Friday, June 28, 2013

Deaths in Wars

Estimates indicate that at least 618,000 men died in the American Civil War - 360,000 from the North and 258,000 from the South - the greatest loss of American lives in a war.  (The 3-day Battle of Gettysburg was the bloodiest, approximately 50,000 Americans died.)

In the Islands, over the centuries, the islands weren’t unified under single rule.  Leadership sometimes covered portions of an island, sometimes covered a whole island or groups of islands.  Island rulers, Aliʻi or Mōʻī, typically ascended to power through familial succession and warfare. In those wars, Hawaiians were killing Hawaiians; sometimes the rivalries pitted members of the same family against each other.

At the period of Captain Cook’s arrival (1778-1779), the Hawaiian Islands were divided into four kingdoms: (1) the island of Hawaiʻi under the rule of Kalaniʻōpuʻu, who also had possession of the Hāna district of east Maui; (2) Maui (except the Hāna district,) Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi and Kahoʻolawe, ruled by Kahekili; (3) Oʻahu, under the rule of Kahahana; and (4) Kauaʻi and Niʻihau, Kamakahelei was ruler.

“At that time Kahekili was plotting for the downfall of Kahahana and the seizure of Oahu and Molokai, and the queen of Kauai was disposed to assist him in these enterprises. The occupation of the Hana district of Maui by the kings of Hawaii had been the cause of many stubborn conflicts between the chivalry of the two islands, and when Captain Cook first landed on Hawaii he found the king of that island absent on another warlike expedition to Maui, intent upon avenging his defeat of two years before, when his famous brigade of eight hundred nobles was hewn in pieces.”  (Kalākaua)

Kamakahelei was the "queen of Kauai and Niihau, and her husband was a younger brother to Kahekili, while she was related to the royal family of Hawaii. Thus, it will be seen, the reigning families of the several islands of the group were all related to each other, as well by marriage as by blood. So had it been for many generations. But their wars with each other were none the less vindictive because of their kinship, or attended with less of barbarity in their hours of triumph.”  (Kalākaua)

"By this time nearly a generation of the race had passed away, subsequently to their discovery by Cook. How much of their strength had been exhausted by wars and the support of armies, and how much by new and terrible diseases, it is not easy to estimate. The population was greatly diminished, and the residue unimproved in morals."  (Bingham)

"Whether we contemplate the horrors or the glories of the rude warfare which wasted the nation, we are not to confine our views to the struggles of armed combatants - the wounds, the reproaches, and various evils inflicted on one another, but the burden of sustaining such armies deserves attention, and the indescribable misery of the unarmed and unresisting of the vanquished party or tribe, pursued and crushed, till all danger of further resistance disappeared, must not be forgotten."  (Bingham)

Fornander states that "It had been the custom since the days of Keawenui-a-Umi on the death of a Moi (King) and the accession of a new one, to redivide and distribute the land of the island between the chiefs and favorites of the new monarch."  This custom was repeatedly the occasion of a civil war.  (Thrum)

Human and organic nature were, however, probably the same then as now, and wars and contentions may occasionally have disturbed the peace of the people, as eruptions and earthquakes may have destroyed and altered the face of the country. (Fornander)

“Before the conquest of Kamehameha, the several islands were ruled by independent kings, who were frequently at war with each other, but more often with their own subjects. As one chief acquired sufficient strength, he disputed the title of the reigning prince. If successful, his chance of permanent power was quite as precarious as that of his predecessor. In some instances the title established by force of arms remained in the same family for several generations, disturbed, however, by frequent rebellions … war being a chief occupation …”  (Jarvis)

"It is supposed that some six thousand of the followers of this chieftain (Kamehameha,) and twice that number of his opposers, fell in battle during his career, and by famine and distress occasioned by his wars and devastations from 1780 to 1796."  (Bingham)

“However the greatest loss of life according to early writers was not from the battles, but from the starvation of the vanquished and consequential sickness due to destruction of food sources and supplies - a recognized part of Hawaiian warfare.”  (Bingham)

Following Kalaniʻōpuʻu’s death in 1782, the kingship was inherited by his son Kīwalaʻō; Kamehameha (Kīwalaʻō's cousin) was given guardianship of the Hawaiian god of war, Kūkaʻilimoku.

Dissatisfied with subsequent redistricting of the lands by district chiefs, civil war ensued between Kīwalaʻō's forces and the various chiefs under the leadership of Kamehameha. At the Battle of Mokuʻōhai (just south of Kealakekua) Kīwalaʻō was killed and Kamehameha attained control of half the Island of Hawaiʻi.

The result of the battle of Mokuʻōhai was virtually to rend the island of Hawaii into three independent and hostile factions. The district of Kona, Kohala, and portions of Hāmākua acknowledged Kamehameha as their sovereign.  (Fornander)

The remaining portion of Hāmākua, the district of Hilo, and a part of Puna, remained true to and acknowledged Keawemauhili as their Moi; while the lower part of Puna and the district of Kaʻū, the patrimonial estate of Kīwalaʻō, ungrudgingly and cheerfully supported Keōua Kuahuula against the mounting ambition of Kamehameha.  (Fornander)

A later battle at ʻIao is described as, “They speak of the carnage as frightful, the din and uproar, the shouts of defiance among the fighters, the wailing of the women on the crests of the valley, as something to curdle the blood or madden the brain of the beholder. (Fornander)

The Maui troops were completely annihilated, and it is said that the corpses of the slain were so many as to choke up the waters of the stream of lao, and that hence one of the names of this battle was "Kepaniwai" (the damming of the waters).  (Fornander)

Vancouver was appalled by the impoverished circumstances of the people and the barren and uncultivated appearance of their lands. "The deplorable condition to which they had been reduced by an eleven years war" and the advent of "the half famished trading vessels" convinced him that he should pursue his peace negotiations for "the general happiness, of the inhabitants of all the islands."  (Vancouver, Voyage 2)

Then, a final battle of conquest took place on Oʻahu.  Kamehameha landed his fleet and disembarked his army on Oʻahu, extending from Waialae to Waikiki. … he marched up the Nuʻuanu valley, where Kalanikūpule had posted his forces.  (Fornander)

At Puiwa the hostile forces met, and for a while the victory was hotly contested; but the superiority of Kamehameha's artillery, the number of his guns, and the better practice of his soldiers, soon turned the day in his favour, and the defeat of the Oahu forces became an accelerated rout and a promiscuous slaughter. (Fornander)  Estimates for losses in the battle of Nuʻuanu (1795) ranged up to 10,000.  (Schmitt)

In addition to deaths in wars, epidemics of infections added to the decline in Hawaiʻi's population from approximately 300,000 at the time of Captain Cook's arrival in 1778 to 135,000 in 1820 and 53,900 in 1876.

The image shows a depiction of the Battle of Nuʻuanu (HerbKane.)   In addition, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Thursday, June 27, 2013


In 1960, Taylor Allderdice ("Tap") Pryor formed the Makapuʻu Oceanic Center when the Pacific Foundation for Marine Research secured a lease from the State for land near Makapuʻu Point.

His goals were to develop an institution for marine education, marine science and ocean industry. The facility featured an aquarium and park for visitors (Sea Life Park,) a marine research facility (now known as Oceanic Institute (OI)) and a pier and undersea test range for vessels and submersibles (Makai Undersea Test Range (now Makai Ocean Engineering.))

"We envision Hawaiʻi as an ocean-oriented community that can serve as a focal point through which the nation will enter the sea.  Once we establish underwater industry - mining, oil and gas recovery - there will be a need for thousands of people."  (Pryor quoted in Life, October 27, 1967)

"Besides being earth's last frontier, the sea contains most of the world's remaining mineral resources, the largest existing protein resource and probably most of the oil and gas resources left to us.  (Pryor quoted in Life, October 27, 1967)

Tap Pryor was born in 1931; his father Sam Pryor was a Pan American Vice President and friend and supporter of Charles Lindbergh.  The Pryor’s had a home near Hāna where Lindbergh was a frequent guest; Lindbergh later purchased land next to the Pryor's and built a home there, too.

Tap Pryor graduated from Cornell University in 1954, then he joined the US Marine Corps, serving in Parris Island, Quantico, Pensacola and MCAS Kāneʻohe, Hawaiʻi - he flew helicopters and fixed-wing.  After being discharged as Captain in 1957, he attended graduate school at the University of Hawaiʻi.

Sea Life Park, the popular marine attraction near Makapuʻu Point in East Oʻahu, opened in 1964.  It was one of the early pioneers in marine animal exhibitions.

On the continent, the first large oceanarium was developed as part of the film industry.  Marine Studios opened in 1938, to film movies under water; it later became Marineland of Florida.  (pbs)

The oceanarium-studio was integrated into the Florida tourism industry; in 1949, it began featuring short dolphin performances. In the early-1950s, Marineland spun off Marineland of the Pacific, in Palos Verdes, California.  (pbs)

Then, the Sea Life Park facility brought the oceanarium experience to Hawaiʻi - combining a dolphin research facility with a tourist attraction.

"From Hawaiʻi's Sea Life Park, located at Makapuʻu Point, comes a message teeming with life and youthful vitality. There, Taylor Alderdice Pryor, known as 'Tap,' and his wife, the former Karen Wylie, are staking their all on "the world's largest exhibit of marine life" opening this month.  Now she has a full-time job at Sea Life Park as chief porpoise trainer.  ... She has a staff of three for the porpoises and reports with pride that so far they can 'hula on their tails in the air.'"  (The Miami News, January 1, 1964)

At Sea Life Park, Karen Pryor began using marker-based teaching and training techniques, called 'clicker training.'  Clicker training (also known as magazine training) is a method for training animals that uses positive reinforcement in conjunction with a clicker, or small mechanical noisemaker, to mark the behavior being reinforced (the marine mammal trainers used whistles.)

Karen Pryor was one of the first people to work in a concentrated and applied way to discover what dolphins in captivity could be trained to do. Her writings and lectures taught a generation of marine mammal trainers and researchers around the United States.  (pbs)

In 1965, Pryor was appointed Senator to the Hawaiʻi State Senate. In 1966 (at age 35,) he was named by President Johnson as one of eleven Commissioners to the President's Commission of Marine Science, Marine Engineering and Marine Conservation.

Ultimately called the "Stratton Commission", the group's report 'Our Nation and the Sea' was published in January 1969.  This group was responsible for the formation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in 1970.

As part of the Makai Undersea Test Range, in 1968, Pryor and others developed 'Aegir,' an undersea habitat, which accommodated six people and was successfully tested at 600-foot depth for two weeks at ambient pressure off Makapuʻu Point.  (whaleresearch-org)

Pryor and others later developed Kumukahi, the first plexiglass submersible also tested at the Makai Range (1968-69.) During that time the Oceanic Institute acquired Star II. They also invented an inexpensive, diver-operated pontoon-platform for launching and recovering submersibles beneath the surface so that they could operate in all weather with only a vessel-of-opportunity towing the submersible and its launcher to and from the dive sites. Because of that, Star II subsequently logged more undersea work time than any submersible anywhere.  (whaleresearch-org)

In 1970, Pryor was named Salesman of the Year for the State of Hawaiʻi in recognition of his promotion of Hawaiʻi and it opportunities for marine science and engineering development.

Following his work on the Stratton Commission, he developed and operated the System Culture Seafood Plantation at Kahuku on Oʻahu, principally the production of table oysters, using his own patented on-land technique for culturing phytoplankton in 32 quarter-acre ponds to feed the oysters on stacked trays in raceways and recycling the water.  (whaleresearch-org)

But, dreams faded and the organization was financially-overextended in efforts to develop undersea mining and deep-sea fish farming and underwent bankruptcy reorganization.

According to a June 25, 1972 The Honolulu Advertiser story, The “TAP” Pryor Story: From Dreams to Debts, Pryor had briefly studied zoology at UH but had no other science credentials. Nevertheless, he soon became a spokesman for oceanography and was even named to the prestigious Stratton Commission and to the state of Hawaiʻi commission on ocean resources. In 1970, Pryor was awarded the Neptune Award of the American Oceanic Organization – an award that was mischaracterized as “the highest honor in oceanography.”  (SOEST)

As part of the bankruptcy reorganization in 1972, Sea Life Park, Makai Pier and Test Range, and Oceanic Institute were spun off into separate entities.

On Monday 30 April 1973 an editorial in The Honolulu Advertiser entitled “Our oceanographic dream” asked the rhetorical question, “Was the great dream of Hawaiʻi as a center for oceanographic research just that – a dream?” (SOEST)

Oceanic Institute is a not-for-profit research and development organization dedicated to marine aquaculture, biotechnology, and coastal resource management. Their mission is to develop and transfer economically responsible technologies to increase aquatic food production while promoting the sustainable use of ocean resources. OI works with community, industry, government and academic partners, and non-governmental organizations to benefit the state, the nation, and the world.  (CTSA)

Later, in 1978, Oceanic Institute formed a cooperative agreement with Tufts University in Massachusetts for teaching and research in marine science, aquaculture, marine biology, marine medicine, and marine nutrition. Later (2003,) the OI facility became associated with Hawaiʻi Pacific University (HPU.)

The image shows the present-day Sea Life Park, Oceanic Institute and Makai Pier.   In addition, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Wednesday, June 26, 2013

Tripler Army Medical Center

Some suggest the building got its pink color because the color and other design elements were borrowed from the Royal Hawaiian Hotel down in Waikīkī.

However, an engineering booklet related to its design notes, “the layout of the buildings was planned to create an easy, informal environment, avoid an institutional atmosphere and create the impression of a residential community.”  (army-mil)

“Therefore, the hospital building, nurses’ quarters, fire house, chapel, bachelor officers’ quarters and mess, theater and enlisted men’s barracks will be of pink stucco finish.” (army-mil)

Let’s step back a bit.

In 1898, the Spanish American war was going on, including in the Pacific (primarily in the Philippines) – Hawaiʻi became involved.  The US Army set up Camp McKinley in Kapiʻolani Park and soon realized an urgent need for a hospital in Hawaiʻi.

The Army's first medical facility in Hawaiian Islands opened in 1898; it was a 30-bed hospital for soldiers and sailors in transit to and from Manila located in the Independence Park Pavilion (an old dance pavilion at the intersection of King Street and Sheridan.)  Field medical tents at Fort McKinley added support to the hospital.

Casualties were streaming into Hawaiʻi from the war in the Philippines. The hospital on King Street rapidly grew into a 100-bed operation and was visited by more than 21,000 troops during the Philippine Insurrection following the war with Spain.

Later, in 1907, Department Hospital, a wooden post hospital facility consisting of a single hospital building and mess hall, was constructed at Fort Shafter.

Department Hospital was re-designated “Tripler Army Hospital” on June 26, 1920, named after Brigadier General Charles Stuart Tripler (1806-1866) - in honor of his contributions to Army medicine during the Civil War (he authored of one of the most widely-read manuals in Army medical history, the "Manual of the Medical Officer of the Army of the United States.")

Then, the US Army Health Clinic, Schofield Barracks, a 500-bed hospital, was completed in 1929. It was activated as the Station Hospital, Schofield Barracks, Territory of Hawaiʻi.

The attack on Pearl Harbor led to the construction of Tripler Army Medical Center. At the outbreak of World War II, the hospital at Fort Shafter had a 450-bed capacity which, over the years, expanded to 1,000 beds through the addition of one-story barracks-type buildings.

Plans for a new Tripler hospital atop Moanalua ridge were drawn in 1942, construction was authorized in June 1944; the ground was broken August 23, 1944; actual construction began in 1945: and construction was completed in 1948.

When it was completed, Tripler was the tallest building in the Pacific region.  (Three additional wings to the hospital were completed in 1985 with other additions/renovations over the years.)

Tripler was dedicated on September 10, 1948 and has been a visible and valuable landmark in Hawaiʻi.  It is the largest military medical treatment facility in the entire Pacific Basin.

In 1961, Tripler US Army Hospital became known as US Army Tripler General Hospital, and finally in 1964, the name changed to Tripler Army Medical Center.

In a cooperative agreement with the Department of Veterans Affairs in 1992, the Spark M Matsunaga Medical Center was added at Tripler.

Located on a 375-acre site, Tripler Army Medical Center’s geographic area of responsibility spans more than 52-percent of the earth’s surface, from the western coasts of the Americas to the eastern shores of Africa (encompassing three million square miles of ocean and more than 750,000-square miles of land mass.)

Nearly 800,000-beneficiaries in the Pacific Basin are eligible to receive care at Tripler; this includes active-duty service members of all branches of service, their eligible families, military-eligible retirees and their families, veterans, and many residents of Pacific Islands.

In a typical day, more than 2,000-patients are seen in outpatient clinic visits, more than 1,500-prescriptions are filled, more than 30-surgical procedures are performed, and more than 30 patients are admitted. There are more than 200-births each month.  (In August 1955, 427-babies are born at Tripler, setting a record for one-month deliveries.)

The image shows the initial Tripler Hospital at Fort Shafter (army-mil.)  In addition, I have added other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Tuesday, June 25, 2013

Evolution of Honolulu Harbor

Coral doesn’t grow in freshwater.  So, where a stream enters a coastal area, there is typically no coral growth at that point – and, as the freshwater runs out into the ocean, a coral-less channel is created.

In its natural state, thanks to Nuʻuanu Stream, Honolulu Harbor originally was a deep embayment formed by the outflow of Nuʻuanu Stream creating an opening in the shallow coral reef along the south shore of Oʻahu.

Honolulu Harbor (it was earlier known as Kulolia) was entered by the first foreigner, Captain William Brown of the English ship Butterworth, in 1794.

They called the harbor “Fair Haven” which may be a rough translation of the Hawaiian name Honolulu (it was also sometimes called Brown's Harbor.)  The name Honolulu (meaning "sheltered bay" - with numerous variations in spelling) soon came into use.

Tradewinds blow from the Northeast; the channel into Honolulu Harbor has a northeasterly alignment.  Early ships calling to Honolulu were powered only by sails.  The entrance to the harbor was narrow and lined on either side with reefs.  Ships don't sail into the wind.  Given all of this, Honolulu Harbor was difficult to enter.

Boats either anchored off-shore, or they were pulled into the harbor (this was done with canoes; or, it meant men and/or oxen pulled them in.)

It might take eight double canoes with 16-20 men each, working in the pre-dawn calm when winds and currents were slow.  In 1816 (as stories suggest,) Richards Street alignment was the straight path used by groups of men, and later oxen, to pull ships through the narrow channel into the harbor.  (Richards Street was named for a man selling luggage to tourists in his shop on that street.)

A few years after, in 1825, the first pier in the harbor was improvised by sinking a ship’s hull near the present Pier 12 site.  As Honolulu developed and grew, lots of changes happened, including along its waterfront.  What is now known as Queen Street used to be the water’s edge.

The first efforts to deepen Honolulu Harbor were made in the 1840s. The idea to use the dredged material, composed of sand and crushed coral, to fill in low-lying lands was quickly adopted.

In 1854 the first steam tug was used to pull sail-powered ships into dock against the prevailing tradewinds.

The old prison was built in 1856-57 at Iwilei; it took the place of the old Fort Kekuanohu (that also previously served as a prison.)  The new custom-house was completed in 1860.  The water-works were much enlarged, and a system of pipes laid down in 1861.

Between 1857 and 1870, the coral block walls of the dismantled Fort edged and filled about 22-acres of reef and tideland, forming the “Esplanade” or "Ainahou," between Fort and Merchant Streets (where Aloha Tower is now located.)  At that time, the harbor was dredged to a depth from 20 to 25-feet took place.

By the 1880s, filling-in of the mud flats, marshes and salt ponds in the Kakaʻako and Kewalo areas had begun. This filling-in was pushed by three separate but overlapping improvement justifications.

The first directive or justification was for the construction of new roads and the improvement of older roads by raising the grade so the improvements would not be washed away by flooding during heavy rains.

Although public health and safety were prominently cited as the main desire (and third justification) to fill in Honolulu, Kewalo, and then Waikīkī lands, the fill ultimately provided more room for residential subdivisions, industrial areas and finally tourist resorts.

In the early part of the twentieth century, Kakaʻako was becoming a prime spot for large industrial complexes, such as iron works, lumber yards, and hauling companies, which needed large spaces for their stables, feed lots and wagon sheds.

An 1887 Hawaiian Government Survey map of Honolulu shows continued urban expansion of the Downtown Honolulu area.

In 1889, the Honolulu Harbor was described as “nothing but a channel kept open by the flow of the Nuʻuanu River;” a sand bar restricted entry of the larger ocean vessels.  In 1890-92, a channel 200-feet wide by 30-feet deep was dredged for about 1,000-feet through the sand bar.

Piers were constructed at the base of Richards Street in 1896, at the site of Piers 17 and 18 in 1901 to accommodate sugar loading and at Piers 7 and 12 in 1907.

After annexation in 1898, the harbor was dredged using US federal funds. The dredged material was used to create a small island in the harbor in order to calm the harbor and avoid constructing a breakwater. This island became what is now known as Sand Island.

In 1904, the area around South Street from King to Queen Streets was filled in. The Hawaiʻi Department of Public Works reported that “considerable filling (was) required” for the extension of Queen Street, from South Street to Ward Avenue, which would “greatly relieve the district of Kewalo in the wet season.”

A series of new piers were constructed at the base of Richards Street in 1896, at the site of Piers 17 and 18 in 1901 (to accommodate sugar loading) and then at Piers 7 and 12 in 1907.  Further dredging was conducted at the base of Alakea Street in 1906.

With the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914 and anticipated increased trans-Pacific shipping, government and business planned to further enlarge Honolulu Harbor by dredging Kalihi Channel and Kapālama Basin.

However, because of military concerns, the Reserved Channel connecting Honolulu Harbor to Kapālama Basin was dredged instead. This is known as the Kapālama Channel. Honolulu Harbor expanded into the Kapālama Basin and by the early 1930s Piers 34 had been constructed. Pier 35 was constructed in 1931 to provide dedicated facilities for inter-island pineapple shipments.

On September 11, 1926, after five years of construction, Aloha Tower was officially dedicated at Pier 9; at the time, the tallest building in Hawaiʻi.

Today, Honolulu Harbor continues to serve as Hawai‘i’s commercial lifeline for goods to/from Hawaiʻi and the rest of the world.

The image shows Honolulu in 1854, in a drawing done by Paul Emmert.  It shows Honolulu just before these changes and the expansion of land in the downtown area (you can see people standing on the reef on the right.)

In addition, I have included images and maps of this region in this relative timeframe (mid-1850s to 1900) in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Monday, June 24, 2013

Kīpū Kai

When Captain James Cook first made contact with Hawaiʻi, he travelled around the island of Kauaʻi looking for a good anchorage.  When skirting Kauaʻi’s southeast coast, he described the view across Kīpū Kai as:
“…The land on this side of the island rises in a gentle slope from the sea shore to the foot of the Mountains that are in the middle of the island, except in one place, near the East end where they rise directly from the sea; here they seemed to be formed of nothing but stone which lay in horizontal stratus.”

The first drawing of Hawai‘i by a European is William Ellis’ depiction of the Māhāʻulepū – Kīpū Kai coastline, with Mt. Hāʻupu as its focal point.

William Hyde Rice (1846–1924) was a Kauaʻi rancher; in 1879, he bought a section of the Kalapaki ahupuaʻa from Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani and ran Līhuʻe Ranch on it.

By 1881, he sold most of this land to Līhuʻe Plantation and bought the Kīpū ahupuaʻa from Princess Ruth, he continued to raise cattle, as well as grow sugarcane on Kipu Plantation.

In 1891, Queen Liliʻuokalani appointed Rice to be the Governor of Kauaʻi, a position he held until overthrow in 1893; Rice was the last Governor of Kauaʻi.

Rice married Mary Waterhouse in 1872 and they had eight children.  Rice passed away on June 15, 1924; a monument on Kipu Road was "Erected In Loving Memory By His Japanese Friends" on June 15, 1925.

John Thomas (Jack) Waterhouse (1902 – 1984) was a member of the fourth generation of his family in Hawaiʻi.  (Waterhouse descended from missionaries who came to Hawaii in the 1830s, and from William Alexander, who co-founded Alexander & Baldwin (A&B) in 1870. A&B is one of the “Big 5” companies that dominated sugar and pineapple in Hawaii until the latter part of the twentieth century.  (Roth))

Jack Waterhouse joined A&B in 1930; he became corporate secretary in 1936 and vice president and treasurer in 1958.  He served as director at A&B for 40-years and was also president of Alexander Properties and Waterhouse Investment Co.

In 1948, Waterhouse bought Kipukai Ranch from Rice, his in-law.

For the next 35-years, Waterhouse built roads, planted grass, developed water, irrigation and electrical systems and cared for the land that he loved. (Princeton)

“Kīpū Kai’s two-mile shoreline consists of four beaches separated by low rocky points, set against a backdrop of coastal wetland, green pastures, a perennial stream and soaring cliffs. Public access by land is not allowed. Kīpū Kai teems with birdlife, including many native species, and the coastal marine resources appear to be in pristine condition.“  (NPS)

“Towering above Kīpū Kai valley is the Hāʻupu mountain range, which runs inland nearly eleven miles to Knudsen Gap.”  (NPS)

Kipukai Ranch has one of the state's oldest solar photovoltaic systems (installed in 1988;) it powers  the ranch houses and barns (with diesel generators as backup.)

Waterhouse housed a couple dozen nēnē on the property. (Although remains of ancient nēnē have been found on Kauaʻi, the first wild nēnē were not seen in modern times on Kaua‘i until the early-1970s.)

His birds were subsequently released (or escaped during hurricane Iwa (1982,)) adding to the recovery of nēnē on the island.

In 1977, Waterhouse agreed to deed the property to the State.

“(George Ariyoshi) visited Kipukai and wrote a note in the guestbook that it was ‘a treasure worth preserving for generations to come.’  Subsequently (Waterhouse) deeded the land to the State of Hawaiʻi with the provision that it be used as a natural preserve.”  (George Ariyoshi)

“The State is to take possession when the last of the nieces and nephews are gone, and it will cost the public nothing.”  (George Ariyoshi)

Waterhouse’s heirs control the property until that happens.  In addition to visitor tours/ATV attractions, the land has been the backdrop and subject of various films – the latest was The Descendants.

Kīpū Kai encompasses several separate beach areas.  Until the land transfer to the public and access protocols are established, the area is not accessible to the public.

The single road that leads over the ridges of the Hāʻupu Range into Kīpū Kai is private property and blocked by gates. Most visitors arrive by boat or kayak.

Most of the public recreation at Kīpū Kai occurs at ‘Long Beach,’ with swimming, snorkeling, bodysurfing, bodyboarding, surfing, fishing and beachcombing.

A small cove in the arc of Mōlehu Point at the north end of Long Beach is a popular snorkel site for tour boats. By agreement between commercial boat operators and Kīpū Kai landowners, onshore tour activities are confined to the adjacent beach area.

The image shows Kīpū Kai from the air (JimG, Yelp.)  In addition, I have added related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Sunday, June 23, 2013

Honolua, Maui

In northwest Maui, the district the ancients called Kaʻānapali, there are six hono bays (uniting of the bays,) which are legendary:  from South to North, Honokowai (bay drawing fresh water), Honokeana (cave bay), Honokahua (sites bay,) Honolua (two bays), Honokohau (bay drawing dew) and Hononana (animated bay).

This area was likely settled between 600-1100 AD. By about the 15th century, all of Nā Hono were under the realm of Pi’ilani, the ruling chief of Maui, Kahoʻolawe, Molokaʻi and Lānaʻi.

During his reign, Piʻilani gained political prominence for Maui by unifying the East and West of the island, bringing rise to the political status of Maui.

Piʻilani’s power eventually extended from Hāna on one end of the island to the West, in addition to the islands visible from Honoapiʻilani - Kahoʻolawe, Molokaʻi and Lānaʻi.

Piʻilani (“stairway to heaven”) unified West Maui; his territory included the six West Maui bays (Nā Hono A Pi‘ilani,) a place he frequented with his court to relax, fish and surf.

One of these, Honolua, is the subject of this summary.

Settlement patterns of Honolua followed patterns elsewhere, permanent habitation around the coastal and near shore lands, as well as the inland Honolua valley land. The forested and ridge-top lands were used for gathering forest products, and for forest plantings of various utilitarian Hawaiian plants.

Ancient Hawaiian villages on Maui were generally placed at the mouths of the larger gulches or at least within sight of the sea. Both pre-contact and historic features have been identified in the coastal and nearshore lands region. It can be inferred that the coastal lands were settled since the pre-contact period and extensively used during the historic period.  (Cultural Surveys)

Piʻilani had two sons, according to legend, one of whom, Kihaʻaʻpiʻilani, surfed at Honolua Bay.

Kekaulike, a descendant of Piʻilani, later became chief. He had two sons, Kauhiʻaimoku a Kama and Kamehamehanui, who engaged in civil war.

Honolua Bay was a landing site for Peleʻioholani, ruling chief of Kauaʻi and Oʻahu (mid- to late-1700s,) an ally of Kauhiʻaimoku a Kama. Warriors would convene at Honolua Valley, prior to traveling to Honokahua Bay.

Through the Māhele, the bulk of Honolua was awarded to William C Lunalilo (later King Lunalilo) on June 19, 1852.  In addition, kuleana lands were awarded to native tenants.

After Lunalilo’s death, his will established a trust to build a home to accommodate the poor, destitute and inform people of Hawaiian (aboriginal) blood or extraction, with preference given to older people.

Eventually, the land subsequently transferred several times, culminating with HP Baldwin in 1889.

Honolua (and neighboring Līpoa Point) was used in a variety of ways, coffee and cattle (Honolua Ranch, starting in late-1880s,) pineapple (Baldwin Packers and later Maui Land and Pineapple, starting in 1912,) an alternative airplane landing field (1920) and West Maui Golf Club (1926.)  Later, portions were included in the Kapalua Resort area (Kapalua Land Company, 1974.)

In 1946, a tsunami was generated by a magnitude 7.1 earthquake in the Aleutian Islands.  This tsunami struck Hawaiʻi on April 1st.  Wave run-up at Honolua was recorded at 24-feet, destroying coastal improvements.

Honolua Bay was the historic starting point for the Hōkūleʻa’s first trip to the South Pacific.  As part of the US Bicentennial, on May 1, 1976, Captain Kawika Kapahulehua and Navigator Mau Pialug, departed Honolua Bay for Papeʻete, Tahiti.

Mau navigated the leg to Tahiti with only his traditional knowledge and skills while the return leg was navigated using modern methods and tools.

Following the ill-fated 1978 capsizing of Hōkūleʻa, Nainoa Thompson successfully navigated a second voyage to Tahiti - a 6,000 mile round trip - with Mau on board in 1980.

In 1979, the Honolua-Mokulēʻia Marine Life Conservation District was established to conserve and replenish marine resources in Mokulēʻia and Honolua Bays.

With the protections and management through the Marine Life Conservation District, Honolua has some of the best snorkeling on Maui.

Today, on a good day, Honolua is reportedly one of the best surfing spots in the world.  Breaking wave heights associated with the largest north and northwest swells range between 10-20-feet near Honolua Bay.

The image shows Honolua Bay.  In addition, I have posted other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Saturday, June 22, 2013

Pineapple Pentagon

At the time of annexation, there was no assigned garrison in the Islands until August 15, 1898, when the 1st New York Volunteer Infantry regiment and the 3rd Battalion, 2nd US Volunteer Engineers landed in Honolulu for garrison duty – the Spanish American War was waging in the Pacific (Honolulu served as a stopover point for the forces heading to the Philippines.)

The two commands were initially camped alongside each other as though they were one regiment in the large infield of the one-mile race track at Kapiʻolani Park.  The initial camp at the race track was unnamed; it was later called Camp McKinley.  It was a temporary encampment.

The US government looked for land for permanent facilities.

Of the two major tracts of land assigned to the War Department (Kahauiki and Waiʻanae-uka,) a board of Army officers in 1903 recommended establishment of the principal infantry post at Kahauiki.

Construction started in 1905 at what was first called Kahauiki Military Reservation.  It was later named Fort Shafter and was Hawaiʻi’s first permanent US military installation.  (Camp McKinley remained in existence until Fort Shafter was opened.)

It was named in honor of Major General William R. Shafter (1835-1906,) a Civil War and Spanish-American War veteran and commanding general of the headquarters for Hawaiʻi, then in California, until 1901.  (Until 1913, the Army establishments in Hawaiʻi were under the Department of California.)

First, they started construction of officers’ quarters and battalion barracks around Palm Circle, as well as support facilities on and near Funston Road.

Palm Circle (earlier called the 100 Area and later named for the 200-royal palms along its edge) has a large, grassed oval parade ground. Fifteen two-story, officers’ quarters line the north and east sides of Palm Circle Drive which encircles the parade area.

Along the southern side of the drive are former enlisted men’s barracks, now converted to administrative offices, and other administrative buildings, including a swimming pool.  The initial structures were completed June 22, 1907, with more by 1909.

A post hospital was built across King Street, in the area now occupied by the Fort Shafter interchange of the Moanalua freeway.

Streetcars ran from downtown along King Street; the route originally ended at Fort Shafter, and was eventually extended to Pearl Harbor. The streetcars ran until 1933, when the current post bus route was established.  A railroad line ran from the Middle Street gate, across Shafter Flats and down Puʻuloa Road.

During World War I, all regular Army Field artillery and infantry regiments were transferred to the continent, leaving between December 1917 and August 1918. To replace the troops, one battalion of the 1st Hawaiian Regiment of the Hawaiʻi National Guard was stationed at Fort Shafter in June 1918.

A regimental officer’s school was established July 1918 at Fort Shafter and Schofield Barracks. Food gardens were planted on the post. The National Guard regiments were demobilized in 1919, leaving the Post vacant except for the 9th Signal Service Company.

In June 1921, the Headquarters of the Hawaiian Department moved to Fort Shafter from the Alexander Young Hotel in Honolulu. Since then, Fort Shafter has been the base of the senior Army headquarters in Hawaiʻi. Gradually converting the original troop facilities into administrative space, the headquarters organizations occupied the Palm Circle area.

From 1921 through World War II Fort Shafter was also the antiaircraft artillery post. The Hawaiian Coast Artillery District was located at Fort Shafter from June 1921 through October 1929.

Only a few casualties occurred at the post in the December 7, 1941 attack, from US Navy antiaircraft shells rather than Japanese planes. Palm Circle was strafed during the attack.

World War II saw significant increase in building activity at Fort Shafter, in every area where there was space. Buildings were also expanded and remodeled during this period.

As duties increased for Lt. General Robert C. Richardson, the commanding general (becoming US Army Forces in Central Pacific Area,) his headquarters became known as the Pineapple Pentagon (after the War it was renamed Richardson Hall in his honor.)

From 1943 to 1945, Richardson's command carried out logistical planning for the invasion of the Gilberts, Marshalls, Marianas, Guam, Palau and Okinawa.

After World War II, Fort Shafter remained the senior Army headquarters post for the region, while the 25th Infantry Division occupied the more spacious Schofield Barracks.  In 1947, the headquarters was renamed US Army, Pacific (USARPAC.)

After Tripler Hospital moved to its new hillside farther west in 1948, and after the Moanalua Freeway was cut through a portion of the old site in 1958-60, the remaining hospital area was redeveloped with enlisted housing.

Today, more than 5,000 Soldiers, civilians, contractors and military families live and work on the 589-acre post. In fact, if USARPAC were a business, it would rank as one of the state's largest employers with more than 25,000 full-time Soldiers and civilians employed throughout the Pacific and 9,000 more in the National Guard and Army Reserve. (army-mil)

Palm Circle and the Pineapple Pentagon continue to serve as command headquarters for the US Army in the Pacific. (Lots of information here is from the National Register (NPS.))

The image shows the Pineapple Pentagon (Richardson Hall) at Fort Shafter (1940s.)  In addition, I have included other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Friday, June 21, 2013

Waikīkī – Kauhale O Ho‘okipa Scenic Byway


What: The Native Hawaiian Hospitality Association (NaHHA) will be holding a community meeting to discuss the proposed Waikīkī – Kauhale O Ho‘okipa “Home of Hospitality” Scenic Byway as part of the Hawai‘i Scenic Byways Program. The public is invited and encouraged to attend this meeting.

When: Wednesday, July 3, 2013 at 4:00 pm.

Where: Capital One Café
1958 Kalākaua Ave.
Honolulu, HI 96815

Admission: Free and open to the public.

Background: The Native Hawaiian Hospitality Association (NaHHA) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that works to perpetuate an authentic spirit of aloha and Hawaiian culture in the hospitality industry through corporate and community initiatives. For more information, visit

The Hawai‘i Scenic Byways Program is part of the National Scenic Byways Program that showcases roads throughout Hawaii with an important story to tell to both visitors and local residents alike. For more information, visit

Feel free to visit our website:

Moseying Along

Throughout the years of late-prehistory, AD 1400s - 1700s, and through much of the 1800s, the canoe was a principal means of travel in ancient Hawaiʻi.  Canoes were used for interisland and inter-village coastal travel.

Most permanent villages initially were near the ocean and at sheltered beaches, which provided access to good fishing grounds, as well as facilitating convenient canoe travel.

Although the canoe was a principal means of travel in ancient Hawaiʻi, extensive cross-country trail networks enabled gathering of food and water and harvesting of materials for shelter, clothing, medicine, religious observances and other necessities for survival. 

These trails were usually narrow, following the topography of the land.  Sometimes, over ‘a‘ā lava, they were paved with water-worn stones. 

Back then, land travel was only foot traffic, over little more than trails and pathways.

June 21, 1803 marked an important day in the history of Hawaiʻi land transportation and other uses when the Lelia Byrd, an American ship under Captain William Shaler (with commercial officer Richard Cleveland,) arrived at Kealakekua Bay with two mares and a stallion on board.

Before departing to give these gifts to Kamehameha (who was not on the island to accept them,) the captain left one of the mares with John Young (a trusted advisor of the King, who begged for one of the animals.)

Shaler and Cleveland then departed for Lāhainā, Maui to give the mare and stallion to King Kamehameha I.

Hawaiʻi had a new means of transportation (as well as a work-animal to help control the growing cattle population (gifts from Captain Vancouver in 1793.))

Until the mid-1800s, overland travel was predominantly by foot and followed the traditional trails.  

In 1838, a major street improvement project was started. Honolulu was to be a planned town. Kinaʻu (Kuhina Nui Kaʻahumanu II) published the following proclamation: "I shall widen the streets in our city and break up some new places to make five streets on the length of the land, and six streets on the breadth of the land... Because of the lack of streets some people were almost killed by horseback riders …"

By the 1840s, the use of introduced horses, mules and bullocks for transportation was increasing, and many traditional trails - the ala loa and mauka-makai trails within ahupua‘a - were modified by removing the smooth stepping stones that caused the animals to slip. 

A few remnants of the early uses of horses to get around can be seen.  Circular indentations in curbs adjoining streets show the location of hitching rings used to tether horses outside businesses.

Typically, the evidence is iron stubs that fastened the rings to the curb. In Hilo, some curb rings can still be seen; along the curb of Kamehameha Avenue are two-inch rings spaced at intervals.

There is also evidence on Alakea Street, between King and Merchant, in Honolulu, fronting the Wolter Building (site of the former Occidental Hotel.) 

Today, Hawaiʻi remains strong in the ranching tradition. Remnant hitching posts can be found outside of some businesses and homes. Rodeo grounds can be seen on most of the islands.

In 1868, horse-drawn carts operated by the Pioneer Omnibus Line went into operation in Honolulu, beginning the first public transit service in the Hawaiian Islands.

Honolulu resident HP Baldwin is credited with having the first automobile back in October 1899 (it was steam-powered.) The first gasoline-powered automobile arrived in the Islands in 1900.

In November of 1900, an electric trolley (tram line) was put into operation in Honolulu, and then in 1902, a tram line was built to connect Waikīkī and downtown Honolulu. The electric trolley replaced the horse-mule-driven tram cars.

The image shows a horse-tethering ring on a Hilo street.  In addition, I have added other horse-related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

Thursday, June 20, 2013

Mākaha Surfing

Although no one knows for sure exactly where and when surfing began, there is no doubt that over the centuries the ancient sport of "heʻe nalu" (wave sliding) was perfected, if not invented, by the kings and queens of Hawaiʻi, long before the 15th century AD.

“Surf-riding was one of the most exciting and noble sports known to the Hawaiians, practiced equally by king, chief and commoner. It is still to some extent engaged in, though not as formerly, when it was not uncommon for a whole community, including both sexes, and all ages, to sport and frolic in the ocean the livelong day.”  (Malo)

One of the early (if not first) written descriptions of surfing in Hawaiʻi (Kealakekua Bay:)
“The surf, which breaks on the coast round the bay, extends to the distance of about one hundred and fifty yards from the shore …. Whenever, from stormy weather, or any extraordinary swell at sea, the impetuosity of the surf is increased to its utmost height, they choose that time for this amusement … twenty or thirty of the natives, taking each a long narrow board, rounded at the ends, set out together from the shore.”

“… As soon as they have gained … the smooth water beyond the surf, they lay themselves at length on their board, and prepare for their return. … their first object is to place themselves on the summit of the largest surge, by which they are driven along with amazing rapidity toward the shore. … The boldness and address with which we saw them perform these difficult and dangerous manoeuvres, was altogether astonishing, and is scarcely to be credited.”  (The Three Voyages of Captain James Cook Round the World, Vol. VII, 3rd Voyage, March 1779, pp 134-135)

“The surf-riders, having reached the belt of water outside of the surf, the region where the rollers began to make head, awaited the incoming of a wave, in preparation for which they got their boards under way by paddling with their hands until such time as the swelling wave began to lift and urge them forward.”  (Malo)

 “(T)hey resorted to the favorite amusement of all classes - sporting on the surf, in which they distinguish themselves from most other nations. In this exercise, they generally avail themselves of the surf-board, an instrument manufactured by themselves for the purpose.”  (Bingham)

“The inhabitants of these islands, both male and female, are distinguished by their fondness for the water, their powers of diving and swimming, and the dexterity and ease with which they manage themselves, their surf-boards and canoes, in that element.”  (Bingham)

One reporter on an early OR&L rail ride wrote a glowing story of the railroad trip to Waiʻanae at its opening on July 4, 1895:
“For nine miles the road runs within a stone’s throw of the ocean and under the shadow of the Wai‘anae Range. With the surf breaking now on the sand beach and now dashing high on the rocks on one side, and with the sharp craigs and the mountains interspersed with valleys on the other, patrons of the road are treated to some of the most magnificent scenery the country affords.”  (Cultural Surveys)

Until the 1930s, modern surfing in Hawaiʻi was focused at Waikīkī; there the waves were smaller.  Then, in 1937, Wally Froiseth and John Kelly, reportedly on a school trip witnessed the large break at Mākaha and later surfed its waves.  They were later joined by George Downing and others.

Riding at an angle to the wave, rather than the straight to shore technique, on the new “hot curl” board, with narrower tails and V-hulled boards, allowed them to ride in a sharper angle than anyone else.

Mākaha became the birthplace of big wave surfing.  Even before Oʻahu’s North Shore, Mākaha was ‘the’ place for surfing – especially big-wave surfing.

In January 1955, the first Mākaha International Surfing Championships was held and for the next decade was considered the unofficial world championships of surfing.   While that contest faded away, in 1977, Buffalo Keaulana, a living legend of Mākaha (and Mākaha International champion in 1960,) started the Buffalo Big Board Surfing Classic (featuring canoe-surfing, tandem surfing, bullyboarding (oversize tandem bodyboards), bodysurfing and longboards) and it has been held every year since.

By doing this he has helped sustain and promote the old ways and pass on this knowledge to the keiki. This will help the children of today and tomorrow understand their cultural background so strongly rooted in nature. For these reasons, it is vital to preserve this natural class room so that the kūpuna can pass on their manaʻo and keep the Hawaiian culture alive.  (Cultural Surveys)

Rell Sunn, the ‘Queen of Makaha,’ in 1976 began the Rell Sunn Menehune Surf Contest; children 12 and under compete in body board, long board and short board, and each event is broken into age and gender categories.  In 1983, Sunn was diagnosed with cancer; she died in 1998.

When asked where his favorite place to surf is, Buffalo said, “…right here in Mākaha.  Mākaha is the best place to surf, you have the channel and the wave comes from that end you see the white water going on that side coming that way.”  (Cultural Surveys)

Today, surfing is thought of as a lifestyle in Hawaiʻi, it is part of the local culture. As an island state, the shore is the beginning of our relationship with the ocean - not the edge of the state line.  Surfing expands our horizon, refreshes, rejuvenates and gives hope. It has helped people find harmony in one's self and the vast ocean. (Hawaiʻi Quarter Design)

As former Hawai'i State governor, George Ariyoshi, stated, "Those of us fortunate to live in Hawaiʻi are extremely proud of our state and its many contributions to the world. Surfing certainly is one of those contributions. It is a sport enjoyed by men, women and children in nearly every country bordering an ocean. Surfing was born in Hawai'i and truly has become Hawaiʻi's gift to the world of sports."

Missionary Hiram Bingham, noted (rather poetically,) “On a calm and bright summer's day, the wide ocean and foaming surf … the green tufts of elegant fronds on the tall cocoanut trunks, nodding and waving, like graceful plumes, in the refreshing breeze … the natives … riding more rapidly and proudly on their surf-boards, on the front of foaming surges … give life and interest to the scenery.”

June 20, 2013, today, is International Surfing Day (held annually on or near the summer solstice.)  Established in 2004, it is a worldwide celebration of the sport of surfing.

The image shows Duke Kahanamoku and partner tandem surfing .  In addition, I have included other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Wednesday, June 19, 2013

Baked Fresh In Hawaiʻi

"The American missionaries of 1820 appear to have been the first to bake bread in Hawaii. Flour which they had brought with them around the Horn, and that which replenished their supplies at irregular intervals, was invariably caked solid so that the barrels had to be sawed apart into blocks for distribution to various mission families."  (Love's)

"The flour was then pounded into a powder and sifted to eliminate the inevitable weevils. The stone cook house which adjoins the old mission house in Honolulu still stands as a reminder of primitive cooking and baking." (Love's)

Chinese were probably the first commercial bakers in the islands. The Sandwich Island Gazette, founded in July of 1836, carried the following advertisement a year later: "Ah Mow. Baker and Confectioner from China. Begs leave to inform the public, at Honolulu, that he has established a bakery at this place, and that he will be happy to supply those who may patronise him with Bread of all descriptions. Cake, of every kind. Pies, of all varieties. In such quantities as may be desired."  (Love's)

Later, another foreigner decided to open shop, in what was described as a competitive business.  The history of Love’s Bakery began when Robert Love, a baker and a native of Glasgow, Scotland, disembarked in Honolulu harbor.

He and his wife and their three sons (Robert, Jr., 15; James, 10; and William, 8) had made the 80-day voyage aboard the “Adirondack,” an American ship making its way from Sydney, Australia, arriving in Honolulu on June 19, 1851.

Less than a month later, on July 12, 1851, the Ministry of the Interior issued Robert Love a retail store license permitting him to operate a bakery and sell its products.  In 1853 Robert Love purchased property on Nuʻuanu and Pauahi Streets and opened the first Love’s bakery there.

During the 1850s, the principal income of the bakers of Honolulu – including Love’s Bakery – came from re-baking ships’ bread which had become unfit for use during long voyages, and from re-provisioning ships’ stores with hard biscuits known as hardtack, pilot bread or navy bread.

A decade later, Love developed the Saloon Pilot cracker by adding shortening to the hardtack recipe.  And, as the name suggests, this new delicacy could be served in the captain's mess.  It remains a crowd favorite.

Robert died July 11, 1858; sons Robert Love Jr. and James Love were the administrators of the Estate of Robert Love.   The family continued to run the business, with Robert Jr, following his father's training, taking the lead.  (Robert Jr also served on the Fire Department's Engine Company No. 2.)  William died on December 12, 1878 and the remaining brothers split his share in the company.

James retired from the business and sold his interest to his brother in 1883.  Robert Jr. died later that year and his wife, Fanny, took over responsibilities of the bakery and their eldest son, James Henry, was working and learning the business, occasionally under the name Fanny Love’s Bakery.

August 23, 1884, fire destroyed the bakery and by the end of the year it was “restored in handsome, substantial form … brick building.”  (Daily Bulletin, February 5, 1885)

Tragedy nearly struck again in 1886.  The Chinatown Fire of that year started just down the road from them on the corner of Hotel Street and Smith's Lane.  While the 1886 blaze destroyed eight blocks of Chinatown, their property was saved.

“A vacant lot between this (burning buildings) and the bakery proved a valuable neighbor to that establishment, the bakery suffering but little damage, being at work again next morning.”  (Daily Bulletin, April 30, 1886)  It was spared in the 1900 bubonic plague Chinatown fires, as well.

In 1900, Love’s purchased L Andrade Bakery.  After the turn of the century, the operation was organized under a corporation, Robert Love Estate, Limited, and the family continued to run the business known as “Love’s Bakery.”

Since 1915, the company was known as “Love’s Biscuit and Bread Company” (which became its legal name in 1941.)

On March 19, 1924, Love’s built a new bakery in the Iwilei district, on what was known as the Oʻahu Prison property. The formal opening of the new bread-making plant was held on March 19.  While the original Nuʻuanu site continued to produce all types of baked goods, the new Iwilei plant produced only bread and rolls.

When Robert Love founded his bakery in 1851, commercial yeast was unknown. In fact, the manufacture of yeast in the United States on a commercial scale did not occur until nearly twenty years later. Love's Bakery, alert to the newest and best developments in the baking industry, was an early user of commercial yeast and in October of 1926, Fleischmann's Yeast selected Love's as their Honolulu representative.  (Love's)

In 1929 the decision was made to concentrate the company’s entire efforts on the wholesale business and three years later all operations were consolidated at the Iwilei plant (January 28, 1932.)

In July, 1943 the company opened a new plant at 836 Kapahulu Avenue.  (This is now the site of the Kapahulu Shopping Center – anchored by Safeway.)  Their 144-foot-long oven baked bread at the rate of more than 8,000-loaves an hour.

In 1968, the company was purchased by ITT Continental Baking Company. In 1981 Love’s Bakery was purchased again, this time by First Baking Co., Ltd. of Japan and the company’s name became Daiichiya-Love’s Bakery.

In 1990 the bakery moved from its Kapahulu site to its present site on Middle Street.  And in 2008 ownership of the bakery returned home to Hawaiʻi when local management purchased the company from First Baking Co – the name changed back to Love’s Bakery.

Loves Bakery produces 206 varieties of bread, 70 varieties of buns and rolls, and 14 varieties of cakes; the company's brands include Love's and Roman Meal.

Love's distributes about 400,000 loaves of bread each week; Bread brands include Love's, Roman Meal and Country Hearth; Pastry brands include Little Debbies, Mrs. Freshleys, Mary Ann's Danishes, Bon Appetit, Cloverhill Snack Cakes, Bubba's Bagels and Bubba's English Muffins.

Love's sends about 36,000 pounds of bread products daily to the Neighbor Islands, which represents about  40 percent of the company's business.

Love’s also has seven thrift store outlets throughout the islands.  For more than 160 years, generations of Hawaii families have loved Love’s baked fresh in Hawaii products.

The image shows the Love’s Nuʻuanu Street facility (Love’s.)   (Lot of information here is from LovesBakeryHawaii.)  In addition, I have included other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Tuesday, June 18, 2013

Julia Sherman Mills Damon

The inscription on a headstone in Oʻahu Cemetery made me curious about her story: “Died in Cheyenne City, Wyoming USA, June 19, 1890.”

How did the daughter of a teacher to Henry ʻŌpūkahaʻia, niece of the founder of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, wife of a prominent preacher in Honolulu and mother of a successful Honolulu businessman die in Wyoming?  Before we go there, here is some of her background.

Julia Sherman Mills was born on August 17, 1817 in Torringford, Connecticut, the daughter of Eleanor Welles Mills (1785-1831) and Jeremiah Fuller Mills (1777-1833) (brother of Samuel John Mills Jr (1783–1818.)) 

Julia’s uncle, Samuel John Mills Jr, was one of five participants in the famous 1806 Williams College “Haystack Prayer Meeting” that led to the beginning of a secret missionary fraternity called the Society of Brethren, the first Protestant foreign missions organization in America.  He later led in the formation the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions or ABCFM (the Protestant Missionaries who came to Hawaiʻi in 1820.)

We should also recall that Henry ʻŌpūkahaʻia (Obookiah,) a native Hawaiian from the Island of Hawaiʻi who in 1809, at the age of 16, after his parents had been killed, boarded a sailing ship anchored in Kealakekua Bay and sailed to the continent.  He traveled throughout New England and was greatly influenced by many young men who were active in the Second Great Awakening and the establishment of the missionary movement.

ʻŌpūkahaʻia lived with Samuel John Mills Jr and was studying at the Foreign Mission School to become a missionary (with other Hawaiians.) ʻŌpūkahaʻia noted that he continued his “study in spelling, reading, and writing to Mr. Jeremiah Mills (Julia’s father,) … whom (he) was acquainted with at the first. Here (he) learned some sort of farming-business: cutting wood, pulling flax, mowing, &c. - only to look at the other and learn from them.” (Memoirs)

ʻŌpūkahaʻia died suddenly of typhus fever in 1818, the “Memoirs of Henry Obookiah” served as an inspiration for missionaries to volunteer to carry his message to the Sandwich Islands.  On October 23, 1819, a group of northeast missionaries led by Hiram Bingham, set sail on the Thaddeus for the Sandwich Islands (now known as Hawai‘i.)

Julia was orphaned of both parents, at the age of fourteen.  On October 16, 1841, Julia Sherman Mills married Samuel Chenery Damon.  The Damons sailed from New York March 10, 1842 aboard the Victoria and arrived in Honolulu October 19, 1842.

“Of the social and religious life of this city, Mrs. Damon became a most important component part. The Chaplaincy on Chaplain Street, became under her ministration, a place of constant, simple, cordial hospitality, which multitudes of guests will ever remember, both travellers from abroad, visitors from our Pacific merchant and whaling fleets, and missionaries in transit, and from other islands. That open parlor was always a place of warm and homelike welcome, while the table in the next room was almost never without one or more guests, often those sojourning in the house.”  (The Friend, August 1, 1890)

Julia Damon, was for many years head of the Strangers' Friend Society, a leading charitable organization to aid the sick and destitute stranger in Honolulu's early days.  “Those Ladies of Honolulu have become interested in the enterprise, whose benevolence and capability are a sure pledge that it will succeed. The term "stranger" will not be narrowed down to signify only a select few, but it is intended that Charity shall spread wide her mantle. We have bespoke for the sick sailor a berth, and feel confident that his case will be always attended to, whenever the Foreign Consuls in Honolulu do not make provision for him.”  (The Friend, July 2, 1852)

“Mrs. Damon found an especial sphere of activity in aid and direction to the needy and suffering. … Dr. Damon was surely blessed in the sweet home his wife made for him, in her strong support and judicious counsel, and in her practical aid in his multifarious Church and Chaplaincy work, in the latter of which especially, her gift of free and graceful hospitality fell in accord with his own cordiality, and gave influence to them both. In the sacred relation of Mother, her children indeed rise up and call her blessed, and in their own lives and happy homes are testimonies to the excellence of their maternal training.”  (The Friend, August 1, 1890)

About Julia’s death … she was widowed on February 7, 1885.

“Overtaken by a nervous depression, for which a change was the prescribed relief, she accompanied eastward, a son and his wife. … Starting in her active way, to say, as is supposed, good bye to some friends leaving the train at a very early hour in the depot at Cheyenne, the car moved as she was leaving it; she fell with one arm under the wheel. Amputation was necessary. After a very few hours of suffering, with no rational consciousness, her spirit took flight from all the clouds of earth into the light of heaven.”  (The Friend, August 1, 1890)

A lot is written of Julia’s husband’s (Samuel Chenery Damon) life and accomplishments (as well as her children, including businessman Samuel Mills Damon.)  In fact, it is not too late to take part in the Hawaiian Mission Houses Historic Site and Archives Cemetery Pupu Theatre to learn about her husband Samuel Chenery Damon.  David C Farmer portrays Reverend Damon at the grave sites of Samuel and Julia in Oʻahu Cemetery.

A little side note; in 1843, Samuel Chenery Damon founded The Friend and served as editor and publisher of the monthly journal, which continued to be published for more than 100 years.

The Friend began as a monthly newspaper for seamen, which included news from both American and English newspapers, and gradually expanded to adding announcements of upcoming events, reprints of sermons, poetry, local news, editorials, ship arrivals and departures and a listing of marriages and deaths. Rev. Damon published between a half million and a million copies of The Friend, most of which he personally distributed. 

Because of its longevity, The Friend is an excellent resource for scholars of nineteenth-century Hawaiian history. Mission Houses makes digital copies of the Friend available on-line for review.  Here’s the link to The Friend.  This collection contains 1,396 issues comprising 21,030 pages and 50,904 articles.  A lot of information here is from The Friend, including Julia’s obituary.

Back to Cemetery Pupu Theatre … there are only two performances left to choose from: Performance dates are: Friday and Saturday, June 21 and 22; Pupu: 5 pm - Performance: 6 pm; $45 per person - includes drinks and pupu, seating limited, RSVP required.  

Other prominent people in this performance include: Lydia Panioikawai Hunt French (1816-1880;) Capt. John Meek (1791-1875;) Mary Bishop Dowsett (1808 - 1860) and Captain (and Carpenter) Isaac Hart (1805-1849.)

The image shows the headstone of Julia Sherman Mills Damon at Oahu Cemetery.    In addition, I have added other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

Monday, June 17, 2013

Louis Désiré Maigret, SS.CC.

In 1819, Kalanimōkū was the first Hawaiian Chief to be formally baptized a Catholic, aboard the French ship Uranie.

"The captain and the clergyman asked Young what Ka-lani-moku's rank was, and upon being told that he was the chief counselor (kuhina nui) and a wise, kind, and careful man, they baptized him into the Catholic Church" (Kamakau).  Shortly thereafter, Boki, Kalanimoku's brother (and Governor of Oʻahu) was baptized.

It wasn't until July 7, 1827, however, that the pioneer French Catholic mission arrived in Honolulu. It consisted of three priests of the Order of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary; Father Alexis Bachelot, Abraham Armand and Patrick Short.  They were supported by a half dozen other Frenchmen.

The Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary and of the Perpetual Adoration of the Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar is a Roman Catholic religious institute of brothers, priests and nuns. (The letters following their names, SS.CC., are the Latin initials for Sacrorum Cordium, "of the Sacred Hearts".)

Their first mass was celebrated a week later on Bastille Day, July 14, and a baptism was given on November 30, to a child of Don Francisco de Paula Marin.

The American Congregationalists encouraged a policy preventing the establishment of a Catholic presence in Hawaiʻi. Catholic priests were forcibly expelled from the Islands in 1831.

In 1837, two other Catholic priests arrived. However the Hawaiian government forced them back onto a ship. American, British and French officials in Hawaii intervened and persuaded the king to allow the priests to return to shore.

One of the priests expelled in 1837 was Rev. Louis Désiré Maigret.  Born September 14, 1804 in Maille, France, at the age of 24, Maigret was ordained to the priesthood as a member of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary on September 23, 1828.

“Governor Kekūanāoʻa, in charge of harbor traffic and of immigration, questions the new arrivals.  The English consul vouches for Columban Murphy, and he is allowed to land.  Maigret, however, must stay on board and is to sail away at the first opportunity.  And, together with Maigret, Kekūanāoʻa plans to get rid of another undesirable, the patient Father Bachelot, who, as it happens, is not only a priest but a very sick man.”  (Charlot)

On June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III issued the Edict of Toleration permitting religious freedom for Catholics.

Maigret sailed to Pohnpei in Micronesia to set up a mission there; he was the first missionary they had seen. He later departed for Valparaiso (Chile.)

However, when the Vicar Apostolic of Oriental Oceania was lost at sea, Father Maigret was appointed the first Vicar Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands (now the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu.)  They sought to expand the Catholic presence.

At the end of the year 1840, Maigret jots down this balance sheet: Vicariate of Oceania: Catholics: 3,000; Heretics: 30,000 and Unbelievers: 100,000.  (Charlot)

Maigret oversaw the construction of what would become his most lasting legacy, the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace, still standing and in use in downtown Honolulu.

Maigret was officially ordained as a Bishop on November 28, 1847.

Maigret divided Oʻahu into missionary districts. Shortly after, the Windward coast of Oʻahu was dotted with chapels.  The Sacred Hearts Father’s College of Ahuimanu was founded by the Catholic mission on the Windward side of Oʻahu in 1846.

“Outside the city, at Ahuimanu, Maigret has now a country retreat that he refers to by the Hawaiian word māla.  It is a combination garden, orchard and kitchen garden.  Nuhou describes it, “The venerable bishop has built his own vineyard and planted his own orchard … His retreat in the mountain, his “garden in the air” as he terms it, is a pleasant and profitable sight … with a small stone-walled cottage about fifteen feet by ten.”  When the pressure of events allows it, Maigret takes refuge there.” (Charlot)

Although the College of Ahuimanu flourished, as apparently reported by the Bishop in 1865, “The college and the schools are doing well. But as the number of pupils is continually on the increase, it has become necessary to enlarge the college. First we have added a story and a top floor with an attic; then we have been obliged to construct a new building. And yet we are lacking room.”

One of its students, Damien (born as Jozef de Veuster,) arrived in Hawaiʻi on March 9, 1864, at the time a 24-year-old choirboy.  Determined to become a priest, he had the remainder of the schooling at the College of Ahuimanu.

Bishop Maigret ordained Father Damien de Veuster at the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace, on May 21, 1864; in 1873, Maigret assigned him to Molokaʻi.  Damien spent the rest of his life in Hawaiʻi.  In 2009, Father Damien was canonized by Pope Benedict XVI.

The College of Ahuimanu changed locations and also changed its name a couple of times.  In 1881, it was renamed “College of St. Louis” in honor of Bishop Maigret’s patron Saint, Louis IX.  It was the forerunner for Chaminade College and St Louis High School.

Bishop Maigret died on June 11, 1882, after 42 years of service in Hawaiʻi, 35 of those years as a Bishop. He is buried in a crypt below the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace.

The image shows Louis Désiré Maigret.  In addition, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Sunday, June 16, 2013

Captain Jacob Brown

Captain Jacob Brown was “a follower of the sea from his twentieth year”.

The whalers of New Bedford and the other Eastern Ports fished the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.  They were hunting for whale products that were in high demand - whale oil was used for heating, lamps and in industrial machinery; whale bone was used in corsets, skirt hoops, umbrellas and buggy whips.

In the Pacific, rich whaling waters were discovered near Japan and soon hundreds of ships headed for the area.   The central location of the Hawaiian Islands between America and Japan brought many whaling ships to the Islands.

Whalers needed food and the islands supplied this need from its fertile lands.

William Rotch, the owner of several whaling vessels, was reportedly Nantucket's greatest whaling merchant; he later moved to New Bedford. One of his ships was the Honqua (sometimes spelled Hoqua.)

Crew list records from the New Bedford ships’ registries show that Jacob Brown was First Mate on the Honqua on an Atlantic whale hunt from July 19, 1841 to June 29, 1843.

Then, on a September 1, 1843 to April 13, 1846 hunt into the Pacific, Brown was Captain.  He later captained another Honqua Atlantic whaling ground sail from 1846 to 1849.

It’s not clear if there were intervening sailings, but on a whale hunt in the North Pacific, Brown captained one of “seven sails of this fine fleet of 1851, the Honqua, the New Bedford, the Arabella, the America, the Armata, the Mary Mitchell, and the Henry Thompson, (that were) wrecked there, and left behind as monuments of the dangers which meet these hardy mariners in their adventurous calling.”

“The Honqua, in 1851, was totally wrecked on a sunken rock in that sea (near Cape Oliver (Sea of Ochotsk, Russia - near the Arctic Circle.”))

Brown and his wife Cordelia Hastings Brown were shipwrecked and spent four months in the Siberian snows before being rescued by a whaling ship.

All was not lost,  the rescuing Captain of the whaleship Canton, Captain James Allen Towners, purchased the salvaged  whale oil of the Honqua (1,100 bbls of oil saved, however sold at a heavily discounted price.)

From Siberia, Brown and family were eventually brought to Hawaiʻi, by way of China.

After making a trip to his home in New Bedford, Massachusetts, Captain Brown returned to Hawaiʻi a year later, his family joining him in Honolulu six years later, and remained to take a part in the development of the islands.

He retired from the sea in 1852 to assume a government position in Honolulu which placed him in charge of all government wharves and buoys at the port.

He was also captain of the towing tug “Pele.” The “Pele” was the first steam tug used in Hawaiʻi (screw tug with thirty-horse power,) called into service in 1854.

Its primary use was for towing vessels in and out of the harbor and replaced the use of men or animals to bring ships into the harbor against the prevailing northeast tradewinds.

“Prior to the launching of this vessel primitive power was used to bring the craft through the passage to an anchorage; a rope of great length was used, and it was a never-to-be-forgotten sight to see yokes of oxen, teams of horses and natives tugging at the rope. A time was consumed in making a start, but when once in motion, it was a steady walk-away.”

Richards Street was aligned as a straight path used by groups of men, and later oxen, to pull ships through the narrow channel into the harbor.

In 1856, the Pele was also used to tow barges about the harbor in connection with the Honolulu Harbor dredging operations. Pele served, with short interruptions, as the sole tug for shipping at Honolulu until after 1882.

Brown is later noted as registered owner or partner in several boats in Honolulu: Warwick, Jenny, Haunani, James Makee and CR Bishop.  These were typically used for inter-island movement of people and goods.

One of the partners was Thomas R Foster, an initial organizer of the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company which was later incorporated on February 19, 1883.   (Brown, a friend of Foster's, was one of the original promoters of the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company.)  That company founded a subsidiary, Inter-Island Airways, that later changed its name to Hawaiian Airlines.

Born in 1815 to Jacob Brown and Ruth Morgan Brown, Captain Jacob Brown died on July 3, 1881 in Boston, Massachusetts, at the age of 66.  He and members of his family are buried at Oʻahu Cemetery.

He was survived by three children, Jacob F Brown (Civil Engineer and Manager of Hawaiian Abstract & Title,) Arthur M Brown (Attorney, High Sheriff in the Territory of Hawaiʻi (1898-1906,)) and Minnie H (Brown) Gilman; his oldest child, Sarah M Brown, born at sea, later died at the age of 22.

The image shows Honolulu Harbor in 1854 (by Edward T Perkins.)    In addition, I have added other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Saturday, June 15, 2013

Lāhainā Pali Trail

“A new road had been made around the foot of the mountain, the crookedest, rockiest, ever traveled by mortals. Our party consisted of five adults and five children. We had but two horses. One of these was in a decline on starting; it gave out in a few miles.”

“The other, ‘Old Lion,’ deserves to be immortalized for the services he performed that day, in carrying three and four children at a time on his broad back up and down that unsheltered, zigzag mountain road.”

“The wind from the other shore swept across it and was cooling us a little too rapidly after the intense heat of the day. To go farther without rest or aid was impossible.”  (Laura Fish Judd, 1841)

The trail was hand-built before 1825 for horseback and foot travel between Wailuku and Lāhainā; it served as the most direct route across the steep southern slopes of West Maui Mountain.

Around 1900, the Lāhainā Pali Trail fell out of use when prison laborers built a one-way dirt road along the base of the pali. In 1911, a three-ton truck was the first vehicle to negotiate this road, having a difficult time making some of the sharp, narrow turns.

Over the years, the road was widened and straightened until 1951, when the modern Honoapiʻilani Highway cut out many of the 115 hairpin curves in the old pali road and a tunnel cleared the way through a portion of the route.

This was the first tunnel ever constructed on a public highway in Hawaiʻi - built on the Olowalu-Pali section of the Lāhainā-Wailuku Road (now Honoapiʻilani Highway,) completed on October 10, 1951. The tunnel is 286-feet long, 32-feet wide, and more than 22 feet high.  (Schmidt)

Today, a remnant of the old trail is a recreational hike – five-miles long (from Māʻalaea to Ukumehame) and climbs to over 1,600-feet above sea level.

The Lāhainā Pali Trail has been restored and is maintained with volunteer assistance by the Na Ala Hele Statewide Trail and Access Program, State Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW,) within the Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR.)

The trail runs from a point Kahului side of Māʻalaea Harbor, over a ridge and down to a long, sandy beach with snorkeling, surfing and picnicking facilities.

Ranging in elevation from 100-feet to 1,600-feet, the trail offers excellent scenic vistas of Kahoʻolawe and Lānaʻi islands. Whales can be observed during the winter months.

Petroglyphs, stone walls and rocky outcrops mark the spots where long ago travelers stopped to rest. The mid-point of the trail is Kealalola Ridge, the southern rift zone of the volcano that formed West Maui. Pu'u (cinder hills) and natural cuts in the ridgeline expose the dramatic geologic history of this part of Maui.

The Lāhainā Pali Trail is a historic roadway. Damage to the trail or any archaeological sites along the trail is subject to penalties, as defined in Hawaiʻi Revised Statutes Chapter 6E.

Directions: Both trail heads are accessible from Honoapiʻilani Highway. The eastern trail head is 0.2 miles south of the junction of Honoapiʻilani Highway and Kihei Road .

The western trail head lies 1- mile south of Lāhainā and 3 miles west of Māʻalaea Harbor. The parking area is accessible from Highway 30 at Manawaipueo Gulch about 0.25-mile north of the Pali tunnel.

Click Here for a brochure “Tales from the Trail” on more history and information about the Lāhainā Pali Trail.

The image shows a view of Māʻalaea, Keālia and Haleakalā from the Lāhainā Pali Trail; in addition, I have added related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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