Friday, August 31, 2012


Nihoa was reportedly inhabited sometime between 1000 and 1500 AD.  Archaeological surveys on Nihoa have documented numerous archaeological sites and cultural material.

The sites included; habitation sites such as massive platforms; rockshelters, terraces and enclosures; heiau that are small terraces with single linear arrangement of upright stones and numerous pieces of branch coral laying on surface; extensive agricultural terraces and burial sites.

The heiau (place of worship) and platform foundations with upright stones found on Nihoa resemble other Hawaiian wahi pana on the islands of Maui at Haleakalā, Hawai‘i Island on top of Mauna Kea and the island of Kaua‘i Kea Ali‘i heiau in Waimea.

It is believed that the first Native Hawaiians to inhabit the archipelago and their descendants frequented Nihoa for at least a 500- to 700-year period.

Archaeologists believe that the terraces were planted with sweet potatoes.  They estimate that the 12-16 acres under cultivation might have supported about 100 people.

The only tree on the island is the loulu palm; a total of 515 palms were counted in 1923.  Its fan-like leaves were used for plaiting (braiding,) and its trunk could have been used for building shelters or for firewood (however, if cut for firewood, the supply would eventually be depleted.

Without forest products, islanders could not have provided themselves with canoes, wood containers, nets, fishing line, clothing and blankets, mats, and medicines.  So, some of these were probably supplied from Kaua‘i or Ni‘ihau.

Fish, shellfish, crabs, lobsters, turtles, and seals, as well as seabirds and their eggs are abundant sources of food.  Food and water supply was sufficient for subsistence, but that the lack of firewood would have created a hardship.

Also referenced as Bird Island and Moku Manu, Nihoa is the closest island northwest of the main Hawaiian chain, about 155-miles northwest of Ni‘ihau and 250 miles from Honolulu.

It’s the largest and tallest of ten islands and atolls in the uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI;) total land area is about 171-acres (about a mile long, a quarter mile wide.)  It is the summit of a huge volcanic rock with two main peaks, Miller's Peak (895-feet) and Tanager Peak (852-feet.)

Landing on the island is difficult.  High, sheer cliffs prevent landing on the east, north, and west sides; the island slopes down to the south, but the shoreline is rocky and unprotected from the surge of southerly swells.

By the time of Western European contact with the Hawaiian Islands, little was collectively known about the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) by the majority of the population, as relatively few individuals traveled to these remote islands and had seen them with their own eyes.  However, families from Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau voyaged to these islands to fish.

The first Westerner to see Nihoa was Captain James Colnett of the ‘Prince of Wales,’ on March 21, 1788.

Within the next century, a number of expeditions were initiated by Hawaiian ali‘i to visit these islands and bring them under
Hawaiian political control and ownership.

Having heard chants and stories about the island of Nihoa, in 1822, Queen Ka‘ahumanu organized and participated in a royal expedition to the island, under the charge of Captain William Sumner.  Reportedly, the waterfront area around Ka‘ahumanu Street in Honolulu was named Nihoa in honor of the visit.

The following is a part of the story related to the direction from which the winter rains come:

'Ea mai ana ke ao ua o Kona,
'Ea mai ana ma Nihoa
Ma ka mole mai o Lehua
Ua iho a pulu ke kahakai

The rain clouds of Kona come,
Approaching from Nihoa,
From the base of Lehua,
Pouring down, drenching the coast.

In 1856, Nihoa was reaffirmed as part of the existing land mass of Hawai‘i by authority of Alexander Liholiho, Kamehameha IV (March 16, 1856 Circular of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i).

In 1885, the most famous visit by Hawaiian royalty was made by then princess Lydia Lili‘uokalani and her 200-person party who visited Nihoa on the ship ‘Iwalani.’  They brought back artifacts - a stone bowl, a stone dish, a coral rubbing stone and a coral file.

While I have visited the NWHI, now the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, I have never been to Nihoa.  However, in 2003, I had the good fortune to fly over the island and capture a few images of Nihoa.  In addition to this image, I have included other images/maps of Nihoa in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Thursday, August 30, 2012

Moana Hotel

Waikīkī was once a vast marshland whose boundaries encompassed more than 2,000-acres (as compared to its present 500-acres we call Waikīkī, today).

In the late-1890s, with additional steamship lines to Honolulu, the visitor arrivals to Oʻahu were increasing.  In 1896, Walter Chamberlain Peacock, a wealthy Waikīkī homeowner at the time, proposed to build Waikīkī’s first major resort to provide a solution to the area’s main drawback - the lack of suitable accommodations on the beach.

Often called the "First Lady of Waikīkī," the Moana Hotel has been a Hawaiʻi icon since its opening opened on March 11, 1901.

The original wooden center structure of the Moana Hotel is the oldest existing hotel in Waikīkī. As such, it deserves recognition as a landmark in Hawaii's tourist industry.

Designed in the old colonial style architecture of the period, it boasted 75 rooms and was the costliest, most elaborate and modern hotel building in the Hawaiian Islands at the time.

Each room on the three upper floors had a bathroom and a telephone – innovations for any hotel of the times.  The hotel also had its own ice plant and electric generators.  The first floor had a billiard parlor, saloon, main parlor, library, office, and reception area.

The Moana was one of the earliest "high-rise" buildings in Hawaii and was the costliest hotel in the islands. In spite of numerous renovations and changes, it has retained its tropical openness and is a welcome change from the more modern high-rises that surround it.

The original four story wood structure, designed by OG Traphagen, a well known Honolulu architect, features an elaborately designed lobby which extends to open lanais and is open to the Banyan Court and the sea.

By 1918, Hawaii had 8,000 visitors annually and by the 1920s Matson Navigation Company ships were bringing an increasing number of wealthy visitors.

This prompted a massive addition to the hotel.  In 1918, two floors were added along with concrete wings on each side, doubling the size of the hotel.

In the 1920s, the Waikīkī landscape underwent a dramatic re-development when the wetlands were drained with the construction of the Ala Wai Canal.  The reclaimed lands were subdivided into 5,000-square foot lots.

Matson Navigation Company bought the Moana in 1932; it paired with Matson's other Waikīkī property, the Royal Hawaiian.

From 1935 until 1975, the Moana Hotel courtyard was home to the "Hawaii Calls" worldwide radio show, with its trademark sound of waves breaking in the distance.

The 1941 bombing of Pearl Harbor and Second World War interrupted the flow of visitors to Waikīkī and the region becomes a rest and recreation area for soldiers and sailors coming and going to the war in the Pacific.

After the war, tourism thrived in the late-1940s and 50s, with the introduction of regularly scheduled airline service from the West Coast.

1959 brought two significant actions that shaped the present day make-up of Hawai‘i, (1) Statehood and (2) jet-liner service between the mainland US and Honolulu (Pan American Airways Boeing 707.)  (That year, the Moana was sold to the Sheraton hotel chain.)

These two events helped guide and expand the fledgling visitor industry in the state into the number one industry that it is today.  Tourism exploded.  Steadily during the 1960s, 70s and 80s the millions of tourists added up, as did the new visitor accommodations in Waikīkī.

The Moana remains a constant reminder of the old Waikīkī.

In the center of the Moana's courtyard stands a large Banyan tree. The Indian Banyan tree was planted in 1904 by Jared Smith, Director of the Department of Agriculture Experiment Station (about 7-feet at planting, it is now over 75-feet in height.)

In 1979 the historic tree was one of the first to be listed on Hawaii's Rare and Exceptional Tree List. It has also been selected by the Board of Trustees of America the Beautiful Fund as the site for a Hawaii Millennium Landmark Tree designation, which selects one historic tree in each state for protection in the new millennium.

In 1905, the Moana Hotel was at the center of one of America's legendary mysteries. Jane Stanford, co-founder of Stanford University and former wife of California Governor Leland Stanford, died in a Moana Hotel room of poisoning.

After several renovations and additions, the hotel now accommodates 794 guest rooms, two restaurants, spa and a bunch of other hotel amenities.

The image shows the Moana Hotel in 1908; in addition, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Wednesday, August 29, 2012

Hale Ali‘i – (The First ‘Iolani Palace)

When the seat of government was being established in Lāhainā in the 1830s, Hale Piula (iron roofed house,) a large two-story stone building, was built for Kamehameha III to serve as his royal palace.

But, by 1843, the decision was made to permanently place a palace in Honolulu; Hale Piula was then used as a courthouse, until it was destroyed by wind in 1858 – its stones were used to rebuild a courthouse on Wharf Street.

In Honolulu, Kekūanāo‘a (father of two kings, Kamehameha IV and V) was building a house for his daughter (Princess Victoria Kamāmalu.)

The original one story coral block and wooden building called Hanailoia was built in July 1844 on the grounds of the present ‘Iolani Palace.

But, in 1845 Kamehameha III took possession of it as his Palace; from then on, Honolulu remained the official seat of government in Hawai‘i.

At the time when Kekūanāo‘a erected the old Palace, the grounds were not so spacious as they are at present.  On the western corner was Kekūanaō‘a’s house, which he had named Hali‘imaile.

Kekauluohi, a premier, erected her house in the vicinity.  When John Young was premier, he built and lived in Kīna‘u Hale.  Also, on the premises was Pohukaina.

The site of the Palace was once a section of the important heiau (temple,) Ka‘ahaimauli; other heiau were also in the vicinity of the Palace, including Kanela‘au and Mana.

The Palace was used mainly of official events and the structure had mainly offices and reception areas, since smaller buildings on the grounds served as residences for the rulers and their court; it was only one-third the floor area of the present Palace.

Kamehameha III built a home next door (on the western side of the present grounds, near the Kīna‘u gate, opening onto Richards Street;) he called the house “Hoihoikea,” (two authors spell it this way - it may have been spelled Hoihoiea) in honor of his restoration after the Paulet Affair of 1843. (Taylor and Judd)

(In 1843, Paulet had raised the British flag and issued a proclamation annexing Hawai‘i to the British Crown.  This event became known as the Paulet Affair.  Queen Victoria sent Rear Admiral Richard Thomas to restore the Hawaiian Kingdom.  That day is now referred to as Ka La Hoʻihoʻi Ea, Sovereignty Restoration Day.)

“Hoihoikea" was a large, old-fashioned, livable cottage erected on the grounds a little to the west and mauka side of the old Palace.  This served as home to Kamehameha III, Kamehameha IV and Kamehameha V: the Palace being used principally for state purposes. (Taylor)

The palace building was named Hale Ali‘i meaning (House of the Chiefs.)

During the reign of Kamehameha V, cabinet councils were frequently held there.  This was where the council called the Constitutional Convention, the result of which was the abolition of the constitution of 1852 and the creation of a new one.

Hale Ali‘i was renamed ‘Iolani in 1863, at the request of King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa.)  The name “‘Iolani” was chosen by King Kamehameha V to honor his deceased brother, the former king, Kamehameha IV (Alexander Liholiho ‘Iolani.)

“‘Io” is the Hawaiian hawk, a bird that flies higher than all the rest, and “lani” denotes heavenly, royal or exalted.

The Palace served as the official state structure for five Kings: Kamehameha III, Kamehameha IV, Kamehameha V, Lunalilo and the first part of Kalākaua’s reign.

Theodore Heuck, who had earlier designed the new Mausoleum, designed a building called ‘Iolani Barracks, completed in 1871, to house the royal guards. Over time the various other houses on the grounds were removed and replaced with grass lawns.

Although the old palace was demolished in 1874, the name ʻIolani Palace was retained for the building that stands today.

The construction of the present ‘Iolani Palace began in 1879 and in 1882 ‘Iolani Palace was completed and furnished.

The image is a photo of Hale Ali‘I and floor plan (Judd.)  In addition, I have included other images of the Palace and related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Tuesday, August 28, 2012

Kaupō Field System

At the time of initial contact, Hawaiian subsistence economy was dominated by two distinct agricultural ecosystems: (1) irrigated ponds (primarily for taro production) near permanent streams that could feed irrigation canals and (2) extensive tracts of dryland, rain-fed intensive cultivation (focused on the cultivation of sweet potatoes.)

Although irrigated ponds continued after contact, the intensive dryland field systems were abandoned in the early decades of the nineteenth century (probably due to greater labor demands for the dryland systems.)

Until recently, no intensive, dryland rain-fed field systems had been identified on Maui.  However, now, there is clear evidence of such a system at Kaupō.

Before getting into the specifics of the field system, let’s recall what was happening in and around Kaupō in late pre-contact times.

Kaupō is associated in Hawaiian oral traditions with Kekaulike, a famous Maui king (ali‘i nui) who on genealogical estimates is dated to approximately the early eighteenth century.

Kekaulike made Kaupō his residential seat, and assembled his army at Mokulau, preparing for a war of conquest against his rivals on Hawai‘i Island.

After returning from his invasion of Kohala, Kekaulike resided at Kaupō, where he died.  The succession of the Maui kingship demonstrated the importance that Kaupō had in the late pre-contact Maui kingdom.

Kaupō is on the south-eastern flanks of Haleakalā, Maui.

The district is dominated by the “Kaupō Gap,” a breach of the southern wall of Haleakalā Crater with a rejuvenation phase of a massive outpouring of lava flows (and one major mudflow) through the Kaupō Gap and down to the sea, creating a vast accretion fan.  The Hawaiians called this fan Nā Holokū (“The Cloak.”)

It was this great fan of young lavas with high nutrient content, combined with ideal climate conditions that provided the environmental potential for intensive agricultural production in Kaupō.

Given its use as a Royal Center for Island Ali‘i, there was a definite need for sufficient crop production.  Fortunately, the area has an ideal combination of soils, elevation and rainfall making it also a predictable environment for an intensive dryland field system to feed the people.

Historic records note that this region was identified as “the greatest continuous dry planting area in the Hawaiian islands,” both in ancient times and well into the 1930s.  But this old culture was vanishing due to a combination of economic and climatic circumstances.

Oral traditions state that sweet potatoes were cultivated from sea level up to about 2,000 feet elevation and great quantities of dry taro were planted in the lower forest belt from one end of the district to the other.

Using high-resolution color aerial photographs of Kaupō and then confirming their findings on the ground, archaeologists identified grid patterns over significant parts of the landscape, confirming the existence of a major dryland field system, the first to be identified for Maui Island.

The field system a closely spaced grid of east-west embankments and small field plots bisected at right angles by longer north-south trending walls; it covered an area of 3,000 to nearly 4,000-acres and could have supported a population of 8,000-10,000 people.

A range of smaller features such as enclosures, shelters and platforms are found within the field system area indicating the presence of a complex social community integrated within the system.

This was truly dryland agriculture, there was no evidence to level terraces as in irrigated pondfield systems (taro lo‘i,) and there was no evidence of water control features or channels; so the conclusion was the system was strictly rainfed.

The most common feature type consists of stacked or core-filled stone-walled enclosures; many of these are rectangular and may be the foundation walls for thatched houses, but a few larger, irregular enclosures may be animal pens.

On Hawai‘i Island, field system complexes are associated with prominent ceremonial structures (heiau) and royal residential centers, such as Mo‘okini Heiau at the northern tip of Kohala, and the royal centers at Kealakekua and Hōnaunau in Kona.

This strong association between field systems and ceremonial architecture is not surprising, given that these intensively cultivated field complexes provided the underpinning of the elite economy.

Like other areas, two heiau at Kaupō stand out for their massive size and labor invested in their construction, Lo‘alo‘a and Kou.

Lo‘alo‘a Heiau is one of the largest on Maui and indeed in the entire archipelago and is associated in Hawaiian traditions with King Kekaulike, who ruled Maui in the early 1700s.  Kou Heiau, on a lava promontory jutting into the sea is on the western end of the Kaupō field system.

It is believed that Kaupō with its field system at one time played an important role in the emerging Maui population, particularly in the final century prior to European contact, when it became the seat of the paramount Kekaulike.

The enormous capacity of these field systems enabled the rise of a population center; Lo‘alo‘a and Kou heiau on either side of the Kaupō fields illustrate the inseparable links between agriculture and the religious traditions of ancient Hawai‘i.

The image shows the general location and some of the field walls of the Kaupo Field System.  A special thanks to Patrick Kirch for information and images on the Kaupō Field System (P. V. Kirch, J. Holson, and A. Baer, 2009,  Intensive dryland agriculture in Kaupō, Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Asian Perspectives 48:265-290.)

I have added other images and maps of this area in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Monday, August 27, 2012

Duke Kahanamoku

Born in 1890, Duke Paoa Kahinu Makoe Hulikohoa Kahanamoku was one of nine children of a Honolulu policeman.  He was born at Haleʻākala, the “pink house” (home of Bernice Pauahi Bishop) located near ʻIolani Palace (near where Bank of Hawaiʻi now stands on King Street.)

With respect to his name “Duke,” he was named after his father.  The elder Kahanamoku was born during the Duke of Edinburgh’s visit to the islands in 1869.

The elder Duke explains his naming as “after I was washed by Mrs. Bishop she gave me the name “The Duke of Edinburgh.” The Duke heard and was glad and came to house and I was presented to him and tooke [sic] me in his arms. And that is how I got this name.” (Nendel)

Duke lived in interesting times in Hawaiʻi; in his lifetime, Hawaiʻi moved from an independent monarchy to full statehood in the United States of America.

Kahanamoku’s family lived in a small house on the beach at Waikiki where the present day Hawaiian Hilton Village now stands. He would never graduate from High School due to the need to help his family earn enough money to live.

Duke Kahanamoku had a very normal upbringing for a young boy his age in Waikiki. He swam, surfed, fished, did odd jobs such as selling newspapers and went to school at Waikiki grammar school.

For fun and extra money he and others would greet the boatloads of tourists coming to and from Honolulu Harbor. They would dive for coins tossed into the water by the visitors, perform acrobatic displays of diving from towers on boat days, and explore the crop of newcomers for potential students to teach surfing and canoeing lessons to on the beach.

He earned his living as a beachboy and stevedore at the Honolulu Harbor docks. Growing up on the beach in Waikiki, Duke surfed with his brothers and entertained tourists with tandem rides.

By the time that Kahanamoku burst upon the world scene in 1911 (at the age of 21,) shattering American and world records in the one hundred and fifty yard freestyle swimming races at an Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) sanctioned meet in Honolulu Harbor, sport had become a tool of nationalism used by countries around the world to demonstrate modern manliness and vigor.  (Nendel)

He later won an Olympic gold medal in 1912 - a feat he repeated eight years later at the age of 30. In 1924, he won the silver.  Overall he won five medals at the various Olympic Games.

Returning to Hawaiʻi as a hero, yet unable to find a suitable job, Duke took his swimming ability abroad through exhibition swimming competitions – he also used every opportunity to introduce the world to surfing (he even appeared in 28-films as a bit-part actor, with such stars as John Wayne.)

However, fame brought him into politics and he served as Sheriff for thirteen consecutive 2-year terms.  He initially ran as a democrat, but later switched and served as a Republican.  After the office was eliminated, he became the city’s official greeter.

However impressive these feats are, it was his love of surfing that Duke is most remembered.  He used surfing to promote Hawaiian culture to visitors who wanted to fully experience the islands.

Through his many travels, Duke Kahanamoku introduced surfing to the rest of the world and was regarded as the father of international surfing.  On one trip to Australia in 1914-15, Kahanamoku demonstrated surfing and made such an impression that the Australians erected a statue of him.  (Nendel)

British royal, Prince Edward asked Kahanamoku to teach him to surf. Duke heartily agreed.

Focusing surfing at home – and at Waikiki - the Outrigger Canoe and Surfboard Club was formed in 1908 in order “to give an added and permanent attraction to Hawaii and make Waikiki always the Home of the Surfer.”  (Nendel)  Duke joined the club in 1917.

Duke is credited for writing an article “Riding the Surfboard” in the January, 1911 edition of ‘The Mid-Pacific Magazine.’  It notes, “How would you like to stand like a god before the crest of a monster billow, always rushing to the bottom of a hill and never reaching its base, and to come rushing in for half a mile at express speed, in graceful attitude, of course, until you reach the beach and step easily from the wave to the sand? “

“Find the locality, as we Hawaiians did, here the rollers are long in forming, slow to break, and then run for a great distance over a flat, level bottom, and the rest is possible.  Perhaps the ideal surfing stretch in all the world is at Waikiki beach, near Honolulu, Hawaii.”

On August 2, 1940, he married, Nadine Alexander, a girl from the mainland.

At the Huntington Beach Surfing Walk of Fame, Kahanamoku was the first ‘Surf Pioneer’ inductee in 1994.  In 1999, Surfer magazine honored Duke as the century's most influential surfer and placed his portrait on the cover of its annual collector's edition.

In its December 27, 1999 issue, Sports Illustrated named Duke Kahanamoku the top athlete in the list of the top 50 greatest 20th-century athletes in Hawaiʻi.

On August 24, 2002, the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp in honor of the man whom Robert Rider, Chairman of the Postal Service Board of Governors, called “a hero in every sense of the word.” The stamp honored Duke Kahanamoku, a man regarded with the reverence bestowed upon a legendary figure in his home State of Hawaiʻi.

“Kahanamoku represented a link to old Hawai`i and its monarchy and proud people as well as serving as the emerging image of modern Hawaiʻi as depicted in travelogues and television advertisements. There is no question that Kahanamoku is a symbol of the old and new Hawaiʻi.” (Nendel)

At his funeral services in 1968, Reverend Abraham Akaka said, “Duke Kahanamoku represented the aliʻi nobility in the highest and truest sense - concern for others, humility in victory, courage in adversity, good sportsmanship in defeat. He had a quality of life we are all challenged and inspired to emulate.”

In addition to this image, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Sunday, August 26, 2012

Kauai Path

Some waaay cool stuff has been going on in Kaua‘i that other communities could follow.  Various communities across the island are working together to define and build multi-use paths in their regions.

Kauai Path, Inc, a 501 (c) (3) non-profit advocacy organization, serves as a central coordinator and is working with Kaua‘i residents to preserve, protect and extend access via non-motorized multi-use paths for communities on Kaua‘i.

A board of directors leads Kauai Path, and several interest groups participate in various committees that report to the board.  These committees manage such aspects as the Path Ambassadors and Friends of the Path programs, fund raising, volunteer activities, outreach and planning.

A multi-use path or trail is typically separated from the roadway for use by bicyclists, pedestrians, skaters, runners, dog walkers, and others using non-motorized modes of transportation.  Most contemporary multi-use trails are designed in compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and so are handicap accessible, except as noted.

The proposed path networks are not envisioned as the widening of our existing roadways.  Rather, they are seen as separate greenways or “linear parks,” isolated from roadways to the greatest extent possible, where people can safely ride to work, walk to school, push baby carriages and exercise with friends through tranquil settings.

The benefits to communities of a multi-use path system are many:

  • Reduction of Automobiles & Emissions
  • Increased Social Engagements
  • Health, Recreation & Fitness
  • Reduced Dependence on Fossil Fuels
  • Quality of Life
  • Safe Routes to School
  • Tsunami Evacuation
  • Smart Growth-Integrated Land Use & Transportation Solutions

For visioning purposes, Kauai Path divides the island into four major segments, North Shore, East Side, South Shore and West Side.  These respective communities have been working together on their respective needs, designs, and locations for their community paths.

The North Shore community recently released a North Shore Path Alternatives Report. (

The East Side calls their path system “Ke Ala Hele Makalae” ("The Path that Goes by the Coast") and has completed phases that generally follow the coast and eventually will link Nawiliwili to Anahola.

As of early 2012, there is approximately seven completed miles of  Ke Ala Hele Makalae. One section meanders through and connects Lydgate Beach Park to Wailua Beach Park, and the rest links Kapa‘a to Ahihi Point. Construction to connect those two sections, and to extend the path into the Kawaihau Road residential area, is currently under way.

On the South Shore, the community’s primary project is implementation of the comprehensive Kōloa Poʻipū Area Circulation Plan (,180,0,0,1,0 ).

That plan includes bicycle and pedestrian improvements to Hapa Trail, a two-mile long roadway that directly links Kōloa town to the Poʻipū Beach area.  It was basically abandoned when Poʻipū Road was developed in the 1950s.

Associated with this, Holo Holo Kōloa Scenic Byway was recently named a State Scenic Byway and is in the process of developing a Corridor Management Plan.  That plan will identify and address additional multi-modal alternatives in the area.

We are working with the Kōloa /Poʻipū communities in preparing the Corridor Management Plan for the Scenic Byway.

Earlier this year, the West Side Path Alternatives Report was distributed to the community.  That plan identifies several potential alternative routes within and connecting the communities of Waimea and Kekaha. (

These programs are part of Mayor Carvalho’s Holo Holo 2020 vision whose goals may be achieved by creating these alternative transportation modes for all communities on Kaua‘i.

Complementing this is the County’s Kaua‘i Multimodal Land Transportation Plan.  This project is in the process of developing a comprehensive plan (coordinated with the Hawai‘i DOT Land Transportation Plan) for public transit, bicycling, pedestrians and vehicular traffic on County roads.

There is a lot we can learn from the Kaua‘i community from this important project.  More images are added to a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Saturday, August 25, 2012

Pūowaina - Punchbowl

Pūowaina (hill of placing [human sacrifices]) was formed some 75,000 to 100,000 years ago during the Honolulu period of secondary volcanic activity. A crater resulted from the ejection of hot lava through cracks in the old coral reefs which, at the time, extended to the foot of the Ko‘olau Mountain Range.

A 1916 article in Scientific Monthly described it: “The Hawaiian name for this venerable crater is Pu-o-Waina and it has a tragic significance. The original form, from which the modern spelling is abbreviated, was Puu O waiho ana, literally the hill of offering or sacrifice.”

The people “were dominated by the dreadful tabu system that once ruled all Polynesia. The penalty for any violation of its intricate regulations was death. Pu-o-waina was one of the places near Honolulu where the bodies of the offenders were ceremoniously burned” (the penalty for any violation of kapu.)

Later, during the reign of Kamehameha dynasty, a battery of two cannons was mounted at the rim of the crater.  “There were only three men in the fort … The guns were mounted on a platform at the very edge of the precipice that overlooked the harbor and town. They were thirty-two pound caliber. … The situation is very commanding, and notwithstanding the distance, the battery would be formidable to an enemy in the harbor.”  (Lieutenant Hiram Paulding, USN, 1826)

Early in the 1880s, leasehold land on the slopes of the Punchbowl opened for settlement and in the 1930s the crater was used as a rifle range for the Hawaii National Guard (the military references to uses include Reservation, Punchbowl Battery or Fort Kekūanaō‘a.)

Punchbowl Battery under King Kalākaua consisted of six four-pounders, though the “fort” was no longer manned; an observer noted that upon this “novel promontory…a few rusty old cannon slumber in the ruins of what may have been once considered a fort.” (Hemenway 1887)

During the late 1890s, a committee recommended that the Punchbowl become the site for a new cemetery to accommodate the growing population of Honolulu.

The idea was rejected for fear of polluting the water supply and the emotional aversion to creating a city of the dead above a city of the living.

Toward the end of World War II, tunnels were dug through the rim of the crater for the placement of shore batteries to guard Honolulu Harbor and the south edge of Pearl Harbor.

In 1943, the governor of Hawaiʻi offered the Punchbowl for use as a national memorial cemetery; in February 1948 Congress approved funding and construction began.  The first interment was made Jan. 4, 1949.

The cemetery opened to the public on July 19, 1949, with services for five war dead: an unknown serviceman, two Marines, an Army lieutenant and one civilian—noted war correspondent Ernie Pyle.

Initially, the graves at National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific were marked with white wooden crosses and Stars of David; however, in 1951, these were replaced by permanent flat granite markers.

The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific was the first such cemetery to install Bicentennial Medal of Honor headstones, the medal insignia being defined in gold leaf. On May 11, 1976, a total of 23 of these were placed on the graves of medal recipients, all but one of whom were killed in action.

The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific contains a memorial pathway that is lined with a variety of memorials that honor America’s veterans from various organizations - most commemorating soldiers of 20th-century wars, including those killed at Pearl Harbor.

More than five million visitors come to the cemetery each year to pay their respects to the dead and to enjoy the panoramic view from the Punchbowl.

The image shows Pūowaina (Punchbowl) from a Google Earth perspective.  In addition, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Friday, August 24, 2012

Liholiho – Kamehameha II

Liholiho was born circa 1797 in Hilo, on the island of Hawaiʻi, the eldest son of Kamehameha I and his highest-ranking consort Queen Keōpūolani.

Kamehameha the Great died in 1819, and Liholiho officially inherited the role of King; however, Ka‘ahumanu would serve as kuhina nui (the rough equivalent of the 19th-century European office of Prime Minister.)

His birth name was Liholiho and full name was Kalaninui kua Liholiho i ke kapu ʻIolani.  It was lengthened to Kalani Kaleiʻaimoku o Kaiwikapu o Laʻamea i Kauikawekiu Ahilapalapa Kealiʻi Kauinamoku o Kahekili Kalaninui i Mamao ʻIolani i Ka Liholiho when he took the throne.

Liholiho had five wives, Kamāmalu, Kekāuluohi, Kalanipauahi, Kekauʻōnohi and Kīna‘u; he had no children with any of his wives.

The new king was generally well-liked and admired.  As one American missionary observed, “There is nothing particularly striking about his countenance, but his figure is noble, perhaps more so than that of any other chief; his manners polite and easy, and his whole deportment that of a gentleman.”

Kamehameha II is best remembered for the ‘Ai Noa, the breaking of the ancient kapu (taboo) system of religious laws six months into his reign when he sat down with Kaʻahumanu and his mother Keōpūolani and ate a meal together.

The religious and political code of old Hawai‘i, collectively called the kapu system, was abolished.

While the islands were united by his father, after the abolition of the kapu, Keaoua Kekuaokalani (Liholiho’s cousin) led the forces supporting the ancient Hawaiian religion; Kekuaokalani, his wife Manono and his warriors were overwhelmed.  Lekeleke Burial Grounds, 7 miles south of Kailua, commemorates the battle.

Sandalwood was an important export at the time.  In 1819, Liholiho ended the controls on harvesting ‘iliahi initiated by his father.  In their rush to collect wood, the chiefs ordered even young trees to be cut down.

New trees were not planted to replace those cut down.  Soon there was little ʻiliahi worth gathering in Hawaiʻi.  As the supply dwindled the trading of ʻiliahi came to an end.

On April 4, 1820, the initial group of missionaries came to Hawai‘i and Liholiho granted them permission to stay in the Hawaiian Islands.

Later, in 1820, Liholiho bought a Royal Yacht known as Cleopatra's Barge in exchange for reportedly 1-million pounds of sandalwood; he renamed the yacht Ha‘aheo o Hawaii (Pride of Hawaiʻi).

Kamehameha II was quite proud of his ship; in the words of Charles Bullard, the agent for the ship-owner: "If you want to know how Religion stands at the Islands I can tell you; all sects are tolerated but the King worships the Barge."

Whaling soon replaced the sandalwood trade of ʻiliahi wood in economic importance.  It lasted about fifty years, from 1820 to 1870.  During this time Hawaiʻi provided support services to the whaling ships; people grew crops and sold fresh fruits, vegetables and salted-meat to the ships.

Liholiho’s reign was also noted for his efforts to ensure the lasting independence of the Hawaiian kingdom.  In 1823, Liholiho and his favorite wife, Kamāmalu, sailed to England to meet with King George IV, the first Ali‘i to travel to England.

King George IV scheduled a meeting for June 21, but it had to be delayed; Liholiho and Kamāmalu became ill.  The Hawaiian court had caught measles, to which they had no immunity.

It is believed they probably contracted the disease on their visit to the Royal Military Asylum (now the Duke of York's Royal Military School).

Virtually the entire royal party developed measles within weeks of arrival, 7 to 10 days after visiting the Royal Military Asylum housing hundreds of soldiers' children.

On the 8th of July the Queen died at half-past six in the evening from inflammation of the lungs.  A few days later, King Liholiho died.  His reign was approximately 5-years.

The moments just before he died, he said faintly: “Farewell to you all - I am dead, I am happy.”

The Sacred Mound (previously a stone mausoleum) – Pohukaina – was constructed in 1825 to house the remains of Kamehameha II (Liholiho) and his consort, Queen Kamāmalu.

Then upon their arrival back to Hawai‘i, in consultation between the Kuhina Nui, Ka‘ahumanu, and other high chiefs, and telling them about Westminster Abbey and the underground burial crypts they had seen there, it was decided to build a mausoleum building on the grounds of the royal palace.

The mausoleum was a small eighteen-by-twenty-four foot Western style structure made of white-washed coral blocks with a thatched roof; it had no windows.

Kamehameha II (Liholiho) and Queen Kamāmalu were buried on August 23, 1825.  The name ‘Pohukaina’ begins to be used to reference the site at the time of their burial.  (Pohukaina - is translated as "Pohu-ka-ʻāina" (the land is quiet and calm.))

For the next forty years, this royal tomb and the land immediately surrounding it became the final resting place for the kings of Hawai‘i, their consorts and important chiefs of the kingdom.

The image shows Liholiho, King Kamehameha II, in 1824 while in London, just before his death.  In addition, I have included other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Thursday, August 23, 2012

Hawaiian Heirloom Jewelry

Among the very early examples of early Hawaiian jewelry are Queen Emmaʻs silver bracelet engraved "Aloha ia ka heiheimalie."  (I am not sure of the translation; Ka-heihei-malie was a wife of Kamehameha I - I do not know it if relates to her.)

Likewise, reportedly, a gift from Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop to Queen Liliʻuokalani was a bracelet using Victorian scroll, yet traditionally Hawaiian with the word "Aloha" and wrapped with a band of human hair.

Some have suggested (reportedly, incorrectly) that the Hawaiian heirloom jewelry (primarily the gold bracelets with black/raised lettering) started as gifts to Queen Kapiʻolani and Princess Liliʻuokalani when they attended Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee in 1887.

Gold jewelry adorned with black enamel was already traditional in England when Queen Victoria turned it into "mourning jewelry" after the death of her husband, Prince Albert, in 1861.

It turns out Princess Liliʻuokalani had the English-style mourning jewelry at least 20-years before she traveled to England in 1887 to attend the Jubilee.

In Hawaiʻi, Crown Princess Liliʻuokalani, perhaps empathizing with the widow Victoria, took a liking to the jewelry style and had bracelets made for herself.

In the early-1860s, Liliʻuokalani wore a bracelet that was a precursor of the Hawaiian heirloom jewelry worn by women in Hawaiʻi and elsewhere today.

Its textured surface is embellished with the Hawaiian phrase, “Hoomanao Mau” (Lasting Remembrance,) which is rendered in black enamel.

But the Queen did not save these treasured bracelets for herself.  In 1893, Queen Liliʻuokalani presented a gold enameled bracelet to Zoe Atkinson, headmistress at Pohukaina Girls School.

The inscription on the bracelet read "Aloha Oe" ("Farewell to Thee") and "Liliʻuokalani Jan. 5, 1893."

The inscription proved to be prophetic: Just days later, the Queen was forced to abdicate her thrown and the Hawaiian Monarchy had come to a sudden end.

Atkinson, who was an active socialite and the event coordinator for the Queen, became the envy of many young ladies, who then asked their mothers for engraved bracelets of their own.

However, the young girls requested from their mother that their name be placed on the bracelets instead of the phrase "Aloha Oe."

The tradition has since continued throughout the generations. Hawaiian heirloom jewelry has been given as gifts for special occasions such as birthdays, graduations and weddings.

Over the years, the styles (and prices) changed.  By the 1980s they were manufactured using motorized cutters and raised lettering was started.

In the 1990s the engravers latched on to the idea that the designs could be extended to the edge of the bracelets and then scalloped around.

Although machinery made production more diverse and faster, many of the engraving and enameling was done by hand, as it had been done since the 1860s.

In 2008, with the advent of laser cutting machines, new lettering could be achieved, with lettering being a different color than the background.

Today, there is Hawaiian heirloom jewelry from traditional to contemporary - not just folks in Hawaiʻi, but thousands of people from all over the world embrace the Island jewelry.

So, what happened to the Queen's bracelets?

It was the Queen's wish that when she died, that her jewelry was to be sold and the proceeds used to fund an orphanage.  The “Hoomanao Mau” bracelet and another marked “R. Naiu” were inventoried after her death and auctioned for $105 in 1924.

In 2009, Abigail Kawananakoa purchased and donated the “Hoomanao Mau” bracelet to the Friends of ʻIolani Palace; it is part of the display in the Palace Gallery.  It is the image, here.

In addition, I have included some other Hawaiian Jewelry images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.  (Lots of good information here from philiprickard-com.)

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Wednesday, August 22, 2012

Ni‘ihau Lakes

Ni‘ihau was formed from a single shield volcano approximately 4.89-million years ago, making it slightly younger in age than Kaua‘i.

It is approximately 70-square miles or 44,800-acres, and sea cliffs are a prominent feature of the eastern coast.  Approximately 78-percent of the island is below 500-feet in elevation.

Ni‘ihau has no perennial streams.  Among Ni‘ihau’s most unique natural features are several intermittent lakes.

Halulu Lake is a natural freshwater lake covering approximately 182 acres and Halāli‘i Lake is an intermittent lake covering approximately 841 acres (considered the largest lake in Hawai‘i.)

These lakes are sometimes called "playa" or "intermittent lakes."  This is because the water comes from rainfall, which only averages between 20 to 40 inches per year on Ni‘ihau.  During dry years, the lakes are typically dry.

The lakes provide habitat for ‘alae ke‘oke‘o (Hawaiian coot), ae‘o (Hawaiian stilt) and koloa maoli (Hawaiian duck).

The lakes and island fit into a story about the 1941 Pearl Harbor attacks.

As early as 1924, it was reported that the military had predicted a possible attack by the Japanese on Pearl Harbor.

Back then, they even suggested that the remote and relatively vacant island of Niʻihau might be used as a staging area for the attack.

The obvious concern was that Japanese plans could land their attack planes on the open and level areas on the island.

Niʻihau owner, Alymer Robinson, took it upon himself to take precautions against the Japanese landing on Niʻihau by plowing trenches in the dry lake bed to preventing planes from landing and taking-off.

Plowing using mules began in 1933. In 1937, a small tractor was purchased to expedite the furrowing.  Reportedly, they had crisscrossed the island with over 5000 miles of furrows.

The tractor continued to be used as a farm implement until around 1957.

On December 7, 1941 a Zero did crash land on Niʻihau, changing the lives of those who lived there and the lives of thousands of American citizens of Japanese descent.  (I summarized that incident in a May 6, 2012 post -

In 2004, I had the opportunity to visit Niʻihau (landing at a Navy facility at the top of the pali, as well as circling most of the island by helicopter.)

I saw the still-remaining furrow-work throughout the Niʻihau lakes.  The image shows one of the lakes and you can see the patch-work furrows cut into the lake bottom.

The tractor used by the Robinsons is on display at the Pacific Aviation Museum Pearl Harbor.  (Some photos and portions of this text are from information from pacificaviationmuseum-org newsletter and on flickr-com (WallyGobetz.))

In addition, some other Niʻihau and related photos are included in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

Waiola Church – (Waineʻe Church) Lāhainā, Maui

For several years after the American Board missionaries reached Lāhainā in 1823, church services were held in temporary structures.

The first mission to Maui was founded by Reverend William Richards at that time.  For a few years, temporary structures made from wooden poles with a thatched roof were used.

The church started under the name Waine‘e Church (“Moving Water.”)  In 1826, it was blown down by wind and replaced by stone and wood.

In 1828, the chiefs, led by Ulumāheihei Hoapili, proposed to build a new stone church.  The cornerstone was laid on September 14, 1828, for this ‘first stone meeting-house built at the Islands’; it was dedicated on March 4, 1832.

Waine‘e served as the church for Hawaiian royalty during the time when Lāhainā was effectively the Kingdom's capital, from the 1820s through the mid-1840s.

In 1858, a whirlwind ravaged the roof and church steeple, but was repaired without too much trouble.  The church stood safely for another 36 years, until it was destroyed by fire in 1894.

A new church building was built, a gift from Henry P. Baldwin, and that lasted another 50 years until it was partially destroyed by fire again.  It was restored and re-dedicated only to be completely destroyed by a Kaua‘ula wind (a strong wind, especially in Lāhainā, that shifted from one point to another) three years later.

The Church finally changed its name from Waine‘e Church, to Waiola Church (“Water of Life”) in 1954, and has been safely and well taken care of since. The materials changed over time from grass, to coral, then to stone and wood, and then to the stronger materials such as brick.

The present church structure and the old cemetery occupy a tract of 2.45-acres on Waine‘e Street, between Chapel and Shaw Streets. The property is owned by the Waiola Protestant Church.

The priesthood at the church has changed multiple times since the original establishing of the church, and some reputable and well-known priests and preachers including, Dwight Baldwin, who preached from 1837 to 1868.

Waiola Church has extremely strong cultural ties to the people and land of Hawaiʻi.  Waiola church served royalty for years, as Lāhainā was the capital of the Kingdom.

Waiola Church is one of the few still-standing buildings and monuments of the Hawaiian royalty long ago, and the great changes that Hawai‘i and its people went through in the 19th century.

Rev. Ephraim Spaulding joined with his wife Juliet Brooks from 1832 to 1836. Missionary Rev. Dwight Baldwin transferred here in 1836, and served as physician.  The Baldwins rebuilt the house of the Spaulding’s.

Reportedly, the church is immortalized in James Michener’s Hawai‘i (as Reverend Abner Hale’s church in Lāhainā.)

The adjoining cemetery is said to date from 1823.  Several members of the royal family were buried in the cemetery. A notable aspect of the cemetery is that the missionaries and native Hawaiians were buried side by side.

It contains the body of Keōpūolani ("Gathering of the Clouds of Heaven"), wife of Kamehameha the Great and mother of Kamehameha II and Kamehameha III.

She and Ka‘ahumanu were largely responsible for the abolition of the kapu system.  Keōpūolani is said to have been the first convert of the missionaries in the islands, receiving baptism from Rev. William Ellis in Lāhainā on September 16, 1823.

Other prominent Hawaiian nobles interred here include King Kaumuali‘i, Queen Kalākua, Princess Nahiʻenaʻena, Governor Hoapili and Governess Liliha.  Here, too, is buried the Rev. William Richards, a pioneer missionary and advisor to the Hawaiian monarchy.

The image shows Waiola Church; in addition, I have added similar images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Monday, August 20, 2012

Ka Pā Nui o Kuakini (Great Wall of Kuakini)

Captain George Vancouver gave a few cattle to Kamehameha I in 1793; Vancouver strongly encouraged Kamehameha to place a kapu on them to allow the herd to grow.

In the decades that followed, cattle flourished and turned into a dangerous nuisance.  By 1846, 25,000 wild cattle roamed at will and an additional 10,000 semi‐domesticated cattle lived alongside humans.

John Adams Kuakini was an important adviser to Kamehameha I in the early stages of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i.

When the Kingdom's central government moved to Lāhaina in 1820, Kuakini’s influence expanded on Hawaiʻi Island, with his appointment as the Royal Governor of Hawaiʻi Island, serving from 1820 until his death in 1844.

During his tenure, Kuakini built many of the historical sites that dominate Kailua today.  The Great Wall of Kuakini, probably a major enhancement of an earlier wall, was one of these.

The Great Wall of Kuakini extends in a north-south direction for approximately 6 miles from Kailua to near Keauhou, and is generally 4 to 6-feet high and 4-feet wide.

Built between 1830 and 1840, the Great Wall of Kuakini separated the coastal lands from Kailua to Keauhou from the inland pasture lands.

The mortar-less lava-rock wall has had varying opinions regarding the purpose of its construction.

Speculation has ranged from military/defense to the confinement of grazing animals; however, most seem to agree it served as a cattle wall, keeping the troublesome cattle from wandering through the fields and houses of Kailua.

It is likely that the function of the wall changed over time, as the economic importance of cattle grew and the kinds and density of land use and settlement changed.

Kuakini was responsible for other changes and buildings in the Kona District during this era.

He gave land to Asa Thurston to build Moku‘aikaua Church.

He built Huliheʻe Palace in the American style out of native lava, coral lime mortar, koa and ‘ōhi‘a timbers.  Completed in 1838, he used the palace to entertain visiting Americans and Europeans with great feasts.

He made official visits to all ships that arrived on the island, offering them tours of sites, such as the Kīlauea volcano.

He was born about 1789 with the name Kaluaikonahale.  With the introduction of Christianity, Hawaiians were encouraged to take British or American names.

He chose the name John Adams after John Quincy Adams, the US president in office at the time.  He adopted the name, as well as other customs of the US and Europe.

Kuakini was the youngest of four important siblings: sisters Queen Kaʻahumanu, Kamehameha's favorite wife who later became the powerful Kuhina nui, Kalākua Kaheiheimālie and Namahana-o-Piʻia (also queens of Kamehameha) and brother George Cox Kahekili Keʻeaumoku.

He married Analeʻa (Ane or Annie) Keohokālole; they had no children.  (She later married Caesar Kapaʻakea.  That union produced several children (including the future King Kalākaua and Queen Liliʻuokalani.))

Hulihe‘e Palace is now a museum run the Daughters of Hawaiʻi, including some of his artifacts.

A highway is named "Kuakini Highway," which runs from the Hawaii Belt Road through the town of Kailua-Kona, to the Old Kona Airport Recreation Area.

He is also the namesake of Kuakini Street in Honolulu, which is in turn the namesake of the Kuakini Medical Center on it.

The image shows a portion of the Great Wall of Kuakini; in addition, I have added a few other images and maps of the wall n a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Sunday, August 19, 2012

Hoʻokuleana LLC to Receive “Innovation in Sustaining Places” Award

We are proud and honored to report that we just received word that the American Planning Association – Hawaiʻi Chapter selected us to receive the “Innovation in Sustaining Places” award for a Master Plan we prepared for a private agricultural park on the Big Island.

This is our third APA-Hawaiʻi award in a row; in prior years, two of our other plans were given the “Environment/Preservation” awards.

According to APA-Hawaiʻi, the award “Recognizes examples of truly innovative best practices for sustaining places.  Submissions should show specific examples of how sustainability practices are being used in how places are planned, designed, built, used, and maintained at all scales and how place-based strategies are integrated in the broader discussion of sustainability. Areas of specific interest include energy use and efficiency, green infrastructure, resource conservation, transportation choices and impacts, compact development, density, diversity, revitalization, employment opportunities, and population impacts.”

We took a different approach in the preparation of the plan.  In addition to the conventional land use layout, we made specific management and operational recommendations.  These were made to help assure that agriculture (food) will be the focus, goals/commitments are being addressed and tenants/collaborators are on track to fulfill the mission and vision.

Ultimately, a goal is to meld Hawaiian traditional wisdom with modern sustainability concepts and take an integrated approach in the design and operation of the Ag Park, incorporating understanding and respect for the land, the surrounding community and the environment.

In addition to other approaches listed throughout the Master Plan, we sought to incorporate the following sustainability approaches: Mālama ‘Āina, Organic Farming Practices, Composting, and Beneficial, Effective and Indigenous Microorganisms.

The context in which the Master Plan was prepared, particularly in relation to the overall Agricultural Park management strategy, addressed strong and recurring themes of Tradition, Sustainability, Integrated Holistic Approach, Long‐term Timeframe, Cooperation and Collaboration, Diversity of Foods and Economic Viability.

While farmers claim to be notoriously independent, attempts are made at every stage of the development and operation of the Park to incorporate multiple uses/reuse of resources; this included demonstrating the benefit of allocating one farm’s “waste” to fill another farm’s “need.”  In a sense, the Ag Park management philosophy views the overall Agricultural Park more like an integrated farm, rather than an assemblage of independent, individual farms.

The goal and central theme of the plan is:  “Food from Kohala for Kohala.”

I’ll have some more on this, later, but am excited to share the great news we received at the end of this past week.  The award will be formally presented in September at the statewide Hawai‘i Congress of Planning Officials’ meeting.  The image illustrates some of the uses proposed within the Master Plan.

Waipā, Haleleʻa, Kauaʻi

Waipā, at 1,600-acres, is one of the smallest in a series of nine historic ahupuaʻa within Kauai's moku (district) of Haleleʻa. Located along the north coast of Kauaʻi, Haleleʻa today is commonly referred to as the Kauaʻi "north shore".

Haleleʻa is a historic moku, which today encompasses the communities of Kilauea, Kalihiwai, Wanini/Kalihikai, Princeville, Hanalei/Waiʻoli, Wainiha, and Haʻena. Waipā is located between the ahupuaʻa of Waiʻoli and Waikoko.

What started as a fight in 1982 to preserve the valley and stop a development, the Waipā Foundation of Hanalei Valley and Kamehameha Schools (land owner) are now partnering in restoring the ahupuaʻa of Waipā as a cultural complex.

The Waipā Foundation is a community-based 501 (c) (3) nonprofit, whose mission is to restore the health and abundance of the 1,600-acre Waipā watershed, through the creation of a Hawaiian community center and learning center.

The Foundation, and its predecessor The Hawaiian Farmers of Hanalei, have been implementing this mission in their management of the valley since 1986.

One of Waipā Foundation’s core goals is to empower and enrich the communities along Kauaʻi’s Haleleʻa district - with a special focus on the Hawaiian, low-income and at-risk communities - through the creation of community assets, development and implementation of programs focusing on culture, enrichment, education and leadership and that foster a strong connection with, and love of, the land and resources.

Waipā is a living learning center that hosts organized groups from Hawaiʻi and beyond that are interested in contributing to the work at Waipā, and learning about the Hawaiian culture and environment - and the relationships between the two - through hands-on experiences.

Two of Waipā Foundation's long-range goals are:
•  To restore the health of the natural environment and native ecosystems of the ahupuaʻa, and to involve our community in the stewardship, restoration, and management of the land and resources within the ahupuaʻa of Waipā.
•  To practice and foster social, economic and environmental sustainability in the management of Waipā’s natural and cultural resources.

In the mauka area, restoration of the native forest has been an important priority.   Upper Waipā was historically deforested by the Sandalwood trade, cattle ranching and forest fire; and today is overrun by non-native grasses, shrubs and trees.

In the past few years, over 2,000 native trees and shrubs have been established in a network of planting sites in the mauka riparian zone at Waipā.  Most of the seed for the outplantings was collected from within Waipa, and the surrounding areas.

In the 'kula' zone of the ahupuaʻa (where in ancient times was the area for growing food and living,) Waipa Foundation has been creating and restoring wetland and dryland farming areas, for kalo and other food crops.

Waipā’s lo’i is a 2-acre area that is farmed by staff, volunteers and program participants, as a learning site and for kalo production through experimenting with more organic and sustainable approaches.

Waipā hosts a farmers market which makes fresh, local produce and food available to community and visitors. They also grow, make and distribute produce (grown at Waipā) and poi to community and ohana, on a weekly basis.

In the makai area, work has been ongoing to restore the muliwai (estuary,) as well as the Halulu fishpond.  Likewise, with restoration and native plant planting along the stream bank, efforts are underway to protect Waiʻoli Stream.

Lots of good stuff is going on at Waipā.

In addition to all this, join them - 11 am – 3 pm, Sunday, August 19th (today) Waipā Foundation is hosting a community festival celebrating the summer mango harvest.

Adult Admission $1, Keiki FREE Music! Local Artisans! Fresh Fruits & Veggies!  Recipe Contest for Best Dessert and Best Pickled Mango.

The image highlights the Waipā Mango Festival; in addition, I have added other images related to this in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Saturday, August 18, 2012

Tiki (or Tacky)

Remember the pre- and post-war (WW II) proliferation of “Tiki” bars and restaurants?

OK, I wasn’t even born then, but as the phenomenon grew into the 1950s and 60s (by then, I was around) I do recall the tacky tourist joints in Waikīkī and elsewhere.

Thing is, though, those rum-based watering holes didn’t start here; they were the brainchild of a couple entrepreneurs on the continent, who eventually brought their establishments to our shores.

Starting in 1934, Ernest Raymond Beaumont Gantt (who?) - aka Donn Beach – opened the first Polynesian motif bar in Los Angeles, just off Hollywood Boulevard.

Named “Don the Beachcomber,” his bar seated about two dozen customers and he scattered a few tables in the remaining space.  The place was decorated with faux South Pacific décor, along with old nets and parts of wrecked boats he scavenged from the oceanfront.

The Polynesian Pop revival was underway.

Not to be out-done, Victor Jules Bergeron (who?) – aka Trader Vic – in 1936 converted his Oakland “Hinky Dink’s” pub into a South Seas tropical retreat with tiki carvings, bamboo and outrigger canoes and rechristened it “Trader Vic’s.”

I still recall my 21st birthday and the celebration of my first legal consumption of alcohol at the downtown Denver Trader Vic’s, while I was a student at University of Denver – we had Mai Tais.

Polynesian Pop spread like wildfire and tiki-themed eateries opened across the country.  While others have followed, none bettered the tiki and tacky of Don’s and Vic’s.

Along with the décor, rum-based concoctions were the signature drinks in these themed establishments.  And that brings us to a discussion on who really invented the themey-est Polynesian Pop umbrella drink of all … the Mai Tai.

Some say Donn, some say Vic – others suggest a quiet barkeep at the Royal Hawaiian Hotel.

Here is what I have found and it’s based mostly on the self-professed statements from each of their websites.

While Don the Beachcomber started the whole tackiness, he apparently does not claim “invention” rights to the Mai Tai.  Although the Mai Tai was served in Donn’s establishments, then and now, his signature rum-based theme drink was the Zombie.

The New York Times ran a brief obituary that painted him as a sort of Thomas Edison of the thatched-roof bar and the inventor of 84 bar drinks (Mai Tai, not included.)

The honor of invention of the Mai Tai seems to be directed at Trader Vic.

The story goes that the original Mai Tai was created by Victor J. Bergeron in 1944 by combining 2 ounces of 17-year-old J. Wray Nephew rum with juice from one fresh lime, 1/2 ounce each of Holland DeKuyper Orange Curacao and French Garnier Orgeat, and 1/4 ounce Rock Candy Syrup. The mixture is hand shaken and poured over shaved ice with a fresh mint garnish and 1/2 the lime rind.

The story seems to indicate he then asked some Tahitian friends to taste his new concoction and they reportedly exclaimed "maitaʻi" - the Tahitian expression for "good"; but today the drink is spelled as two words, sometimes hyphenated or capitalized.

Reportedly, in 1953, Vic brought his wildly acclaimed Mai Tai to the Hawaiian Islands when he was asked by the Matson Steamship Lines to design the cocktail menu for the bars at their Royal Hawaiian, Moana and Surfrider Hotels.

The Mai Tai became such a popular cocktail in the 1950s and 1960s that virtually every restaurant, particularly tiki-themed restaurants or bars, served them.

Nelia and I find ourselves returning to Waikīkī every now and then, rotating between the Royal Hawaiian and Halekūlani for Mai Tai sunset sips and pupu.  (The Royal Hawaiian was our first stop on my sixtieth birthday celebration with a gang of folks in a chartered trolley through town.)

The quest for the perfect Mai Tai continues with the 4th annual Mai Tai Festival being held at Don the Beachcomber in the Royal Kona Resort – August 18, 2012 (today.)

Among other activities, 30 Bartenders from across the globe will compete for the coveted title of “World’s Best Mai Tai” and a $10,000 cash prize.

The image shows the original Don the Beachcomber bar.  In addition, I have included some other tiki and tacky images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Friday, August 17, 2012

Admission Day - Hawaiʻi Statehood Day

Admission Day or Statehood Day is a holiday in the State of Hawaiʻi.  While Hawaiʻi was the 50th State to be admitted into the union on August 21, 1959, Statehood is celebrated annually on the third Friday in August to commemorate the anniversary of the 1959 admission of Hawaiʻi into the Union.

On June 27, 1959, Hawaiʻi registered voters voted on three propositions related to Statehood (there was a 93.6% voter turnout for the General election:)

Shall the following propositions, as set forth in Public Law 86-3 entitled "An Act to provide for the admission of the State of Hawaii into the Union" be adopted?

1. Shall Hawaii immediately be admitted into the Union as a State?
Yes - 132,773 (94.3%)
No - 7,971 (5.7%)

2. The boundaries of the State of Hawaii shall be as prescribed in the Act of Congress approved March 18, 1959, and all claims of this State to any areas of land or sea outside the boundaries so prescribed are hereby irrevocably relinquished to the United States.
Yes - 132,194 (94.5%)
No - 7,654 (5.5%)

3. All provisions of the Act of Congress approved March 18, 1959, reserving rights or powers to the United States, as well as those prescribing the terms or conditions of the grants of lands or other property therein made to the State of Hawaii are consented by said State and its people.
Yes - 132,281 (94.6%)
No - 7,582 (5.4%)

President Eisenhower called it "truly an historic occasion" because for the second time within a year a new state had been admitted.

"All forty-nine states will join in welcoming the new one - Hawaii - to this Union," he said. "We will wish for her prosperity, security, happiness and a growing closer relationship with all of the other states."

"We know that she is ready to do her part to make this Union a stronger nation - a stronger people than it was before because of her presence as a full sister to the other forty-nine states. So all of us say to her, 'good luck.'" (nytimes-com)

"Facts and Figures" (August 1959)

1959 - US Population - 177,829,628
2010 - US Population - 308,745,538

1959 - Hawaiʻi Population - 585,000
2010 - Hawaiʻi Population - 1,360,301

1959 - Hawaiʻi Registered Voters - 183,118
2010 - Hawaiʻi Registered Voters - 690,748

1959 - Hawaiʻi General Election voter turnout - 171,383 (93.6%)
2010 - Hawaiʻi General Election voter turnout - 293,016 (55.8%)

1959 - Average Cost of new House $ 12,400
2012 - Average Cost of House $664,000 (Oʻahu)

1959 - Median Family Income $  6,366
2010 - Median Family Income $66,420

1959 - Cost of a gallon of Gas $0.25
2012 - Cost of a gallon of Gas $4.16 

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Thursday, August 16, 2012

Honolulu “Chinatown” - A Place of Change

We associate and call the approximate 36-acres on the Ewa side of Downtown Honolulu, “Chinatown.”  But it wasn’t always called that; and, the Chinese were not the only group to occupy the place.

In ancient times, the area fronting Honolulu Harbor was said to be called “Kou.”  Back then, the shoreline was along what is now Queen Street (in the 1850s-60s, the reef was filled over to make the Esplanade – where Aloha Tower now stands.)

Honolulu Harbor, also known as Kulolia, was entered by the first foreigner, Captain William Brown of the English ship Butterworth, in 1794.  He named the harbor “Fair Haven.”  The name Honolulu (meaning "sheltered bay" - with numerous variations in spelling) soon came into use.

To the left of Kou was “Kapuʻukolo;” beginning near the mouth of Nuʻuanu Stream, makai of King Street was "where white men and such dwelt.”  Of the approximate sixty white residents on O‘ahu in 1810, nearly all lived in the village, and many were in the service of the king.

Among them were Francisco de Paula Marin, the Spaniard who introduced and cultivated many of the plants commonly associated with the Islands, and Isaac Davis, friend and co-advisor with John Young to Kamehameha.

Marin arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1793 or 1794; Kamehameha granted Marin a couple acres of land Ewa of the King’s compound on the Honolulu waterfront (near Nuʻuanu Stream.)

He planted a wide range of fruits and vegetables, vine and orchards - his “New Vineyard” grapevines were located Waikīkī side of Nuʻuanu Stream and makai of Vineyard Street; when a road was cut through its mauka boundary, it became known as Vineyard Street

In 1809, Kamehameha I moved his compound here, to an area referred to as Pākākā fronting the harbor (this is the area, in 1810, where negotiations between King Kaumuali‘i of Kaua‘i and Kamehameha I took place - Kaumuali‘i ceded Kauaʻi and Ni‘ihau to Kamehameha.)

By the late-1830s, some 6,000 people lived in the town proper, with perhaps another 3,000 in the suburbs. Foreigners numbered 350-400 – about 200-250 were Americans, 75-100 English, 30-40 Chinese and the remainder, a thin sprinkling of French, Spanish, Portuguese and other nationalities.

Hawaiians’ houses, estimated to number 600, were chiefly of the traditional "grass shack" type, vulnerable to occasional high winds that scalped, twisted, or even demolished them.  A few foreigners lived in wooden or coral "stone" homes; most, however, inhabited houses built of adobes.

At the end of 1837, the Gazette complained about the mud walls encroaching on streets. Thoroughfares were reduced to skinny, zigzag alleys, and squares to "pig-sty corners" where pedestrians inched sideways.

The newspaper, campaigning for a regular plan, warned that neglecting this matter would make it "... an expensive and difficult task for the future population to rectify the mistakes of their ancestors."  1838 is remembered as the year Honolulu got real roads.

By 1848, the city was regularly laid out with principal streets crossing at right angles, cut up into regular squares – “making it easy to find the way from one part to another without difficulty.” The most of the streets are wide and pleasant (however, the white adobe walls fronting the streets “when the sun is bright the reflection of this light and heat is very unpleasant.”)

While the first Chinese arrived in Hawaiʻi in 1789, it wasn’t until 1852 that the Chinese became the first contract sugar plantation laborers to arrive in the islands.

With the growth of the sugar industry, the need for plantation laborers became imperative, and China was selected as the best source of immediate cheap labor due to proximity and the interest of the Chinese in coming to Hawaii to work.

Between 1852 and 1876, 3,908 Chinese were imported as contract laborers, compared with only 148 Japanese and 223 South Sea Islanders. Around 1882, the Chinese in Hawaii formed nearly 49% of the total plantation working force, and for a time outnumbered Caucasians in the islands.

It had been noted, according to one observer in 1882, for the fact that the great majority of its business establishments "watchmakers’ and jewelers’ shops, shoe-shops, tailor shops, saddle and harness shops, furniture-shops, tinshops, cabinet shops and bakeries, (were) all run by Chinamen with Chinese workmen."

By 1884, the Chinese population in Honolulu reached 5,000, and the number of Chinese doing plantation work declined.   As a group they became very important in business in Hawaii, and 75% of them were concentrated in the 25 acres of downtown called Chinatown where they built their clubhouses, herb shops, restaurants, temples and retail stores.  In 1896, there were 153 Chinese stores in Honolulu, of which 72 were in Chinatown.

In 1886, calamity struck Chinatown when a fire raged out of control and destroyed the homes of 7,000 Chinese and 350 Native Hawaiians, and most of Chinatown. The fire lasted three days and destroyed over eight blocks of Chinatown.

Then, again, in 1900, the area burned when deliberate fires set to wipe out the bubonic plague spread through Chinatown.

The highest proportion of Chinese inhabitants in this area, as recorded by an official census, was 56.3 percent in 1900, just three months after the second devastating Chinatown fire, and this ratio dropped to 53.8 percent in 1920 and still further to 47.0 percent in 1930.

By 1940, Japanese had exceeded the number of Chinese residents, and by 1970, persons of Chinese ancestry made up less than 20 percent of the inhabitants of the area.

Honolulu's Chinatown is one of the oldest Chinatowns in the Western Hemisphere.  Inspiration and information here comes from chinatownhi-com.  The image shows River Street, looking toward Punchbowl (honoluluadvertiser.)  In addition, other maps and images are in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Wednesday, August 15, 2012

Dealing With The Changes In The Early-1800s

In researching and preparing these posts on Hawai‘i, I have had growing appreciation for the way Hawai‘i handled the diversity, complexity and profound nature of the changes it was going through in the early to mid-1800s.

As you can see, here, from the end of the 1790s to the middle of the 1800s the legal, social, religious and economic structures of the pre-existing society are upended and completely changed.

Here are just a few of the things going on around the first-half of that decade:

1795 – Kamehameha I invades and conquers O‘ahu at the Battle of Nu‘uanu, uniting the eastern islands under single rule

1805 – Sandalwood trade begins, starting the transition from a subsistence-based society to a barter, trade and monetary system (over the next 20-years the Islands’ Sandalwood forests are decimated)

1810 – Kamehameha and Kaumuali‘i come to an agreement and the islands are unified under single rule for the first time

1819 – King Kamehameha I dies, the role of King is passed to his eldest son, Liholiho

1819 - King Kamehameha II ends the kapu system, ending 500-years of religious, political and social structure

1820 – New England missionaries arrive to spread the gospel and convert the islanders to Christianity

1820 – As the Sandalwood trade is diminishing, the islands start to serve as a central Pacific provisioning site for whaling ships (at its zenith in the 1840s, over 85% of the American whaling fleet was in the Pacific)

1824 – Liholiho (Kamehameha II) and his Queen Kamāmalu contract measles and die in London; Kauikeaouli, his younger brother and son of Kamehameha I, becomes King.

1835 – The first commercially-viable Sugar Plantation starts at Kōloa, Kaua‘i

1839 - Chief’s Children’s School (later renamed Royal School) was created by King Kamehameha III who hired Amos and Juliette Cooke to run the school and teach the next generation of Hawaiian royalty to become rulers.

1840 – The first Constitution is passed in the Hawai‘i legislature

1848 – The Great Māhele dismantles the traditional system of land tenure and instituted a system of private property ownership

1850 - The Kuleana Act of 1850 was passed, permitting land ownership by commoners who occupied and improved any portion of the lands controlled by the Ali‘i and Konohiki

Between 1800 and 1850, the language changed, the religion changed, the apparel changed, the housing changed, where and how people lived and worked changed …

Life became completely different - in a single generation.

Now put these into perspective on how some of these changes greatly affected the Hawaiian people:

        The health of many Hawaiians was weakened by exposure to new diseases, common cold, flu, measles, mumps, smallpox and venereal diseases

        As more ships came in, many of those who came to Hawaiʻi chose to stay and settle

        Many Hawaiians boarded these passing ships for either employment or to move to other areas (primarily, the North American continent)

        Hawaiʻi changed from a land of all Hawaiians to a place of mixed cultures, languages and races

        Many new plants and animals were brought to the islands, both on purpose and by accident (many turned out to be invasive to the native species)

        New products by foreign ships were traded, including firearms, beads, western dress and fabric, crystal lamps, mirrors, nails and metal goods, silk and liquor

        The economy and everyday life was changing from a subsistence way of life to a commodity-based economy that started with barter and trade, that eventually changed to a monetary system

        There was growth of business centers, where people ended up living closer to one another, typically surrounding the best seaports for western ships (small towns soon grew into large cities)

All of this set the foundation for the second half of the century, whose socio-economic status centered on the plantation industries of sugar and pineapple.

This changed the face of Hawai‘i forever, launching an entire economy, lifestyle and practice of monocropping that lasted for well over a century.  With it came even greater foreign waves of workforce immigration.

The image is a map of the Hawaiian Islands from Vancouver, 1798 (a time when the change was starting over the following decades – (UH-Mānoa, Hamilton Library.))