Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Scariest Story I Know

It's Halloween - I was asked to tell a spooky story. I first thought about stories about Night Marchers, but then realized I have an even spookier story than that.

Here's the scariest story I know.

Not long ago, a family was sitting at the kitchen table - wondering why they weren't able to make ends meet.

In fact, simply sitting there, they were getting deeper and deeper into debt.

A couple years before (2010,) their household income was $51,530. However, they spent $73,320 - they put 30-cents of every dollar they spent on a credit card.

The family had accumulated about $325,780 in credit card debt.

While that outstanding debt sounds like the amount of a mortgage, it's not. Unlike a mortgage, they have no house or anything else to show for this debt – it is simply money they owe.

Then 2011 came along - they made $55,000, but spent $96,500. Another deficit year - another year of credit card borrowing - and now their outstanding credit card debt is $366,000.

This year, the family is making $70,000, but spending $110,000 ... more deficit spending … deeper in debt.

They scratch their heads and wonder why.

This seemingly fictional family is real - these numbers represent the context of the national deficit and the debt.

The US national debt has passed $16 trillion. On president Barack Obama’s watch, the debt has increased, as campaign promise after campaign promise has drowned in a sea of federal spending. (Spending money we don’t have.)

When he was running for president, Obama condemned George W. Bush for adding $4 trillion to the national debt over eight years, calling it “irresponsible” and “unpatriotic.”

Now - in less than four years - Obama’s Administration has already added $6 trillion to the debt. That means he is on track to triple Bush’s debt increase over eight years.

At $16 trillion, this number has passed total US gross domestic product (GDP), the measure of all that is produced in the economy - that's how much we collectively owe.

A January 23, 2012 poll indicates concern about the nation’s budget deficit has been increasing in recent years. 69% say reducing the deficit is a top priority - the most in any of the annual policy priority updates going back to 1994. (Pew Research Center poll)

A December 12, 2011 Gallup poll indicated Americans' concerns about the threat of big government continue to dwarf those about big business and big labor, and by an even larger margin now than in March 2009; 64% of Americans say big government will be the biggest threat to the country (nearly 2/3 of us.)


“The day after the Greek Parliament approved another round of deep spending cuts in the face of violent protests, President Obama released a budget proposal for the coming fiscal year that offers no real solution to the United States’ long-term fiscal problems.” (latimes-com)

"Drawing down spending on wars that were already set to wind down and that were deficit financed in the first place should not be considered savings. When you finish college, you don't suddenly have thousands of dollars a year to spend elsewhere - in fact, you have to find a way to pay back your loans." (cnn-com)

Obama's plan does not even begin reducing the debt and keeping it headed down. “Nor, for that matter, does it fulfill his 2009 promise to halve the deficit by the end of his first term." (usatoday-com)

Has the president so soon forgotten that nobody (not even one democrat in the entire the House and Senate) supported his budgets?

By a vote of 414-0, the usually-divided House of Representatives unanimously voted in bipartisan unison to deny president Obama’s 2013 budget (not one democrat supported the president’s budget.)

In May 2011, 97 senators voted against a motion to take up his 2012 budget plan — no senator (republican and democrat) voted in favor of the motion.

These outcomes speak for themselves; neither republicans nor democrats in Congress agree with the president’s budget.

“We do not need to bring a budget to the floor this year — it’s done, we don’t need to do it,” Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nev.) told reporters, echoing previous statements from his office. (February 3, 2012)


I think it’s pretty clear, the president and democrats don’t want budgets – they want unlimited spending and no accountability for the money they spend (the key reasons why budgets are prepared.)

A recent Treasury Department report notes a summary of federal spending for 2012. Some are suggesting it’s the 7-11 report – and Obama is the 7-11 president. (Did you read about it? Of course not, the main stream media ignored the sorry story.)

Let’s look.

Under Obama, for every $7 the US government has collected, it spent nearly $11 (or, to be more precise, $10.95).

(That’s like a family that makes $70,000 a year — and is already knee-deep in debt - blowing nearly $110,000 a year.)

Deficits and debt cost money; it is called interest – paying this cost of borrowing does nothing in providing services and programs for the people today.

Likewise, to pay off the debt you have to use current dollars to pay back past expenditures – paying back past debt does nothing in providing services and programs for the people today.

We have been fortunate that interest rates have been low - their lowest ever … but, when interest rates rise (and they will,) more of our hard-earned tax dollars will go to paying interest on our growing deficits and debt.

Think about your household - I bet you find ways to cut spending to make ends meet. The folks in Washington, including the White House, don’t even try.

Obama - who recently showed that he apparently has no idea how big our national debt is - amazingly says of the debt, “[W]e don’t have to worry about it short-term.”

In other words, if you have $7 but spend $11 (and continually borrow to make up the difference,) year after year, it's OK - let future generations of Americans worry about it.

Since Obama took office, the national debt has increased from about $10.6 trillion to more than $16 trillion - a 50 percent increase. Obama's deficit spending has added more than $1-trillion each year to the growing debt, and apparently he doesn't care.

In the last four years, the national debt has increased by more than it did in the previous 17 years.

The national debt will increase from $16-trillion to $25.4-trillion in 2022, or 59-percent, under president Obama’s budget plans.

Government should follow the example set by the American household:
• live within your means (have a balanced budget)
• we can’t continue to spend money we don’t have (stop deficit spending and borrowing to cover the difference)

Stop the Rhetoric - Balance the Budget - Reduce the Debt

You can’t spend money you don’t have. You can’t borrow your way out of debt.

For those that still don’t get it, I think I need to repeat this simple, basic thought:

You can’t spend money you don’t have. You can’t borrow your way out of debt.

This is the scariest story I know - and we are all caught in the middle of it, whether we like it or not.

Every man, woman and child in the United States owes more than $50,000 as his or her share of the national debt. Every US taxpayer owes more than $140,000 as his or her share of the national debt. (The national debt has now increased by more than $64,000 per federal taxpayer since Barack Obama was inaugurated president.)

Scary, isn’t it? Happy Halloween.

Actually, you can change the direction we’re headed and how this story goes in the future - make your vote count next week.

Tuesday, October 30, 2012

Mauna ‘Ala – Royal Mausoleum

During the reign of Kamehameha IV, there was talk of building a new royal mausoleum (at the time, Hawaiʻi’s ruling chiefs were buried in the crypt enclosure on the ʻIolani Palace grounds, known as Pohukaina, sometimes called ‘the mound’.)

His death on November 30, 1863 was the impetus needed to begin the construction of a new chapel; it was completed in January 1864 and a State funeral was held for Kamehameha IV on February 3, 1864.

Mauna ‘Ala is the resting place for many of Hawai‘i’s royalty.  (Mauna ‘Ala means "fragrant mountain.")  On October 19, 1865, the Royal Mausoleum chapel was completed.

RC Wyllie, Hawaiʻi’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, was buried with a State funeral in the Royal Mausoleum on October 29, 1865.

The next night, October 30, 1865, the remains of 21 Ali‘i were removed from Pohukaina at ‘Iolani Place and transferred in a torchlight procession at night to Mauna ‘Ala, the new Royal Mausoleum in Nu‘uanu Valley.

“Earth has not seen a more solemn procession what when, in the darkness of the night, the bodies of these chieftains were carried through the streets”.  (Hawaiian Gazette, January 14, 1880)

In a speech delivered on the occasion of the laying of the Cornerstone of The Royal Palace (ʻIolani Palace,) Honolulu, in 1879, JH Kapena, Minister of Foreign Relations, said:
"Doubtless the memory is yet green of that never-to-be-forgotten night when the remains of the departed chiefs were removed to the Royal Mausoleum in the valley. Perhaps the world had never witnessed a procession more weird and solemn than that which conveyed the bodies of the chiefs through our streets, accompanied on each side by thousands of people until the mausoleum was reached, the entire scene and procession being lighted by large kukui torches, while the midnight darkness brought in striking relief the coffins on their biers."

The March 10, 1899 issue of the Hawaiian Gazette noted that Liloa (1500s,) Lonoikamakahiki (late-1500s) and Alapaʻi (1700s) are among the buried at Mauna ʻAla.

In 1866, the remains of John Young, the British seaman who became a close friend and advisor to Kamehameha I, had been moved to Mauna ‘Ala.

Then the first major crypt was built during 1884-1887 by Charles Reed Bishop, husband of Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop, to house the remains of the Kamehameha family.  Later, he too was buried there and the crypt sealed.

The Kamehameha crypt is the resting place Kamehameha II to V and other members of family - there are a total of 24 Kamehameha’s buried there.

Lunalilo chose to be buried on Kawaiaha‘o Church grounds in his personal crypt and not at the Royal Mausoleum.

A second crypt was built in 1904 to house nine of Queen Emma's relatives and close associates.  This tomb is named for Robert C. Wyllie, a close friend of the Kamehameha family and an important figure in late-19th century Hawaiian politics.

Between 1907 and 1910, a third crypt was built to shelter the Kalākaua family.  The Kalākaua crypt holds the buried remains of members of the Kalākaua dynasty - a total of 20 members of the Kalākaua family.

It was Queen Lili‘uokalani’s wish and vision to convert the mausoleum building into a chapel, to be used specifically to celebrate the birthdays of Hawai‘i’s kings and queens and their legacy of aloha, left to the Hawaiian people through the various trusts created by these high chiefs and high chiefesses, to care for their people.

By a joint resolution of Congress on May 31, 1900, the 3.5-acres of land that make up the Mauna ʻAla premises were "withdrawn from sale, lease, or other disposition under the public-land laws of the United States" and the property is to be used as a mausoleum for the royal family of Hawai‘i.

Mauna ‘Ala is managed by DLNR’s State Parks Division; there is a curator agreement for the property.  William John Kaihe‘ekai Mai‘oho (Bill) was appointed curator of Mauna ‘Ala in January 1995.  His mother was kahu for 28-years prior.  This position was handed down through the generations.

I had the good fortune to meet Bill on a couple occasions.  Once, at Mauna ‘Ala for a service in the chapel and presenting of ho‘okupu at the Kamehameha crypt; the second was at the awa ceremony for the curator agreement between DLNR and the Royal Order of Kamehameha I at Kaʻawaloa Point at Kealakekua Bay.

Mauna ʻAla is open to the public from 8 am to 4 pm, Monday thru Friday and on Memorial Day.  The image shows the chapel at Mauna ʻAla.  In addition, I have posted additional images of Mauna ‘Ala in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Monday, October 29, 2012

Āliapa‘akai ("salt pond") – Salt Lake - Moanalua

Hawaiians called it Āliapa‘akai, (salt pond or salt-encrusted.)

The exceptionally fine salt became a coveted commodity, and Hawaiians mined it to sell to sea captains and others.  By the mid-19th century, the salt’s popularity as an ingredient for incense in China left the lake depleted.

Hawaiian mythology connects the Pele myths with the naming of Āliamanu and its sister crater, Āliapa‘akai (Salt Lake).  Pele, the goddess of volcanoes, sought a home on one island after another.

After leaving Kaua‘i, Pele and her faithful sister, Hi‘iaka, settled in Āliapa‘akai by digging into the ground.  According to one story in Fornander, the red dirt and salt they brought from Kauaʻi was deposited in their new home, giving the craters the names Kealiapa‘akai and Ke‘aliamanu .

Fornander also offers another version of the story. In this version, Pele and Hi‘iaka carried from Kaua‘i a bird and salt.  While digging a home at Āliapa‘akai, the bird and salt were dropped or lost, giving the craters the names of Āliamanu (Salt-Encrusted (Bird)), and Āliapa‘akai (Salt-Encrusted (Salt.))

The name referred to the salt-loaded soil around the water, which produced white, crystallized blocks along the shore and at the lake bottom, a delicate sight praised by one Western visitor as “the principal natural curiosity that this island affords.”

Two missionary visitors in 1822 described “plants, sticks, and tufts of grass, scattered on the beach ... delicately frosted with spangles of salt.”

Oʻahu’s nearly 50-acre Salt Lake (Āliapaʻakai) is in a low crater a little over a mile inland between Pearl Harbor and Honolulu.

Legend held that it was “fathomless,” a belief persisting until recent years despite soundings made by the US Exploring Expedition in 1840 that proved it was "no deeper than 18 inches."

Originally, Salt Lake was an evaporation basin fed by seawater seepages at highest tides and producing large quantities of crustal salt for domestic use.  Because the lake had no outlet, water loss was largely by evaporation, concentrating the salt.

Analysis of its water in 1891 indicated hyper-saline water and an unusual ionic content with low sulphate, and dominant sodium, magnesium and chloride.

At the turn of the century, the railways were built and Oʻahu Rail and Land Company (OR&L) sent its 1st train from Honolulu to ‘Aiea in 1889.

In describing the Salt Lake region, Hitchcock (1900) notes a cut along the Oʻahu Railroad less than one-half mile west of Moanalua Station which from bottom to top consisted of: "the main coral reef; thin layer of tuff; coral reef or limestone; decomposed rock sustaining a soil covered by forest; eruption of tuff from Aliapakai [Salt Lake Crater]…"

At the time of the Great Māhele, Moanalua ahupua‘a was controlled by Lot Kapuāiwa (he later became King Kamehameha V.) After Lot’s death, Moanalua was passed on to Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani and then to Bernice Pauahi Bishop.

Upon her death in 1884, the ahupua‘a was willed to Samuel Mills Damon (Damon was a business partner of Pauahi’s husband, Charles Reed Bishop.)

In 1902, Damon leased Āliamanu Crater to the Honolulu Plantation Company.  The US Government started purchasing land in and around Āliamanu in 1914 and shared use of the crater with the Honolulu Plantation Company.

Reliable transportation and viable soil soon brought sugar cane to the fishpond boundaries.  Damon maintained much of Moanalua as pasture, with portions leased to rice, sugar and banana growers.

Up until 1910, the lake was regularly so salty that salt deposits formed around the shore.  In that year, an artesian well was dug to bring the water level higher (and salt content lower.)

A tunnel, dug through the southeast rim of the crater (1894-1895,) controlled water level and provided an outlet.  This act and later construction of a larger drainage outlet, eventually removed the salt from Salt Lake.  Thereafter, it was used as a commercial fishpond for mullet and milkfish.

The Damon estate sold much of Moanalua to commercial and residential developers in 1956.

In 1966, most of the lake was filled in; all that’s left is a pond on the golf course at the Honolulu Country Club.

Today, the region is part of Honolulu’s primary urban center and is characterizes as a residential community with portions in mid- and high-density uses, surrounded by higher-intensity military, airport and industrial uses.

The image is a 1928 aerial overlooking Salt Lake toward Honolulu and Waikiki.  In addition, I have added a few other images of the area in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Sunday, October 28, 2012

Hiʻilawe Twin Falls

Under natural conditions, Lālākea Stream, its tributary and Hakalaoa Stream flow over the pali above Waipiʻo Valley as the famous Hiʻilawe Twin Falls. The twin falls are Hiʻilawe Falls to the west and Hakalaoa Falls to the east.

The twin falls converge in a huge plunge pool at the bottom of the pali to form Hiʻilawe Stream, one of two primary waterways that flow through Waipiʻo Valley to the ocean.

Hiʻilawe Stream supports loʻi kalo, native stream life, productivity in nearshore waters, fishing, gathering and other traditional and customary Hawaiian practices.

Hiʻilawe Waterfall is one of the tallest waterfalls in Hawaiʻi dropping about 1,450-feet, with a main drop of 1,201-feet into Waipiʻo Valley on Lālākea Stream.

In the early-1900s, the streams feeding the falls were diverted so the water could to be used for irrigation of sugar cane plantations, like many other streams in Hawaiʻi.

A concrete barrier, or "diversion", had been built at the 2,000-foot elevation, high above the valley.  With the reduction of water, there were no longer two waterfalls at Hiʻilawe, typically only one waterfall had water flowing.

The diverted water was last used by the Hāmākua Sugar Company in 1989.

In 1994, Kamehameha Schools (KS) obtained the Lālākea Ditch when it acquired Hāmākua Sugar Company land. The ditch continued to divert an average of 2.5-million gallons of water a day from the streams to the Lālākea Reservoir, where the unused water flowed into a dry gully.

In lieu of a hefty fine for failing to provide evidence of long-term use of water diverted by the Lālākea Ditch, KS was required to fund studies or other stream-related projects of comparable value.

When I served as Chair of the State Commission on Water Resource Management (Water Commission,) KS submitted and we approved a plan to fully restore flows to three streams that feed the famous Hiʻilawe Twin Falls.

The restoration of Lālākea and Hakalaoa streams and a tributary of Lālākea Stream is only the second stream restoration in the history of the State Water Code, which was enacted in 1987. The first stream restoration under the code was the partial restoration of Waiāhole, Waianu and Waikāne streams in Windward O`ahu.

Not only was there less water flowing, but it flowed slower and was warmer which affected the plants and animals that live in the stream.  Abandoning the Lālākea Ditch and restoring the streams is necessary to support native stream life and the traditional and customary practices that rely on Hiʻilawe Stream.

In addition, KS prepared the Waipiʻo Valley Stream Restoration Study, the first-ever study of completely restoring a Hawaiian stream to natural flow conditions.

Stream restoration effects studied by KS include: water quality, stream flow, habitats and biota. This study was conducted by scientists from Bishop Museum and other institutions, with student scientists from the Island of Hawaiʻi collaborating and contributing to data collection and analysis.

The image shows Waipiʻo in a sketch drawn by William Ellis in about 1822-1823, Hiʻilawe Twin Falls is to the left.  In addition, I have included some other images of the falls and this area in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

As you review them, here is a link to one of the best renditions of "Hiʻilawe" by Israel Kamakawiwoʻole:

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Saturday, October 27, 2012

Honolulu City Lights

The first discoveries of electricity were made back in ancient Greece.  Greek philosophers discovered that when amber is rubbed against cloth, lightweight objects will stick to it.  This is the basis of static electricity.

The credit for generating electric current on a practical scale goes to the English scientist, Michael Faraday.  In 1831, Faraday found the solution that electricity could be produced through magnetism by motion.

Using electricity as a power source, in the period from 1878 to 1880, Thomas Edison and his associates worked on at least three thousand different theories to develop an efficient incandescent lamp.  Incandescent lamps make light by using electricity to heat a thin strip of material (called a filament) until it gets hot enough to glow.

Finally, Edison decided to try a carbonized cotton thread filament. When voltage was applied to the completed bulb, it began to radiate a soft orange glow.  Just about fifteen hours later, the filament finally burned out; Patent number 223,898 was given to Edison's electric lamp.

In 1881, the Exposition Universelle (World’s Fair) was held in Paris; it was the first International Exposition of Electricity. The major events associated with the Fair included Thomas Edison’s electric lights, electrical distribution and Alexander Graham Bell's telephone.

Shortly thereafter, the Brush Electric Light Company established New York City’s first electric company. A small generator powered street lights on lower Broadway.

In an era of gas lamps, King Kalākaua recognized the potential of "electricity," and helped pioneer its introduction in the Hawaiian kingdom.  The King arranged to meet the inventor of the incandescent lamp, Thomas Edison, in New York in 1881, during the course of a world tour.

During the King’s visit to NYC, the New-York Tribune (September 25, 1881) wrote an article about the King: “One of the sights that pleased him most was the Paris Electrical Exhibition.  We spent some time there.  Kalakaua is going to introduce the electric light in his own kingdom; and he examined the different lamps on that account with the greatest interest.  The life in Paris entertained him very much; they turned night into day there.”

“The visit, indeed, was not altogether one of curiosity, nor was the Edison light wholly unfamiliar to his Majesty, who had already observed it in operation in Paris.  It has for several years been one of the dreams of his Majesty, in the development of the civilization toward which his people are rapidly struggling to introduce the electric light in Honolulu and light the city with it, in preference to gas. He has, however, patiently awaited the perfection of some one of the many systems before the public and will probably on his return reduce the purpose to practice.”  (New York Times, September 26, 1881)

“He seemed particularly interested in the statement that after steam-power had been transformed into electricity and carried to a great distance in that form it could again be converted into motive power by means of an electrical motor, and sold to customers for the purpose of running elevators or operating hoist-ways.  His eyes lighted when he was told that one of the most profitable departments of the business of the company would be the sale of power to manufactories and business firms in quantities as small as a single horse power, costing, under circumstances of ordinary use, not more than 8 cents a day.”  (New York Times, September 26, 1881)

Five years after Kalākaua and Edison met, Charles Otto Berger, a Honolulu-based insurance executive with mainland connections, organized a demonstration of "electric light" at the king's residence, ʻIolani Palace, on the night of July 26, 1886.

To commemorate the occasion, a tea party was organized by Her Royal Highness the Princess Liliʻuokalani and Her Royal Highness the Princess Likelike.  The Royal Hawaiian Military Band played music and military companies marched in the palace square.  An immense crowd gathered to see and enjoy the brightly lit palace that night.

Shortly after this event, David Bowers Smith, a North Carolinian businessman living in Hawaiʻi, persuaded Kalākaua to install an electrical system on the palace grounds.  The plant consisted of a small steam engine and a dynamo for incandescent lamps.  On November 16, 1886 - Kalākaua’s birthday - ʻIolani Palace became the world's first royal residence to be lit by electricity.

With the palace lit, the government began exploring ways to establish its own power plant to light the streets of Honolulu.  A decision was made to use the energy of flowing water to drive the turbines of a power plant built in Nu‘uanu Valley.

Accordingly, “a head of from 300 to 330 feet could be obtained at the elevation known as Queen Emma lot in Nu‘uanu Valley (Hānaiakamālama,) this giving about 130 horse power.”

The new dynamo station was located instead “opposite the Wood estate, it having been found that the Queen Emma lot could not be secured.”  The contract was awarded to Peter High, ground was broken November 23, 1887 and the government accepted the building on January 21, 1888.

Water was taken in a pipeline running past Kaniakapūpū, then fed a hydroelectric plant in an area known as “Reservoir #1,” near Oʻahu County Club.  Power lines were strung on the existing Mutual Telephone Co. poles in the area, down to downtown Honolulu.

On Friday, March 23, 1888, Princess Kaʻiulani, the king's niece, threw the switch that illuminated the town’s streets for the first time - the first of Honolulu City Lights.

The Minister of the Interior report to the Legislative Assembly in the 1888 noted, "We have at present one twelve-light machine, carrying twelve lights with five miles of wire, and using nine horse power; also one fifty-light machine, carrying forty-six lamps on fifteen miles of wire, using forty-two horse power, making a total of fifty-eight lights now in use in the city."

A year later, the first of a handful of residences and business had electricity.  By 1890, this luxury had been extended to 797 of Honolulu's homes.

I have added some images and maps in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

Since we’re in the mood, here’s a link to the Beamer Brothers “Honolulu City Lights”

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Friday, October 26, 2012


Traditions on the island of O‘ahu provide the names of a dynasty of ruling chiefs beginning with Māʻilikūkahi, honored as the first great king of O‘ahu.

Māʻilikūkahi holds a prominent place in O‘ahu legends for his wise, firm, judicious government.

He was born ali‘i kapu at the birthing stones of Kūkaniloko; Kūkaniloko was one of two places in Hawai‘i specifically designated for the birth of high ranking children; the other site was Holoholokū at Wailua on Kauaʻi.

Māʻilikūkahi, who ruled in the 1400-1500s (at about the same time Christopher Columbus 'discovered' America,) was raised partly in Waialua and is said to have maintained a kulanakauhale (village) there.

There is said to have been a mythical heiau (temple) called Kapukapuākea built by the menehune.   Māʻilikūkahi was taken to Kapukapuākea (heiau) at Pa‘la‘akai in Waialua to be consecrated and installed as aliʻi there.

Kapukapuākea was to the Oʻahu aliʻi what Westminster Abbey is to the kings of England, the site of ritual acknowledgement of their divine right to rule (Kirch)

Soon after becoming aliʻi, Māʻilikūkahi moved to Waikīkī. The stories tell us that he was probably one of the first chiefs to live there. Up until this time the chiefs had typically lived at Waialua and ‘Ewa.

From that point on, with few exceptions, Waikīkī remained the seat of Oʻahu aliʻi, until Kamehameha I moved the seat to Honolulu.

Māʻilikūkahi was a religious chief, built several heiau, held the priests in honor and stopped human sacrifices. The island of Oʻahu is said to have become very populous during his reign, and thrift and prosperity abounded.

Land was considered the property of the aliʻi which he held in trust for the gods.  The title of aliʻi ensured rights and responsibilities pertaining to the land, but did not confer absolute ownership.

The aliʻi kept the parcels he wanted, his higher chiefs received large parcels from him and, in turn, distributed smaller parcels to lesser chiefs.  The makaʻāinana (commoners) worked the individual plots of land (kuleana.) 

Māʻilikūkahi is noted for clearly marking and reorganizing land division palena (boundaries) on O‘ahu.  Defined palena brought greater productivity to the lands; lessened conflict and was a means of settling disputes of future aliʻi who would be in control of the bounded lands; protected the commoners from the chiefs; and brought (for the most part) peace and prosperity.

Fornander writes, "He caused the island to be thoroughly surveyed, and boundaries between differing divisions and lands be definitely and permanently marked out, thus obviating future disputes between neighboring chiefs and landholders."

Kamakau tells a similar story, "When the kingdom passed to Māʻilikūkahi, the land divisions were in a state of confusion; the ahupuaʻa, the ku, the ʻili ʻaina, the moʻo ʻaina, the pauku ʻaina, and the kihapai were not clearly defined.”

“Therefore, Māʻilikūkahi ordered the chiefs, aliʻi, the lesser chiefs, kaukau aliʻi, the warrior chiefs, puʻali aliʻi, and the overseers (luna) to divide all of Oʻahu into moku, ahupuaʻa, ʻili kupono, ʻili ʻaina, and moʻo ʻaina."

What is commonly referred to as the "ahupuaʻa system" is a result of the firm establishment of palena (boundaries.)  This system of land divisions and boundaries enabled a konohiki (land/resource manager) to know the limits and productivity of the resources that they managed - and increase its productivity.

Māʻilikūkahi is also known for a benevolent reign that was followed by generations of peace.   He prohibited the chiefs from plundering the maka‘āinana, with punishment of death. His reign “ushered in an era of benign rule lasting for several generations.”

Māʻilikūkahi's peaceful reign was interrupted by an invasion by chiefs from Waipi‘o.  It was not considered as a war between the two islands, but rather as a raid by some restless and turbulent chiefs from the Islands of Hawaiʻi.

The invading force landed at first at Waikīkī, but, for reasons not stated in the legend, altered their mind and proceeded up the Ewa lagoon and marched inland.

At Waikakalaua (Wahiawa or Waipahu) they met Māʻilikūkahi with his forces, and a battle ensued. The fight continued from there to the Kīpapa gulch. The invaders were thoroughly defeated, and the gulch is said to have been literally paved with the corpses of the slain, and received its name, "Kīpapa," (placed prone.)

 Māʻilikūkahi's wife was Kanepukaa.  They had two sons, Kalonanui and Kalona-iki, the latter succeeding his father as Aliʻi Aimoku of Oʻahu.

In the past, MAʻO Organic Farms created and facilitated ‘Āina Ho‘ōla o Māʻilikūkahi, the annual statewide Hands Turned to the Soil conference. The word ho‘ōla means to restore/give life.

The conference’s name therefore reflects an understanding that our ‘āina must itself be healthy in order to feed us and that ‘aina, kanaka and kaiaulu (land, people and community) work in concert to provide and maintain sustenance for all living things.

The conference seeks to provide a platform from which community-oriented, intergenerational and cultural approaches to building a sustainable food system are honored, cultivated and launched.  (I am not sure if the conference is continuing, but wanted to give it a plug, just in case it is – in any event, the conference themes help further describe the influence and importance of Māʻilikūkahi.)

Thursday, October 25, 2012

Pōhakuloa Training Area (PTA)

Pōhakuloa Training Area (PTA) (lit. long stone) was first used during World War II as a Marine Corps artillery live-fire training area.

During World War II, few permanent structures existed; when the Marines trained at PTA, they slept in tents.

U.S. Marines from the 3rd Marine Division and the 5th Marine Division trained at PTA and on the western side of the Big Island in preparation for the Iwo Jima and Saipan campaigns.

After the war, PTA fell under the control of the Hawai‘i Territorial Guard and in the mid-1950s the Army took over PTA. From 1955-58, Soldiers from the 65th Engineer Company built the distinctive Quonset huts, which are still in use.

The training area is about midway between Hilo on the east coast and the Army landing site at Kawaihae Harbor on the west coast.    PTA extends up the lower slopes of Mauna Kea to approximately 6,800-feet in elevation and to about 9,000-feet on Mauna Loa.

The area is the largest Department of Defense (DOD) installation in Hawaiʻi.  PTA's 130,000-acres include an 80-acre cantonment area (headquarters, housing and other facilities) with a fuel yard, fire and police departments and an airfield with a 3,700-foot runway.

The installation can support up to 2,300-military personnel with rations, fuel and transportation.

PTA's firing ranges allow units to conduct small-arms and crew-served weapons familiarization training and qualifications, as well as artillery and mortar live fire.

Through the years, PTA’s ranges and training areas have helped Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine units maintain their combat readiness and prepare for war.

Most recently, 25th Infantry Division units, Kaneohe-based Marines and Hawaii Army National Guard Soldiers prepared at PTA for combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Today, PTA stands as the premier military training area in the Pacific region. Units from all U.S. military services, as well as allied militaries, train at PTA, because it offers realistic training opportunities not found elsewhere.

With several new construction projects underway, PTA looks to support military training well into the future.

One of the great untold stories is the attention to native plant restoration at PTA - from the low-tech nursery house and field plantings, to high-tech digital terrain monitoring (using airborne light detecting and ranging (LiDAR)) to define areas for plant restoration.

Dryland forests are among the most threatened of all tropical forest ecosystems, largely because of the impact of grazing animals, invasive species, fire and land conversion. Only about 5 percent of Hawaii dryland forest habitats remain.

PTA's Natural Resources Team consists of about 40 employees, who protect threatened and endangered species on the military property, grow and monitor plants, construct firebreaks and remove invasive species. More than 2,000-endangered and common native plants are annually replanted into the wild.

Bird counters do visual checks for common and rare birds and also identify many by their songs. The most common native birds encountered are palila, nene, amakihi and apapane.

In addition, the Army is fencing off areas to protect it from the damaging effects of goats, sheep and pigs (ungulates) to allow recovery of mamane-naio forest.

Recovery of that forest may eventually lead to reintroduction of endangered palila to the Pōhakuloa plain.  The Army is presently trying to get most of the fence-enclosed area cleared of unexploded ordnance so that public hunters can assist in ungulate removal.

The image shows the initial construction of the PTA Quonset huts in 1956 (©-thecoys2.)  In addition, I have included some other images of PTA in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

The Green Flash

As the sun sinks slowly in the West, there is cause for pause by people as they wish their luck in seeing the elusive “green flash.”

I remember the daily ritual on our deck in Kahaluʻu mauka in Kona (as we were growing up, it was the only home we ever lived in with a western orientation and view of the Pacific Ocean.)

Scientists say green flashes come in two common forms; these were described by James Prescott Joule in a letter to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society in 1869.

First, he noted that “at the moment of the departure of the sun below the horizon, the last glimpse is coloured bluish green.” This “last glimpse” flash is associated with the inferior mirage, familiar on asphalt roads on sunny days.

It is best seen from a few meters above sea level, and becomes compressed to a thin line at the horizon when seen from considerable heights.

Joule also observed that “Just at the upper edge, where bands of the sun's disk are separated one after the other by refraction, each band becomes coloured blue just before it vanishes.”

This second form of flash is associated with a mock mirage, which is caused by a thermal inversion below eye level; so it is mainly seen from elevated positions.

As light passes from the vacuum of space into the atmosphere, which acts like a prism, it slows down and causes the light to bend or refract towards the surface of the earth.

The white from the sun is made up of many different colors of light, all of which have a different wavelength. The wavelength (or color) of light affects how much it is refracted on entering the atmosphere, with red light refracted the most and blue least (as in rainbows).

Imagine the image of the sun as being made up of red, green and blue images. Light from the 'red image' will be refracted more than that from the green and blue.

So, the 'red image' will appear lower than the green, which will similarly appear lower than the blue. At sunset, or sunrise, this effect is intensified as light travels through a slightly thicker atmosphere.

As the sun disappears below the horizon, the 'red image' will disappear first and the blue last.

The atmosphere causes blue light to be scattered more than red or green - the reason why the sky appears blue - so light from the 'green image' … the 'green flash' … will normally be the last thing you see as the sun disappears below the horizon.

On very rare occasions, the atmosphere may be clear enough to allow some of the blue light to reach us and cause a 'blue flash' as the sun sets.

The phenomenon lasts only a fraction of a second, so unless you know where to look and when, the chances of seeing one are very slim. Viewing conditions need to be just right, too.

Watching the sun set over an ocean horizon on a clear evening creates optimal viewing conditions.

Your line of sight should be almost parallel to the horizon and you need to really concentrate at the top edge of the sun as it is about 98% set.

If you are lucky, you will see the top edge of the sun turn green for a brief moment, before disappearing below the horizon.

Jules Verne's 1882 novel "Le Rayon Vert" (The Green Ray) popularized the green flash, described as "a green which no artist could ever obtain on his palette, a green of which neither the varied tints of vegetation nor the shades of the most limpid sea could ever produce the like! If there is a green in Paradise, it cannot be but of this shade, which most surely is the true green of Hope".

Be careful.  Even with the sun low in the sky, concentrated observation with the naked eye can cause damage to your eyesight.

In addition, I have added other images in a folder of like kind in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Moku‘ula – Lāhainā, Maui

Moku‘ula is the site of the private residential complex of King Kamehameha III from 1837 to 1845, when Lāhainā was the capital of the kingdom of the Hawaiian Islands.

The site is a traditional home for Maui royalty, noted as being the site of King Pi‘ilani’s residence in the sixteenth century.

Almost the entire site, which consisted of fishponds, fresh water springs, islands, causeways, retaining walls, beach berms, residential and mortuary buildings, was buried under a couple feet of coral and soil fill in 1914.

Under a County Park for over a century, the site is in the process of being uncovered and eventually restored by the Friends of Moku‘ula and others.

Although most widely associated with the period of Kamehameha III, the site appears to be a place of traditional Native Hawaiian cultural significance.  The islet of Moku‘ula, located in the fishpond of Mokuhinia, was a sacred place protected by royal kapu (taboo).

According to Kamakau, it was considered a grotto of a royal protector deity named Kihawahine or Mokuhinia, who traditionally swam through the surrounding fishpond of Mokuhinia in the form of a giant lizard (mo‘o.)

The goddess was a deified princess, daughter of Maui king Pi‘ilani of the sixteenth century, whose family resided at the site.

Kamehameha I, upon his conquest of Maui in the late eighteenth century, adopted this deity.  His sons and successors, Kamehameha II and III, were of the indigenous Maui royal family through their mother, Keōpūolani.

The lizard goddess Kihawahine ranked in no small part as the guardian of the succeeding Kamehameha dynasty that was in the process of unifying the archipelago.

A continuing association of religious function, as a shrine to Kihawahine, continued at this site from the days of Pi‘ilani to the establishment of the royal residence by Kamehameha III.

Archaeological and historical investigations demonstrate that the surrounding Loko Mokuhinia pond was the site of indigenous Hawaiian aquaculture and pondfield (taro lo‘i) agriculture.

The royal complex established by King Kamehameha III in the early nineteenth century consisted of a large (over 120-feet by about 40-feet,) two-story western style coral block ‘palace,’ “Hale Piula,” on the beachfront of the site (intact from 1840 to 1858).

Due to lack of funds, however, it was never entirely completed and only rarely used, and then only for state receptions or meetings of the legislature.

Located immediately to the east of this coral block building was the large fishpond Mokuhinia containing a one-acre island linked by a short causeway from Hale Piula.

On this sacred island of Moku'ula was a cluster of traditional grass houses (hale pili) that were used as a secluded, private residence for the king and his household from 1837 to 1845.

The island of Moku'ula was surrounded by a stone retaining wall, and the causeway to Hale Piula was guarded by a gate with sentries during this particular historic period.

The king's beloved sister, Princess Nāhi‘ena‘ena, was buried at Moku‘ula in early 1837. Grief-stricken, the king decided to live next to his sister's tomb for the next eight years.

Archaeological subsurface excavations have ascertained that portions, if not most, of the encompassing retaining wall of Moku'ula is still intact beneath about 3-feet of soil and coral fill.

Other important features discovered include a preserved wooden pier that extended from the eastern shore of the island into Mokuhinia pond, postholes that might date from the period of Kamehameha Ill's residence, and cut-and-dressed basalt blocks from near the tomb area.

The focal point of the complex, however, was a large stone building used as a combination residence and mausoleum.  It was built on Moku‘ula in 1837 to house the remains of the king's sacred mother, sister, his children and other close members of the royal family.

Bernice Pauahi Bishop, last legal descendent of the Kamehameha dynasty, had the royal remains moved from Moku‘ula to the churchyard at adjacent Waine‘e Church (Wai‘oli Church) ca. 1884.

The Friends of Moku‘ula are in the process of restoring Moku‘ula, with the goal of eventually including a Native Hawaiian cultural center.  It is becoming a reality.

This project has got to be one of the most exciting restoration efforts in a very long time, and a very long time to come.  Beneath a County Park in Lāhainā is one of Hawai‘i’s most historical and sacred treasures.

Keep an eye on this, because this is a waaay cool thing.

Find out more here (and join and/or contribute to the cause:) The image is a rendering of the restored Moku‘ula site and surrounding Lahaina.  In addition, I have included other images and maps in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Monday, October 22, 2012


Kaumuali‘i was the only son of Queen Kamakahelei and her husband, Aliʻi Kāʻeokūlani (Kā‘eo;) he was born in 1778 at Holoholokū, a royal birthing heiau specifically designated for the birth of high ranking children.

When Vancouver was anchored off Waimea, Kaua‘i, he became interested in Kaumuali‘i, who was then about twelve years old.  Vancouver found the child quiet and polite and good-tempered.  He was interested in the new things which he saw, and asked intelligent questions.

When Vancouver made his second visit, he brought sheep as a present to the young chief.  Kaumuali‘i entertained him with a dance of six-hundred women.

Kaumuali‘i kept up his interest in foreigners.  They were his friends and taught him to read and write.  Kaumuali‘i sent his son Humehume (Prince George) to America to be educated.  (The young Prince later returned to the islands with the first party of American missionaries, in 1820.)

Kaumuali‘i became ruling chief of Kaua‘i upon the death of his father Kā‘eo.

In 1784 Kamehameha I began a war of conquest, and, by 1795, with his superior use of modern weapons and western advisors, he subdued all other chiefdoms, with the exception of Kaua‘i.

King Kamehameha I launched his first invasion attempt on Kaua‘i in April of 1796, having already conquered the other Hawaiian Islands, and having fought his last major battle at Nu‘uanu on O‘ahu in 1795.

Kaua‘i’s opposing factions (Kaumuali‘i versus Keawe) were extremely vulnerable as they had been weakened by fighting each other (Keawe died and Kaumuali‘i was, ultimately, ruler of Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau.)

About one-fourth of the way across the ocean channel between O‘ahu and Kaua‘i, a storm thwarted Kamehameha’s warriors when many of their canoes were swamped in the rough seas and stormy winds, and then were forced to turn back.

Kamehameha’s second attempt was thwarted, again, when an epidemic, thought to be typhoid or dysentery, swept through the population, killing thousands.  The sickness delayed for a second time Kamehameha’s goal of conquering Kaua‘i.

In a renewed effort for a large-scale attack on Kaua‘i, Kamehameha began assembling a formidable armada of sailing ships in Waikīkī, using foreigners to construct the vessels.  The invasion never took place.

In the face of the threat of a further invasion, in 1810, at Pākākā on Oʻahu, negotiations between King Kaumuali‘i and Kamehameha I took place and Kaumualiʻi yielded to Kamehameha.

The agreement marked the end of war and thoughts of war across the islands.  Although Kaumuali‘i had ceded Kaua‘i and Niʻihau to Kamehameha I, he generally maintained de facto independence and control of the island following his agreement with Kamehameha.

It is believed that in 1816 Kaumuali‘i considered it possible for him to claim rule over Kaua‘i, Ni‘ihau, O‘ahu, Maui, Moloka‘i and Lāna‘i, if he had Russian support.  The Russians meanwhile were searching compensation for lost trade goods, as well as expanded trading opportunities.

Kaumuali‘i and Russian representative Georg Anton Schäffer had several agreements to bring Kaua‘i under the protection of Russia, as well as weapons and ammunition from Schäffer, in exchange for trade in sandalwood.  While agreements were made, subsequent battles never took place.

After King Kamehameha I died in 1819, Kaumuali‘i pledged his allegiance to Liholiho, Kamehameha's son and successor.  In 1821, Liholiho (King Kamehameha II) anchored his royal ship Ha‘aheo o Hawai‘i (Pride of Hawai‘i) in Waimea Bay, and invited Kaumuali‘i aboard.

After boarding the ship Kaumuali‘i was effectively taken as a prisoner and the ship sailed for O‘ahu.  Kaumuali‘i settled in Honolulu and became a husband of Ka‘ahumanu, widow of Kamehameha I.

Hiram Bingham was on a preaching tour of the island of Kaua‘i in 1824, shortly before King Kaumuali‘i died.  Kaumuali‘i had been living on Oahu for three years.  Bingham spoke to him just before coming to Kaua‘i.

Bingham writes:
“We found Kaumuali‘i seated at his desk, writing a letter of business.  We were forcible and pleasantly struck with the dignity and gravity, courteousness, freedom and affection with which he rose and gave us his hand, his hearty aloha, and friendly parting smile, so much like a cultivated Christian brother.”

When the king died, Bingham said a gloom fell over Kaua‘i.  Kaumuali‘i was buried at Waine‘e Church (Wai‘ola Church,) on Maui.

After Kaumuali‘i's death his son Humehume tried to seize the throne by leading a rebellion on Kauaʻi, but he was defeated and sent to O‘ahu, where he could be watched.

King Kaumuali‘i’s granddaughter Kapiʻolani (1834–1899) married King Kalākaua.

The image is the Mahiole (feather helmet) reportedly to be the gift from Kamehameha I to King Kaumualiʻi for agreeing to peaceful settlement; Kamehameha is said to have given Kaumuali‘i the mahiole, malo and some ‘ahu‘ula (feather capes.)

I have added some other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Sunday, October 21, 2012

ʻIolani School

In 1862, following a plea from King Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma to the Church of England, the first Anglican (Episcopalian) bishop and priests arrived to establish the Diocese of Honolulu.

In addition to Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma initiating the Cathedral of St. Andrew, they also founded two schools; ʻIolani School, which began as St. Alban’s School for boys.  Later, St. Andrew’s Priory for girls was founded.  ʻIolani is now coeducational, while the Priory remains a school for girls.

By 1863, Father William R. Scott had secured property and begun Luaʻehu School in Lāhainā, Maui (on the site where King Kamehameha III School now stands.)  This was the beginning of the present ʻIolani School.  When Father Scott returned to England, Father George Mason came to relieve him.

In 1870, when Bishop Staley left Honolulu, Father Mason was called back to the capital city.  It was at this time that the school was transferred to Honolulu.  In the same year, Queen Emma bestowed on the school the name “ʻIolani,” or Heavenly Hawk.

In Honolulu, it started at the Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew; but as the pupils increased in numbers, it was found necessary to remove to more spacious and better adapted premises a mile out of Honolulu.

In September 1927, ‘Iolani School opened on a five-acre Nu‘uanu campus where 278 boys, including 32 boarders, were enrolled.

The athletic field bordered Nu‘uanu Stream and, while 400 feet long, was still not wide enough for official football games.  Some of the buildings were Staley Hall, Iaukea Hall and Willis Hall.

But, foreseeing that ‘Iolani would eventually outgrow this location, the school purchased a parcel on the Ala Wai Canal, in 1938.  World War II intervened before construction could begin on the new campus.

On November 12, 1946, ‘Iolani began classes for the first through sixth grades at the Ala Wai campus in buildings erected by the Army.  Seventh through twelfth grade classes continued at the Nu'uanu campus.

Then, in 1953, ‘Iolani had completely relocated to the 25-acre Ala Wai site.

In 1979, after 115 years as a boys school, ‘Iolani went co-educational, when 87 pioneering girls enrolled in the school.

Over the decades, buildings were added, enrollment enlarged and ‘Iolani School has grown to be one of Hawai‘i’s leading educational institutions.

Overall class size varies depending on grade.  There are approximately 70 students per grade in kindergarten through 5th grade and 120 students in 6th grade. Overall, there are 540 students in the Lower School.

Kindergarten classes have a pupil-teacher ratio of 12:1.  Grades 4 - 6 are departmentalized and students report to different teachers for their classes.  Lower School students also receive specialized instruction from PE, dance, music, art, computer, science and religion teachers.

The goal for the Upper School is 1,315 students, with 180 students in 7th grade, 195 in 8th, 240 in 9th and 230 - 235 in 10th - 12th.  The average class size is 17; the student-teacher ratio throughout the school is 8:1.

The Lower School is situated at the Diamond Head end of the 25-acre campus and encompasses the primary (K-3) and elementary (4-6) grades.  The Upper School includes grades 7 - 12 and is located on the Ewa side of campus.

All students share the use of the pool, gyms and fields.  The lower and upper schools have separate library, dance and computer facilities.

'Iolani retains its Episcopal tradition; all students are required to attend weekly Chapel services. Students also attend religion classes to gain insight into other faiths and cultures.

The image shows St. Alban’s College in Honolulu (1866,) a forerunner to the present-day ‘Iolani School.  In addition, I have added other images of ‘Iolani School in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Saturday, October 20, 2012

Waiʻoli Mission District

The first mission station on Kauaʻi was established at Waimea on the more accessible south coast in 1820. In 1834, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions sent the Reverend William P. Alexander to investigate the north coast of Kauaʻi for a suitable location for a second station.

He chose the Hanalei area because of its harbor, fertile soil and needs of the people. The actual site was called Waiʻoli, "Singing Waters".

The Waiʻoli Mission District consists of the main Waiʻoli Mission Residence (1836,) the old Waiʻoli Huiʻia Church (1841,) the new Waiʻoli Huiʻia Church (1912) and related improvements.

Rev. Alexander and his wife and son moved there in 1834 and began work immediately, preaching to hundreds of islanders in a huge thatched meeting house, while living in a small grass hut.

The Alexanders carried on alone with their work until 1837 when the Board of Commissioners sent a teaching couple, Mr. and Mrs. Edward Johnson, to the mission. In the meantime, the Alexanders built a frame house for their growing family.

To help make ends meet, the mission planted crops in land donated by the Governor of Kauaʻi. The students helped cultivate the crops, and in so doing, learned agricultural techniques. Cotton was tried without much success. Sugar cane proved much more suitable.

As the center of mission activities on the Hanalei side of Kauai, Waiʻoli Church and Mission House played an important role in the history of that part of the island.

Deborah Kapule, the dowager Queen of Kauaʻi and an earnest convert, assisted in establishing the Mission. Governor Kaikioewa of Kauaʻi provided the land and encouraged the Mission in many ways.

The Old Waiʻoli Huiʻia Church is actually the third church built on its site. The first was a huge thatch structure built by the local populace when they heard that a permanent missionary was to be sent to them.

It was constructed in 1832, but destroyed by fire in 1834, just prior to the arrival of the Rev. William Alexander. He immediately built another similar structure, but it was destroyed by a storm in 1837. In 1841, Rev. Alexander dedicated the present Old Waiʻoli Huiʻia Church; it is the oldest church on the Island of Kauaʻi.

In 1843, the Alexanders were transferred to the Lāhainā station due to illness and the Rev. and Mrs. George Rowell took their place.

In 1846, Rev. Rowell and his wife were transferred to Waimea. Mr. and Mrs. Abner Wilcox and their four boys were sent from Oʻahu to take over the teaching duties. Mr. Wilcox was to "raise up teachers for the common schools of the island and to prepare those who may go from our Island to the High School".

In 1853, the American Board finally transferred the Sandwich Islands Mission to the Hawaiian Evangelical Association, which had the status of a "home mission". To round out the missionaries' pensions, the American Board divided mission lands among them.

In this manner, the Waiʻoli home was deeded to the Wilcox family. They had decided to make their home in Hawaiʻi rather than return to the mainland. However, in 1869, while on a visit to relatives in New England, Mr. and Mrs. Wilcox suddenly fell ill and died.

The sons took over the Waiʻoli property, managing the farm operation and keeping the buildings in good repair. Albert Wilcox was the last to live in the frame house, moving out in 1877.

The sons went on to become some of the most prominent figures in Hawaii. George N. Wilcox became a highly successful sugar planter on Kauaʻi and entered politics.

He was elected to the legislature. In 1887, he was elected to the House of Nobles, and after Kalākaua's death, was appointed Minister of the Interior by Queen Liliuokalani.

After the fall of the monarchy, he served the Republic of Hawaiʻi in the constitutional convention, and later, in the Senate. All the while, he continued his sugar operations at the Grove Farm Plantation on Kauaʻi, as well as participating in various other enterprises.  The other Wilcox boys also played important parts in monarchy, Republic and Territorial commerce and politics.

In 1912, the current church building was built with donations from Sam, George and Albert Wilcox (sons of the missionary couple who were born at the station). The old 1841 church was used as the Mission Hall. The old mission bell was used in the belfry.

In 1921, Wilcox descendants funded architect Hart Wood to restore the Mission House and the Mission Hall. By 1945, it merged with the Anini Church and the Haʻena Church to become the Huiʻia Church.

Having survived two previous hurricanes, Hurricane Dot and Hurricane Iwa, both the Waiʻoli Huiʻia Church Sanctuary and the Waiʻoli Mission Hall were restored after sustaining significant damage from Hurricane Iniki in 1992. Both buildings are listed on the state and national registers of historic places.

The Waiʻoli Huiʻia Church has had a continuous record of service since 1834, first as a Congregational Church and since 1957 as a United Church of Christ.

The image shows the Waiʻoli Huiʻia Church and Waiʻoli Mission Hall in Hanalei.  In addition, I have included other images of these and associated buildings in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Friday, October 19, 2012

Caste Social Structure

During the period from about AD 1400 to European contact, Hawaiian society underwent a transformation from descent-based (its ancestral Polynesian system) to a state-like society.

The structure that came to characterize Hawaiian society - consisting of a high upper class supported by an underprivileged lower class - was somewhat suggestive of ancient Mediterranean and Asian civilizations, as well as of medieval Europe.

The Hawaiian concept of the universe embodied the interrelationship of the gods, man and nature. The former, although the ultimate controlling influence in this system, granted their direct descendants - the royalty - control over the land, the sea and their resources.

"The condition of the common people was that of subjection to the chiefs, compelled to do their heavy tasks, burdened and oppressed, some even to death. The life of the people was one of patient endurance, of yielding to the chiefs to purchase their favor. The plain man (kanaka) must not complain."  (Malo)

At the time of European contact in 1778, Hawaiian society comprised four levels.  People were born into specific social classes; social mobility was not unknown, but it was extremely rare.  The Kapu System separated Hawaiian society into four groups of people:

Aliʻi, the ruling class of chiefs and nobles (kings, high chiefs, low chiefs) considered to be of divine origin who ruled specific territories and who held their positions on the basis of family ties and leadership abilities - the chiefs were thought to be descendants of the gods;

Kahuna, the priests (who conducted religious ceremonies at the heiau and elsewhere) and master craftsmen (experts in medicine, religion, technology, natural resource management and similar areas) who ranked near the top of the social scale

Makaʻainana, commoners  (the largest group) those who lived on the land - primarily laborers, farmers, fishermen, and the like; they labored not only for themselves and their families, but to support the chiefs; and

Kauwa (or Kauā), social outcasts, "untouchables" — possibly lawbreakers or war captives, who were considered "unclean" or kapu. Their position was hereditary, and they were attached to "masters" in some sort of servitude status. Marriage between higher castes and the kauwa was strictly forbidden.

"As to why in ancient times a certain class of people were ennobled and made into aliis, and another class into subjects (kanaka), why a separation was made between chiefs and commoners, has never been explained." (Malo)

The aliʻi attained high social rank in several ways: by heredity, by appointment to political office, by marriage or by right of conquest. The first was determined at birth, the others by the outcomes of war and political processes.

"The chiefs were anxious also to preserve the pure blood of their class by arranging marriages between chiefs and chiefesses. ... The mating to a sister or near relative, which was not permitted to lesser chiefs or the relatives of chiefs, was considered desirable between very high chiefs in order to produce children of divine rank who carried the sacred fire (ahi) tabu. Such a mating was for the purpose of bearing children, but the two need not become man and wife. Thus the chiefs multiplied, thrived, grew, and spread out over the land; but today we are taught that such practices are wrong."  (Kamakau)

"The makaainana were the fixed residents of the land; the chiefs were the ones who moved about from place to place.  It was the makaainanas also who did all the work on the land; yet all they produced from the soil belonged to the chiefs; and the power to expel a man from the land and rob him of his possessions lay with the chief." (Malo)

Power and prestige, and thus class divisions, were defined in terms of mana.  Although the gods were the full embodiment of this sacredness, the royalty possessed it to a high degree because of their close genealogical ties to those deities.

The kahuna ratified this relationship by conducting ceremonies of appeasement and dedication on behalf of the chiefs, which also provided ideological security for the commoners who believed the gods were the power behind natural forces.

"If the people were slack in doing the chief's work they were expelled from their lands, or even put to death. For such reasons as this and because of the oppressive exactions made upon them, the people held the chiefs in great dread and looked upon them as gods." (Malo)

"Only a small portion of the kings and chiefs ruled with kindness; the large majority simply lorded it over the people.  It was from the common people, however, that the chiefs received their food and their apparel for men and women, also their houses and many other things."  (Malo)

Commoners possessed little mana and were therefore prohibited from entering any of the sacred places where aliʻi and gods communicated, such as the heiau in which the upper class honored their gods. Outcasts, with no mana, could interact with commoners but not approach the upper class.

"The commoners were the most numerous class of people in the nation, and were known as the ma-ka-aina-na; another name by which they were called was hu (hu, to swell, multiply, increase like yeast.)"  (Malo)

As Handy states: "It is evident that kapu determined and regulated the three castes. For the aliʻi (and kahuna,) the kapu of sanctity was at once a wall of protection and the source of prestige and authority. The same kapu determined for the commoners their social and economic relationship to, and their reverential attitude towards their overlords. As for the kauwa, their segregation and exclusion from the social organism was due to a kapu of defilement."

This social structure was reinforced by the kapu, the Hawaiian religious, political and social structure that lasted for 500-years.  (Lots of information here from an NPS report, as well as others, as noted.)  The painting is by Herb Kane – “Council of Chiefs.”

Thursday, October 18, 2012

Sands of Time

Waikīkī is a ‘built’ beach.

Over the last 100-years it has been built primarily in two ways, (1) construction of walls and groins in the nearshore waters and (2) beach nourishment/replenishment (adding sand to the beach.)

Between 1913-1919, the majority of Waikīkī had seawalls; they were placed to protect roadways and new buildings.  The beach was lost fronting Kūhiō and Queen’s Beach.

In 1927, the Territorial Legislature authorized Act 273 allowing the Board of Harbor Commissioners to rebuild the eroded beach at Waikīkī.  By 1930, the Board of Harbor Commissioners reported on construction progress, which included 11 groins along a portion of the shoreline.

Then, they started adding sand to Waikīkī Beach.

Reports from the 1920s and 1930s reveal that sand was brought in to Waikīkī Beach, via ship and barge, from Manhattan Beach, California.
As the Manhattan Beach community was developing, it found that excess sand in the beach dunes and it was getting in the way of development there.  At the same time, folks in Hawai‘i were in need for sand to cover the rock and coral beach at Waikīkī.

Kuhn Bros. Construction Co supplied the sand; they would haul the sand up from Manhattan Beach, load it onto railroad cars, have it transported to the harbor in San Pedro and shipped by barge or ship to Hawai‘i.

Later, Waikīkī’s sand was trucked from various points around Hawai‘i including O‘ahu’s North Shore - in particular, Waimea Bay Beach, a sand bar off the town of Kahuku and Papōhaku Beach on Moloka‘i.

Reportedly, before sand mining operations removed over 200,000 tons of sand at Waimea Bay to fill beaches in Waikīkī and elsewhere, there was so much sand that if you would have tried to jump off Pōhaku Lele, Jump Rock, you would have jumped about six feet down into the sand below.

A formal application for a cooperative study regarding beach erosion in Waikīkī was made by the Board of Harbor Commissioners, Territory of Hawaii in 1948.

The intent of the Waikīkī Beach Erosion Control Project, which was the responsibility of the Army Corps of Engineers, was to increase beach land, improve access to beaches, and to prevent further erosion of beach sand.

The Waikīkī Beach Erosion Control Project was initiated in response.  This project initiated what would turn out to be a 50-year series of attempts to restore Waikīkī Beach.

Since 1929, about 616,500 cubic yards of sand have been used to enlarge and replenish Waikīkī Beach between Fort DeRussy and Kūhiō Beach, but every year more erodes away.  Little sand has been added since the 1970s, according to the DLNR.

When I was at DLNR, we initiated a demonstration project to move near shore sand back on to the beach.

In 2006, DLNR spent $500,000 to siphon 10,000 cubic yards of offshore sand – this was the largest replenishment effort of Waikīkī’s beaches in more than 30 years.

It worked; then, a larger project was implemented.

Early in 2012, a larger-scale replenishment project pumped sand from 2,000 feet off Waikīkī to fill in the shrinking beach.

The 2006 demonstration project and recent (2012) larger scale replenishment were really recycling projects, because the sand now settled offshore was brought in years ago to fill out the beach.

The image shows the before and after of the 2006 beach replenishment demonstration project we conducted while I was at DLNR.  In addition, I have included other images of Waikīkī over the years, as well as other images of the replenishment projects of 2006 and 2012 in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Hawaiʻi's First Skyscraper - The Stangenwald Building

At six stories, the Stangenwald building was considered Hawaii's first skyscraper and one of the most prestigious addresses in Honolulu.

Designed by noted architect Charles William Dickey, construction of the steel-frame and brick building began in 1900 and the building was completed in 1901.

The Stangenwald Building melds Italian Renaissance Revival elements and a hint of the Romanesque Revival Style with arched windows, terra cotta ornaments, and a wide balcony with fine grillwork above the entrance.

Dr. Hugo Stangenwald, the "student revolutionist, Austrian émigré, able practicing physician, and recognized early-day daguerreotype artist (photographic process,)” left Austria in March 1845. After living in California, he arrived in Honolulu in 1853. He married the former Mary Dimond in 1854.

He opened a shop in late-1854 in a one-story frame structure on the site of the present Stangenwald building. His advertisement was well-known: "To send to them that precious boon, And have your picture taken soon, And quick their weeping eyes they'll wipe To smile upon your daguerreotype."

Stangenwald bought the Merchant Street property in 1869 and formed a partnership with his fellow-physician neighbor, Dr. Judd.

In January, 1899, Stangenwald leased his property to a hui, a limited partnership firm which was to lease his property from him and erect a building there to match the quality of the Judd Building (1898) next door.

Though the project was named for the well-known physician and photographer, Stangenwald had little to do with it.  He died in June of that year.

The hui sold its interest in the land to the Pacific Building Company, newly formed to finance the project.

The building's earliest occupants were lawyers, many of whom were in the hui and so had a vested interest in the building, so that early conceptions of the building included a law library and a Business Men's Club, though neither were realized in the final building.

The Stangenwald Building's steel frame supported a decorative structure, "with dark terra cotta and pressed metal trimmings and cornice, massive in design yet promising a pleasing effect. This building is of the most modern style of fire-proof architecture, designed with completeness of office conveniences equal to that of any city."

Honolulu's business community seemed to agree, for its prestigious address was claimed by several of Honolulu's most prominent company names: The Henry Waterhouse Trust Company, BF Dillingham, Castle and Cooke, Alexander & Baldwin and C Brewer Companies.

It was part of downtown redevelopment plan and construction boom in the wake of the terrible Chinatown fire that destroyed blocks of buildings in 1900.

The Stangenwald remained the tallest structure until 1950, when the seven-story Edgewater Hotel in Waikīkī took over that title.

The building defined Honolulu's skyline for more than 60 years and it was not until the 19-story First National Bank of Hawaiʻi Building was constructed in 1962 that Honolulu's downtown would break the six-story mark (the only exceptions being the spires of Aloha Tower (1926) and Honolulu Hale (1929.))

Renovated periodically throughout its life - including alterations to the original ornate cornice, the Stangenwald was the subject of a major rehabilitation in 1980.

Today, the building is home to several architectural firms and the American Institute of Architects (founded in 1926, with Dickey as its inaugural president.)

The image shows The Stangenwald Building in its early years.  In addition I have included other images and maps in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Tuesday, October 16, 2012

Hōlua – Keauhou, Hawai‘i

Certain pastimes were restricted to the chiefs, the most spectacular being hōlua sledding.  A track of rock, layered with earth and made slippery with grass, was made for tobogganing on a narrow sled.

Hōlua sledding was the most dangerous sport practiced in Hawai‘i.  The rider lies prone on a sled the width of a ski and slides down a chute made of lava rock.

The sled or papa consisted of two narrow and highly polished runners (three inches apart,) from 7- to 18-feet in length, and from two to three inches deep.    The papa hōlua (canoe sled) is a reflection of the double-hulled canoe.

The two runners were fastened together by a number of short pieces of woods varying in length from two to five inches, laid horizontally across the runners.

“Coasting down slopes... Sliding on specially constructed sleds was practiced only in Hawaii and New Zealand,” wrote historian Kenneth Emory. “The Maori sled, however, was quite different from the Hawaiian... One of the Hawaiian sleds, to be seen in [the] Bishop Museum, is the only complete ancient sled in existence.”

“The narrowness and the convergence of the runners toward the front should be noticed. Coasting on these sleds was a pastime confined to the chiefs and chieftesses.”

The Reverend Hiram Bingham provides a descriptive account of this sport: “In the presence of the multitude, the player takes in both hands, his long, very narrow and light built sled, made for this purpose alone, the curved ends of the runners being upward and forward, as he holds it, to begin the race.”

“Standing erect, at first, a little back from the head of the prepared slippery path, he runs a few rods to it, to acquire the greatest momentum, carrying his sled, then pitches himself, head foremost, down the declivity, dexterously throwing his body, full length, upon his vehicle, as on a surf board.”

“The sled, keeping its rail or grassway, courses with velocity down the steep, and passes off into the plain, bearing its proud, but prone and headlong rider, who scarcely values his neck more than the prize at stake.”

The primary archaeological feature of Keauhou was its monumental Holua Slide, a stone ramp nearly one mile in length that culminated at He‘eia Bay.

In 1913, H.W. Kinney published a visitor’s guide to the island of Hawai‘i, including descriptions of the land at the time, historical accounts of events, and descriptions of sites and practices that might be observed by the visitor. At Keauhou, he notes, “Mauka of the village is seen the most famous papa hōlua in the Islands, a wide road-like stretch, which was laid with grass steeped in kukui-nut oil so as to allow the prince and his friends to coast down in their sleighs constructed for the purpose.”

The Keauhou hōlua is the largest and best-preserved hōlua course.  The remains are about 1290 feet long of the original that was over 4000 feet long.  When in use, it was covered in dirt and wet grass to make it slippery.

Contestants reached treacherous speeds on their narrow sleds by adding thatching and mats to make the holua slippery.  When the waves were large, crowds would gather on a stone platform at He‘eia Bay to watch as hōlua contestants raced against surfers to a shoreline finish.

A portion of the hōlua is visible on Alii Drive, directly mauka (inland) of the golf clubhouse entrance.

Kekahuna, who mapped and studied the Keauhou Hōlua notes, “The starting point is a narrow platform paved level, succeeded by a slightly declined crosswise platform 36-feet long by 29-feet wide, and is followed by a series of steep descents that gave high speed to the holua sleds.”

“Great care seems to have been exercised in the building of this huge relic of the ancients.  Practically the whole slide is constructed of fairly large ‘a‘a rocks, filled in with rocks of medium and small-sized ‘a‘a.  The base walls on the north and south vary in height according to the contour of the land.  The width of the runway varies considerably.”

“The length of the slide, measured through the middle from the present lower end, is 3,682-feet.  It may have extended about 3,000-feet farther, as it is said that in ancient days the now missing lower part extended along the point north of Keauhou Bay nearly to the Protestant open chapel by beautiful He`eia Bay.  On completion of their slides the chiefs would have their close attendants (kahus) transport them and their surfboards by canoe to a point about a mile offshore and a little to the north, from where they would ride in He‘eia on the great waves of the noted surf of Kaulu.”

Kauikeauoli, born at Keauhou and later to become ruler of the entire island chain (as Kamehameha III,) was reportedly a great athlete and especially enjoyed hōlua sliding.

As Baker, in the 1916 Hawaiian Annual, wrote, “At Keauhou, on a pretty little bay part way between the other bays, is a well-preserved papa holua, a broad, well-built, undulating toboggan-like slide, built before his reign for Kamehameha III to slide down on sleds, with his friends, over the grass-covered slide made slippery with kukui-nut oil.”

“The slide used to pass out behind the chapel on the north arm of the bay. There the prince and his friends would take surf-boards and return by water to the head of the bay. After the prince had started the sport, others might slide as well. Originally, the slide was over a mile long, about three-quarters of a mile still being in good condition. It is fifty feet wide for the entire distance, and across one it is raised ten feet.”

There are other hōlua in the islands.  One, on Kaua‘i, has two slides crossing each other on a pu‘u, northwest of Kōloa; another is a well-preserved 400- to 500-foot long hōlua near Kapua, South Kona.

The image shows the hōlua at Keauhou, in addition, I have added some other holua images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

Monday, October 15, 2012

Bailey House, Wailuku, Maui

The Bailey House was originally built as a parsonage for the ministers of the Wailuku Church.  The house is a combination of four structures built between 1835 and 1850.

The original portion was built in 1833 by Reverend Jonathan Green and is a two-story lava stone structure measuring approximately 30’ x 20’ with 20” thick walls.  A high pitched gable roof is covered with wood shingles.

At about the same time (1833), a single story lava stone cookhouse was constructed slightly uphill from the living area.  The single room is dominated by a large fireplace and oven flush with the interior wall.  The mass of the oven structure projects beyond the north wall.

The lower floor is built partially into the side of a hill with the walls retaining the earth on the uphill side.

In 1837 a single story lava stone structure with a basement was built for Miss Ogden, a teacher for the girls' school in Wailuku.

Edward Bailey was a Protestant missionary from Holden, Massachusetts.  Prior to their marriage, Edward attended Amherst College and Caroline was a tailoress.

He and his wife Caroline Hubbard Bailey sailed from Boston on the barq, ‘Mary Frazier,’ on December 14, 1836.  They arrived in Honolulu April 9, 1837.

They were married only two weeks when they left Massachusetts.  Caroline was pregnant with son Edward upon their arrival in Hawaii.

Not long after their arrival, the couple was transferred to Wailuku to head the Wailuku Female Seminary in 1837.  The Seminary was the counterpart to the boy’s institution at Lahainaluna, serving some 50 girls age five to 12.

Seminary girls learned the traditional lessons in Hawaiian and were also taught to sew, spin and crochet. They also would work an hour a day in their own garden plots.

Bailey worked at the Wailuku Female Seminary in Maui from 1840 until its closure in 1849.  At that time he purchased a fee simple title to the Girls' boarding school, the house and lot, and began his interest in what was to become Wailuku Sugar Company.

As noted by Mary Brewster in 1847, “Mr. Bailey has a very fine house with a beautiful garden handsomely laid and of considerable extent. T he most beautiful place I have ever seen.”

“All kinds of trees such as the fig, banana, guava, citron and a number of our own species which he is trying to cultivate. Flowers of all kinds which will grow here with exotics, vines, and shrubs, all displaying much taste in their arrangements.”

Because of his growing family, Bailey added two rooms upstairs in 1850 and had the entire house re-roofed.

After the seminary closed, he built the still-standing Ka'ahumanu Church in Wailuku and operated a small sugar plantation.  He designed and built a water powered mill for sugar and wheat in Wailuku.  The business developed into the Wailuku Sugar Company.  He was also an active participant in starting the Haiku Sugar Company.

Over his years in Hawaiʻi, Baily taught music.  He aided in the practice of medicine, although he had no medical degree.  He created the girls school in Makawao known as Maunaʻolu Seminary.

He surveyed native kuleana and built the first bridge over the Wailuku River.  He designed the Lahainaluna token currency.

He began painting about 1865, at the age of 51, without any formal instruction; he was the most accomplished of the missionary artists in Hawaii.  He painted landscapes in oil.

Edward and Caroline lived in their Wailuku home for 50-years, then they and their sons (other than Edward Jr. who was married to Emily Kania) moved to California in 1885, possibly 1888.

At the time of his death in 1903 Edward Sr. was the oldest living missionary sent to Hawaii between 1820 - 1850 by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions .

The Bailey House is now the Maui Historical Society’s Hale Hō‘ike‘ike (House of Display) showcasing Hawaiian history and culture, as well as paintings and furnishings from nineteenth-century Maui.

The image shows the Bailey House; in addition, I had added other images of the property in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

© 2012 Hoʻokuleana LLC