregation was officially organized on April 28, 1946 when the twenty-five member church council drew up a commemorative scroll and a Navy chaplain was installed as pastor.

The scroll, which currently hangs in the church, is entitled Navy Housing Congregation and lists the original twenty-five council members and over eighty signatures of the original members of the congregation. Approximately 250 attended the dedication service in a large Quonset hut, in addition to 200 children attending the Sunday school.

In 1948, the name of the church was changed from Navy Housing Congregation to the Pearl Harbor Community Church. The original congregation consisted of military families from the nearby Pearl Harbor Naval Base and the Marine, Army, and Air Force installations as well as civilians who were employed at these installations.

The church was the only Protestant church in the Pearl Harbor area serving the five major Protestant denominations. In the 1950s, approximately 15,000 people resided in the area including over 4,000 military families.

In the 1950s, Congress did not appropriate Navy funds for churches to employ chaplains or build houses of worship. As an alternative, the Navy offered 25-year lease terms for a plot of land in the amount of $1 to several religious groups.

In 1954, Rear Admiral CE Olsen referred to the church as the "Pearl Harbor Memorial Church."  The first formal suggestion to call the church the Pearl Harbor Memorial Community Church, in honor of those who died during the attack on Pearl Harbor, was made by WM Adams, Chairman of the church Building Committee.

On January 2, 1957, a lease was signed between the United States of America and the Hawaiian Evangelical Association of Congregational-Christian Churches for a 3-acre lot in the "Johnson Circle, Interim and Public Housing, Moanalua Area, on behalf of the Pearl Harbor Community," and adjacent to the newly constructed Moanalua Shopping Center.

On October 27, 1957, an official groundbreaking ceremony was held at the church to celebrate the beginning of the construction.

Prior to 1971 only one congregation, the United Church of Christ, occupied and used the church.

Then, Lutheran Church of Pearl Harbor, Seventh Day Adventist, New Cup of Freedom Church (known today as the Samoan United Church of Christ,) New Life United Pentecostal Church, Young Rak Korean Presbyterian Church, and Kanana Fou-United Church of Christ (Samoan Congregation) began to share the facilities.

The church is open from 8 am to 8 pm, Sundays – they have one service after another.  In addition, there are weeknight services.  Altogether, about 600 people attend services in a week.

The image shows the Moanalua Community Church stained glass window.  In addition, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section I have added other images to a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Tuesday, March 19, 2013

Battle of Kuamo‘o - Lekeleke

“An extraordinary event marked the period of Liholiho’s rule, in the breaking down of the ancient tabus, the doing away with the power of the kahunas to declare tabus and to offer sacrifices, and the abolition of the tabu which forbade eating with women (ʻAi Noa, or free eating.)”  (Kamakau)

“The custom of the tabu upon free eating was kept up because in old days it was believed that the ruler who did not proclaim the tabu had not long to rule….The tabu eating was a fixed law for chiefs and commoners, not because they would die by eating tabu things, but in order to keep a distinction between things permissible to all people and those dedicated to the gods”. (Kamakau)

Following the death of Kamehameha I in 1819, King Kamehameha II (Liholiho) declared an end to the kapu system.  In a dramatic and highly symbolic event, Kamehameha II ate and drank with women, thereby breaking the important eating kapu.

This changed the course of the Hawaiian civilization and ended the kapu system (and the ancient organized religion), effectively weakened belief in the power of the gods and the inevitability of divine punishment for those who opposed them, and made for the transformation.

Forty years had passed since the death of Captain Cook at Kealakekua Bay, during which time the kapu system was breaking down; social behavior was changing rapidly and western actions clearly were immune to the ancient Hawaiian kapu (tabus).

Kamehameha II sent word to the island districts, and to the other islands, that the numerous heiau and their images of the gods be destroyed.

Kekuaokalani (Liholiho’s cousin) and his wife Manono opposed the abolition of the kapu system and assumed the responsibility of leading those who opposed its abolition.  These included priests, some courtiers and the traditional territorial chiefs of the middle rank.

Kekuaokalani demanded that Liholiho withdraw his edict on abolition of the kapu system.  Kamehameha II refused.

Keōpūolani (Liholiho’s mother,) ali‘i kapu (sacred chief), confronted Kekuaokalani.  She tried to negotiate with him so as to prevent a battle that could end with her son’s losing the kingdom.

The two powerful cousins engaged at the battle of Kuamo‘o.  The royal army, led by Kalanimōkū, numbered by nearly fifteen-hundred warriors, some of them bearing firearms.  Kekuaokalani had fewer men and even fewer weapons than the king’s better-armed forces.

“Kekuaokalani was killed on the field, and Manono, his brave and faithful wife, fighting by his side, fell dead upon the body of her husband with a musket-ball through her temples.”  (Kalākaua)

The Journal of William Ellis (1823): Scene of Battle with Supporters of Idolatry - “After traveling about two miles over this barren waste, we reached where, in the autumn of 1819, the decisive battle was fought between the forces of Rihoriho (Liholiho), the present king, and his cousin, Kekuaokalani, in which the latter was slain, his followers completely overthrown, and the cruel system of idolatry, which he took up arms to support, effectually destroyed.”  (Ellis)

“The natives pointed out to us the place where the king’s troops, led on by Karaimoku (Kalanimōkū), were first attacked by the idolatrous party. We saw several small heaps of stones, which our guide informed us were the graves of those who, during the conflict, had fallen there.”  (Ellis)

“We were then shewn the spot on which the king’s troops formed a line from the seashore towards the mountains, and drove the opposing party before them to a rising ground, where a stone fence, about breast high, enabled the enemy to defend themselves for some time, but from which they were at length driven by a party of Karaimoku’s (Kalanimōkū) warriors.”  (Ellis)

“The small tumuli increased in number as we passed along, until we came to a place called Tuamoo (Kuamo‘o)…”  (Ellis)

“Thus died the last great defenders of the Hawaiian gods.  They died as nobly as they had lived, and were buried together where they fell on the field of Kuamo‘o.”  (Kalākaua)

“Small bodies of religious malcontents were subdued at Waimea and one or two other points, but the hopes and struggles of the priesthood virtually ended with the death of Kekuaokalani.”  (Kalākaua)

The image shows the burial mounds at Lekeleke, the result of the Battle of Kuamo‘o.  The site has been restored by Keauhou Resort.  In addition, I have included other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Monday, March 18, 2013

College Hill

In 1829, Governor Boki gave the land to Hiram Bingham – who subsequently gave it to the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) – to establish Punahou School.

Founded in 1841, Punahou School (originally called Oʻahu College) was built at Kapunahou to provide a quality education for the children of Congregational missionaries, allowing them to stay in Hawaiʻi with their families, instead of being sent away to school.  The first class had 15 students.

The land area of the Kapunahou gift was significantly larger than the present school campus size.  Near the turn of the last century, the Punahou Board of Trustees decided to subdivide some of the land – they called their subdivision “College Hills.”

Inspired by the garden suburb ideals then becoming popular both in North America and Europe, and especially England, College Hills was initiated as a way of raising revenue for the school.

College Hills was one of several enclaves for Honolulu’s wealthier residents and marked the true beginning of park-like suburban developments in Hawaiʻi.

Following upon earlier subdivisions, such as the 1886 Seaview Tract in the area now known as “lower Manoa,” the College Hills Tract was an important real estate development in the history of Honolulu.

Using nearly 100 acres of land previously leased out as a dairy farm, Punahou subdivided the rolling landscape into separate parcels of from 10,000- to 20,000-square feet.

The “Atherton House” was built on one of the most attractive of these parcels (actually six lots purchased together.) Situated on a slight rise, and protected by the hillside of Tantalus rising to the west (Ewa) side, the Atherton House, part of the new wave of Mānoa residences. It represented the move of one of Hawaiʻi’s elite families into an area thought before to be countryside.

College Hills soon became a desirable residential area served by a streetcar, which traveled up O‘ahu Avenue and made a wide U-turn around the Atherton home on Kamehameha Avenue.

The Atherton House was the residence of Frank C Atherton and his wife Eleanore from 1902 until his death in 1945. (Mrs. Atherton continued living in the house until the early-1960s.)

Designed by architect Walter E Pinkham, the shingled two-story wood-framed house reflects the influence of the late Queen Anne, Prairie and Craftsman styles, but its lava rock piers, ʻōhia floors and large lanai denote it as Hawaiian.

The house was a gift to Atherton from his father, Joseph Ballard Atherton, the family patriarch in Hawaiʻi, who was one of a small group of North Americans and Europeans that became prominent in Hawaiʻi’s business and political life toward the end of the 19th century.

Arriving in Honolulu from Boston in 1858, JB Atherton worked first for the firm of DC Waterman, before taking a position with the larger company of Castle and Cooke.

In 1865, JB Atherton married Juliette Montague Cooke, a daughter of the Reverend Amos Starr Cooke, one of the islands’ early missionaries. Together they had six children (including Frank.)

JB Atherton became a junior partner of Castle and Cooke; by 1894, as the sole survivor of the firm’s early leadership, he became president.

He worked closely with the Pāʻia Plantation and the Haiku Sugar Company on Maui, and in 1890 was one of the incorporators of the ʻEwa Plantation Company. Together with BF Dillingham, he organized the Waialua Agricultural Company, Ltd and became the first president

Atherton served for many years the president of Castle and Cooke, one of the “Big Five” companies in Hawaiʻi. At Castle and Cooke, he distinguished himself as an energetic and progressive leader, who helped transform Hawaii’s economy away from the single agricultural crop of sugar toward greater diversity.

Eventually, Frank C Atherton would become vice-president and then president of Castle and Cooke.

For 60 years the “Atherton House” was the home of the Atherton family; the Atherton's children donated it to the University of Hawaiʻi in 1964 to serve as a home for the University of Hawaiʻi president – the University named the home “College Hill.”

While it is the designated home for the University of Hawaiʻi president, and now bears the name "College Hill," it didn't get its name because the UH president lives there.  (The Mānoa residence was built five years before the University was founded.)

Oʻahu College - as Punahou School used to be called - was located nearby. Thus, the Mānoa Valley section where Frank and Eleanore Atherton had their country home was called "College Hills Tract."

The image shows Atherton House – College Hill in its earlier years.  In addition, I have included other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Sunday, March 17, 2013

Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli)

Kauikeaouli appeared to be stillborn, but was revived.  He was the second son of Kamehameha I.   His birth site is at the head of Keauhou Bay (the Daughters of Hawaiʻi own and maintain the area.)

His exact birth date is not known; however, the generally accepted date is August 11, 1813.  Never-the-less, Kauikeaouli was apparently an admirer of Saint Patrick and chose to celebrate his birthday on March 17.

Kauikeaouli spent the first 5-years of his life with Chief Kaikioʻewa in the ‘O‘oma ahupuaʻa in Kona (the place where he first learned to be a king.)

Other early education the infant Prince received was at Kailua-Kona, from the Rev. Asa Thurston and Thomas Hopu, a native Hawaiian who had been educated on the continent and who came with the first missionaries to Hawaiʻi.  In Honolulu, the Prince was the pupil of Rev. Hiram Bingham.

The younger brother of Liholiho, he served as Hawai‘i’s King from 1825 to 1854 – the longest ruling monarch over the Hawaiian Kingdom.  Kauikeaouli was a pre-teen when he ascended to the throne; in the early years of his rule, he served under a regency with Kaʻahumanu, his father’s favorite queen, as joint ruler.

During the early- to mid-1800s timeframe, there were significant changes occurring that greatly affected the Hawaiian people:

  • his mother Keōpūolani  and Kaʻahumanu convinced Liholiho to effectively break the Kapu system
  • the health of many Hawaiians was weakened by exposure to new diseases, common cold, flu, measles, mumps, smallpox and venereal diseases
  • as more ships came in, many of those who came to Hawaiʻi chose to stay and settle
  • Hawaiʻi changed from a land of all Hawaiians to a place of mixed cultures, languages and races
  • many new plants and animals were brought to the islands, both on purpose and by accident
  • new products by foreign ships were traded
  • the economy and everyday life was changing from a subsistence way of life to a commodity-based economy that started with barter and trade, that eventually changed to a monetary system
  • there was growth of business centers, where people ended up living closer to one another, typically surrounding the best seaports for western ships (small towns soon grew into large cities)

There is scarcely in history, ancient or modem, any King to whom so many public reforms and benefits can be ascribed, as the achievements of his reign. Yet what King has had to contend with so many difficulties as King Kamehameha III? (The Polynesian, 1855)

“That the existence of the King, chiefs and the natives, can only be preserved by having a government efficient for the administration of enlightened justice, both to natives and the subjects of foreign powers residing in the islands, and that chiefly through missionary efforts the natives have made such progress in education and knowledge, as to justify the belief that by further training, they may be rendered capable of conducting efficiently the affairs of government; but that they are not at present so far advanced.”  (Kamehameha IV, In Obituary to the departed King)

In private life, Kamehameha III  was mild, kind, affable, generous and forgiving. He was never more happy than when free from the cares and trappings of state. He could enjoy himself sociably with his friends, who were much attached to him. (The Polynesian, 1855)

Having associated much, while a boy, with foreigners, he continued to the last to be fond of their company. Without his personal influence, the law to allow them to hold lands in fee simple could never have been enacted; neither could conflicting claims to land have been settled and registered by that most useful institution, the Board of Land Commissioners.  (The Polynesian, 1855)

It is hardly possible to conceive any King more generally beloved than was Kamehameha III; more universally obeyed, or more completely sovereign in the essential respect of independent sovereignty, that of governing his subjects free from any influence or control coming from beyond the limits of his own jurisdiction.  (The Polynesian, 1855)

Under his leadership, Hawaiʻi changed from an isolated island kingdom to a recognized member of the modem world. Many of the things he did as king still influence life in Hawaiʻi today.  (Kamehameha Schools Press)

The following are only some of the many accomplishments of Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli:)

  • On June 6, 1825, Kauikeaouli was proclaimed king of Hawaiʻi. To the people he said, “Where are you, chiefs, guardians, commoners?  I greet you.  Hear what I say! My kingdom I give to God.  The righteous chief shall be my chief, the children of the commoners who do you right shall be my people, my kingdom shall be one of letters.”  (Kamakau - Kamehameha Schools Press)
  • June 7, 1839, he signed the Declaration of Rights (called Hawai‘i’s Magna Charta) that, in part, noted, "God hath made of one blood all nations of men to dwell on the earth, in unity and blessedness. God has also bestowed certain rights alike on all men and all chiefs, and all people of all lands.”
  • June 17, 1839 he issued the Edict of Toleration permitting religious freedom for Catholics in the same way as it had been granted to the Protestants.
  • June 28, 1839 he founded Chief’s Children’s School (The Royal School;) the main goal of this school was to groom the next generation of the highest ranking chiefs’ children of the realm and secure their positions for Hawaiʻi’s Kingdom.  (Missionaries Amos and Juliette Cooke were selected to teach the 16 royal children and run the school.)
  • October 8, 1840 (the King was about 27-years-old) he enacted the Constitution of 1840 that, in part, changed the government from one of an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. It provided for a separation of powers between three branches of government, with executive power in the hands of the king, the kuhina nui (similar to a prime minister) and four governors; a bicameral legislative body consisting of a house of nobles and a house of representatives, with the house of representatives elected by the people; and a judiciary system, including a supreme court.
  • April 27, 1846 he declared that “the forests and timber growing therein shall be considered government property, and under the special care of the Minister of the Interior ...;” effectively starting the process of protecting our mauka watersheds.
  • January 27, 1848 through March 7, 1848 he participated in what we refer to as the “Great Māhele” that was a reformation of the land system in Hawaiʻi and allowed private ownership
  • June 14, 1852 he enacted the Constitution of 1852 that expanded on the Declaration of Rights, granted universal (adult male) voting rights for the first time and changed the House of Nobles from a hereditary body to one where members served by appointment by the King. It also institutionalized the three branches of government and defined powers along the lines of the American Constitution.
  • Toward the end of Kauikeaouli’s reign there were 423 schools in Hawaiʻi with an enrollment of over twelve-thousand-students. Most of the schools were elementary schools using Hawaiian as the language of instruction.

Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III) died December 15, 1854 (at the age of 41.)

Happy Birthday and Cheers to Kauikeaouli, Kamehameha III.  I think I'll have a Guinness (or two) tonight in his honor.  (Happy St Patrick’s Day.)

The image shows Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli.)   In addition, I have included other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Saturday, March 16, 2013

Prisoners, Pullmans and Prostitutes

Very few people lived there, but that shouldn't suggest the place was without activity.

By the time of first contact with Europeans, the downtown area of Honolulu, known then as Kou, was comprised of shoreward fishponds and taro lo‘i fed by streams extending into the Nu‘uanu and Pauoa valleys.

On the opposite side (ʻEwa) of Nu‘uanu stream was a fishpond, identified as “Kawa” or the “King’s fish pond.” Iwilei at that time was a small, narrow peninsula, less populated than the Honolulu-side of Nuʻuanu stream.

Offshore from Iwilei was a small island on the coral reef on the west site of the bay. On the island was a small hut referred to as “Ka-moku-‘akulikuli” or “Kaha-ka-‘au-lana” (the early names for it were “Quarantine Island,” then “Sand Island” – it was a lot smaller, then, too.)

The first wharf at Honolulu Harbor was just north of Nuʻuanu Street. It was constructed from an old hulk sunk at the spot in 1825. This was replaced and expanded in 1837.

On the shoreline (at about what is now the intersection of Queen and Nimitz) Fort Kekuanohu was constructed.  Its original purpose was to protect Honolulu by keeping enemy or otherwise undesirable ships out.  Later, it was used as a prison.

In 1852, the legislature adopted a resolution directing the minister of the interior to remove the Fort and to use the material obtained thereby "in the construction of prisons, and the filling up of the reef."

The Fort, being used as a prison, could not be removed until a new prison was built; construction for the new prison began in 1855, but not entirely completed until more than two years later.  The Fort was then removed in 1857. (Kuykendall)

The Prison was on a marshy no-man’s land almost completely cut off from the main island by two immense fishponds.  The causeway road (initially called "Prison Road,” later “Iwilei Street”) split Kawa Pond into Kawa and Kūwili fishponds.

Sometimes called the  "Oʻahu Prison," "King's Prison," "Kawa Prison" or, simply, "The Reef," it was a coral block fortress built upon coral fill at the end of a coral built road over the coral reefs and mudflats of Iwilei.

In 1886, Mark Twain visited the prison and wrote:  "... we presently arrived at a massive coral edifice which I took for a fortress at first, but found out directly that it was the government prison. A soldier at the great gate admitted us without further authority than my countenance, and I supposed he thought he was paying me a handsome compliment when he did so; and so did I until I reflected that the place was a penitentiary".

The Prison was later relocated to Kalihi (1916) and renamed O‘ahu Jail; this is now known as O‘ahu Community Correctional Facility.

Another Iwilei activity included a railway station.  In 1889, a group of businessmen led by Benjamin Dillingham founded the O‘ahu Railway and Land Company (OR&L).

OR&L built Honolulu’s first depot between Kūwili fishpond and King Street, west of Iwilei Street. The July 27, 1889 Advertiser noted, "Plans have been approved by which the main depot will be placed 180 feet from King Street in what is now a fishpond dividing Oahu Prison from the royal stables.  A large portion, if not all, of this extensive fishpond will be filled in without delay..."

The railroad carried sugarcane from the plantations to Iwilei – it carried people, too. To accommodate this, the marshes and fishponds were filled in and new wharfs built.  By 1901, the OR&L and other business interests had created about 500 acres of waterfront land. The docks could accommodate over 20 deepwater sailing vessels, unloading coal and loading sugar.

The last of the activities at early Iwilei was the business was sex.  (Before there was Hotel Street (the 1940s gathering place,) there was Iwilei.)  They called it the ‘Iwilei Stockade.’

Inside a high stockade wall were long rows of rooms, each 8x10; there were 225 of them.  Most of the women were from Japan.  From 4 pm to 2 am, the stockade gates were open.  (Gallagher)

These women did not live at Iwilei; they only went there in the evenings, and then returned to their uptown homes at night. Some had homes of their own, others were servants of families; but all went back to town. They were in no sense isolated; Iwilei was not their home; they neither eat nor sleep there. (Special Legislative Committee Report, 1905)

Local law enforcement condoned and controlled the activities, under the guise that it was “a public necessity.”  "The whole of Iwilei makai of the Oʻahu Prison has been used for the purpose of prostitution for some time past.”  (Special Legislative Committee Report, 1905)

“The High Sheriff of the Territory, through his agents, has ordered all of such women (prostitutes) that are found in different parts of the City, and also in some portions of Iwilei, to move to one particular part as follows: on the makai side of Iwilei rice mill, and on the Ewa side of the Iwilei road." (Special Legislative Committee Report, 1905)

The Iwilei brothels (or “boogie houses,” as they were also called back then) were later forced to relocate to Hotel Street and a few adjoining parts of Chinatown.   By 1916, the Iwilei Stockade was shut down.

It has been suggested that one of the former Iwilei prostitutes became the role model for the key character in the silent film "Sadie Thompson," based on W. Somerset Maugham’s short story "Rain" (as well as other adaptations.)

As time went on, more of the fringing reefs were filled, which made way for expanded commercial use.  By the 1920s, small and large businesses moved in – and, now, gone are the Prisoners, Pullmans and Prostitutes from Iwilei.

The image shows the Iwilei area from an 1887 over Google Earth; Oʻahu Prison and the Kawa and Kūwili Fishponds are noted.  In addition, I have added other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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