Monday, September 30, 2013

This Was a Place of Peace

Puʻuhonua is a Hawaiian designation for a land of refuge or sanctuary, stemming from early Polynesian cultural traditions. Each Hawaiian island had several puʻuhonua. Christian missionaries to the Sandwich Islands noted the similarity of puʻuhonua to ancient Hebrew "cities of refuge," a function assigned to church buildings in western religion.

A decree by Queen Kaʻahumanu, before her death in 1832, re-established Maui puʻuhonua grounds which had existed from prehistoric times, one of which was Olowalu Valley.

Between 1-million and almost 2-million years ago, lava from Puʻu Kukui formed the fifteen-mile long West Maui mountain ridge. It was named Puʻu Laina in Lāhainā and called Kahalawai in Wailuku.

Olowalu Ahupuaʻa begins atop Pu'u Kukui at the 4,457-foot elevation; it is directly behind the head of ʻIao Valley in Wailuku. From this narrow point its boundaries trace downhill through Olowalu upper valley.

In the fourteenth century, King Hua of Maui sent his men into the mountains of Olowalu to trap nesting ʻuaʻu birds; the mountains were thick with ʻiliahi, koa, kou and ʻōhiʻa and cloud drip was captured as the moist tradewinds blew through.  When the hills were cleared of sandalwood and other hardwoods in the early-1800s, Olowalu Valley is drier today than it was in the past.

Trails extended from the coast to the mountains; a trail known as the alanui or "King's trail" built by Kihapiʻilani, extended along the coast passing through all the major communities between Lāhainā and Makena.

A trail to Wailuku once ran near the top of Puʻu Kukui and continued back over the northeast wall into the head of ʻIao Valley; it was a land route between Wailuku and Olowalu, with the upper valley serving as a rest stop before attempting the crossing of the Olowalu mountains to ʻIao Valley.

In 1790, when Kamehameha conquered Maui at the Battle of Kepaniwai, defeated Maui ali'i escaped through Olowalu Pass and Olowalu Valley and fled by sea to Moloka'i and O'ahu.

At lower elevations, Olowalu valley opens up to a gently sloped, fanned alluvial plain.  Near the stream was wetland kalo (taro) cultivation, which incorporated pond fields and irrigation canals.  In areas where water was not as abundant, food crops such as sugar cane, banana, and sweet potato and material crops like kukui, wauke, ʻolona, pili and naio. were grown. Olowalu was known for dry-land taro and breadfruit groves.  Agriculture in this area of the island was believed to have started in about 1200-1400 AD.

Inshore lowlands of Olowalu and Ukumehame ahupua'a were once salt marsh habitats for nesting sea birds, shore birds, fish and mollusks. These wetlands supported native grasses and shrubs.

The name "Olowalu" translates to "a cluster of hills;" multiple cinder cones are common features of southwest rift zones on Hawaiian Islands.  Early Hawaiian planters and modem sugar growers quarried or leveled some of these in the process of farming. (In modem times, "split hill" in northern Olowalu was completely removed to Kāʻanapali Beach for the construction of their executive golf course; only the tip of the hill makai of the highway remains.)

"Olowalu" is also a Hawaiian verb/adjective, used to describe a number of sounds occurring at once, or a din, such as drums beating, dogs barking, or chickens crowing at the sun. La'amaikahiki, who is credited with bringing the drum to Hawai'i from Tahiti in the eleventh century, is called, "O ke ali'i ke olowalu a ka pahu a Hawai'i." "The ali'i is the rumble of Hawai'i's drums." Both definitions apply at Olowalu Valley.

Kaʻiwaloa Heiau ("the great 'ʻiwa" - 100 by 150-feet) served entire region from Ukumehame (to the south) to Kekaʻa on the north.) The ʻiwa bird frequented Olowalu, it is an aid to Polynesian navigators and is often pictured at the center of the navigators' sky compass. Kaʻiwaloa heiau faces south-southwest toward Kahoʻolawe and Ke Ala i Kahiki navigation lane to Tahiti.

Petroglyphs were inscribed and are still visible on the bare stone sides of a hill about a mile in from the highway past the present Olowalu Store. The figures are of several types and timeframes, including those of dogs, women, children and letters from the English alphabet.

In 1789, Simon Metcalf (captaining the Eleanora) and his son Thomas Metcalf (captaining the Fair American) were traders; their plan was to meet and spend winter in the Hawaiian Islands.  The Eleanora arrived in the islands first at Kohala on the island of Hawaiʻi.  After a confrontation with a local chief, Metcalf then sailed to the neighboring island of Maui to trade along the coast.

Captain Simon Metcalf anchored his trading ship the Eleanora off shore, probably at Makena Bay, to barter for necessary provisions.  Someone stole one of Metcalfe's small boats and killed a watchman. Captain Metcalfe fired his cannons into the village, and captured a few Hawaiians who told him the boat was taken by people from the village of Olowalu.

He sailed to Olowalu but found that boat had been broken up for its nails. (Nails were treasured like gems in ancient Hawaiʻi; they were used for fishhooks, adzes, drills, daggers and spear points.)   An enraged Metcalfe invited the villagers to meet the ship, indicating he wanted to trade with them.

However, he had all the cannons loaded and ready on the side where he directed the canoes to approach. When they opened fire, about one hundred Hawaiians were killed, and many others wounded.  Hawaiians referred to the slaughter as Kalolopahu, or spilled brains.

This tragedy, termed the Olowalu Massacre, set into motion a series of events which left two Western seamen and a ship (the Fair American) in the hands of Big Island chief Kamehameha.  John Young (off the Eleanora) and Isaac Davis (off the Fair American) befriended Kamehameha I and became respected translators and his close and trusted advisors.  They were instrumental in Kamehameha's military ventures and his ultimate triumph in the race to unite the Hawaiian Islands.

Kalola ruled the puʻuhonua of Olowalu and presided over Kaʻiwaloa Heiau. Kahekili, ruler of Maui, lived at Halekiʻi Heiau around 1765. This indicates the important spiritual, political and economic connection between ʻIao and Olowalu. Kalola was still ruling at Olowalu in 1790 when Simon Metcalf fired cannon on Honua'ula and Olowalu.

Several months after the massacre at Olowalu, Kalola watched the great Battle of Kepaniwai from a panoramic flat area in the back of ʻIao Valley.  Kamehameha stormed Maui with over twenty thousand men, and after several battles Maui troops retreated to ʻIao Valley. Kalola, her family and seven high chiefs of Maui escaped through the pass to Olowalu, where they boarded canoes for Molokaʻi and Oʻahu.

Commercial sugar is said to have started here by King Kamehameha V, who reigned from 1863 to 1872. The mill was probably constructed in the 1870s. Included with the mill was a 2-foot gauge railroad, a manager's house and 3 other plantation houses.

The plantation was incorporated as the Olowalu Sugar Company in May 1881 and eventually was sold to Pioneer Mill Company, Ltd. in 1931. Lands in Olowalu eventually became a part of the former Pioneer Mill lands until the closure of the mill in the late-1990s. Since then, much of the former sugar lands have laid fallow.  (Lots of information here from Olowalu Cultural Reserve.)

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Sunday, September 29, 2013


The name conjures up a variety of images – Pukui notes it refers to “two,” “toilet,” “equal” or “hole”/”pit.”

It also refers to a type of dangerous hand-to-hand combat in which the fighters broke bones, dislocated bones at the joints and inflicted severe pain by pressing on nerve centers.

That’s what this discussion is about.

Lua was a hand-to-hand system of combat based on the knowledge of anatomy to strike weak points of the human body.  Intended as a self-defense martial art, combatants injured or killed an opponent.  (Green)

“Huna na mea huna” (Keep secret what is sacred) - the art was exercised and taught by a few; it was not used or known by the broad community.

Lua incorporates numerous methods for combating an attacker, including hakihaki (bone breaking), hakoko (wresting), kuikui (punching), peku (kicking) and aalolo (nerve pressure.)  (Noonan)

The techniques included dislocating the fingers and toes, striking at nerve centers and hitting and kicking muscles in such a way to inflict paralysis; it included the use of weapons.  (Green)

Traditionally, only a small group of men were taught lua. The selected warriors practiced lua in secret, under the cover of darkness. They were usually a chief or a royal bodyguard who, during time of war, briefly trained the commoners and then lead them to battle. (OHA)

Reportedly, the secret of Lua was broken in 1917 when Henry Seishiro Okazaki learned Lua from a Hawaiian man on the big Island. Okazaki later converted the Lua he learned and transferred this into his Danzen Ryu System.

Solomon Kaihewalu’s name also comes up in the Lua combat discussion; he reportedly introduced lua into America in 1963.

Another name pops up as someone who was important in keeping the art alive.  Around 1974, Charles Kenn passed on his knowledge of the art to a handful of others – they in turn are teaching others.

(Kenn was later recognized by the Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawaiʻi as a Living Treasure of Hawaiʻi (he was the first to be recognized in the Hongwanji program, 1976.))

Traditional weapons in the lua practitioner’s hands included spears, daggers, clubs, slings, strangling ropes, shark tooth weapons and more.

Captain James Cook wrote about them: "They have a sort of weapon which we had never seen before, and not mentioned by any navigator, as used by the natives of the South Sea. It was somewhat like a dagger; in general, about a foot and a half long, sharpened at one or both ends, and secured to the hand by a string. Its use is to stab in close fight; and it seems well adapted to the purpose. Some of these may be called double daggers, having a handle in the middle with which they are better enabled to strike both ways."

Warriors, throughout history, primarily train to use weapons during battle. Hawaiian warriors utilized weapons (Mea – Kaua) offensively and defensively, in training or during actual battle, incuding (Reish:)
Ihe (short spear)
Pololu (long spear/javelin)
Pāhoa (wooden spike dagger)
Pāhoa ʻOilua (double bladed weapon)
Lei-o-mano (shark-tooth weapon)
La-au-palau (long war clubs)
Newa (short war club)
Pōhaku (stone hand club)
Pikoi ʻIkoi (tripping weapon)
Maʻa (sling)
Kaʻane (strangulation cord)
Ko'oko'o (cane)

Lua, then, was the general name for a type of hand-to-hand fighting which not only included hakihaki (bone-breaking), but combined ha'a (dance,) hakoko (wrestling,) mokomoko/kuʻi (boxing or punching,) peku (kicking,) aʻalolo (nerve pressure) to cause paralysis and also the use of weapons.  (Reish)

However, Hawaiian lua training encompasses far more than the master of blows, strikes, takedowns, holds, dodges and falls. It also included the game konane (similar to checkers), designed to teach strategic thinking. Additionally, lua involved lomilomi (massage) which was designed to enhance a lua warrior's performance in training or combat by keeping muscles from binding.  (Reish)

Hawaiian combat units of old consisted of groups of small squads, units and divisions. The squads and units were broken down into groups of 10, 20 and 30 warriors. A full division consisted of a total of 40 Koa. Each squad of 10 men were experts in several types of weapons they brought with them into combat.  (olohe)

A martial dance found in various styles throughout Polynesia is the haka or haʻa, an old word for hula. Lua incorporated the haka to develop grace, agility and strong leg muscles, necessary for battle. When dancing, the lua artists would lunge forward and back, dodge from side to side, and then whirl and pivot in unison to simulate combat. Their haka arm motions were actually lua strikes in disguise.  (Reish)

By 1790 Kamehameha had acquired guns, light cannon and an armed schooner, in addition to the advice and technical expertise of two European seamen, John Young and Isaac Davis; this changed the nature of combat and helped to lead to Kamehameha’s unification of the Islands.

The image shows some of the lua hand weapons (parker.)   In addition, I have included other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Saturday, September 28, 2013


Poʻolua is literally broken down as Poʻo (head) and lua (two) and refers to a child who has two fathers (the child is sired by other than the husband, but he is accepted by both the husband and the sire.)

A child said to be poʻolua, “that is, a child of two fathers, was considered a great honor by chiefs of that period.” (Luomala)

Kamehameha has been referred to as poʻolua (shared, two-headed) son of Keōua and Kahekili by his mother Kekuʻiapoiwa.  (VanDyke)

Kamakau references Kamehameha was born at Kokoiki in Kohala.  His father was Keōua, younger brother of Kalaniʻōpuʻu, and his mother was Kekuʻiapoiwa, daughter of Kekela and Haʻae, both of whom belonged to families of chiefs.

Kamakau explains that it was the custom from ancient times among the chiefs of Hawaiʻi for the chief of one island to give a child to the chief of another island. This is the reason why Kahekili has often been called the father of Kamehameha, for chiefs of Hawaii and Maui were closely related.  (Kamakau)

Kamehameha, who had always thought that Chief Keōua of the island of Hawaiʻi was his natural father until a few years after he conquered all the islands but Kauaʻi.  Dibble notes that when Keōua, the father of Kamehameha, died, he commended his son to the care of Kalaniʻōpuʻu, who received him, and treated him as his own child.

Per Kamakau’s account, in 1802, Kamehameha, on hearing that Chief Kameʻeiamoku was dying at Lāhainā, went to him.  Kameʻeiamoku had attended Kamehameha since his boyhood and was one of his four Kona Uncles who had engineered his rise to power and made him king.  Kameʻeiamoku (on his deathbed) said to Kamehameha, "I have something to tell you: Kahekili was your father, you were not Keōua's son. Here are the tokens that you are the son of Kahekili."  (Kamakau)

Kamehameha responded, “Strange that you should live all this time and only when dying tell me that I am Kahekili's son! Had you told me this before, my brothers need not have died; they could have ruled Maui while I ruled Hawaii."    (Kamakau)

Kameʻeiamoku answered, “That is not a good thought; had they lived there would have been constant warfare between you, but with you alone as ruler the country is at peace.”    (Kamakau)

Kahekili’s age is not accurately known, but as by all native accounts he was the reputed father of Kamehameha I.  (Fornander)

“Kamehameha was the reputed son of Keōua otherwise called Kalanikupuapaikalaninui, a younger half-brother of Kalaniopuʻu, king of Hawaiʻi. It is said, however, that Kamehameha was the real son of Kahekili, king of Maui and that Kahekili gave him the name of his brother which was Kamehameha.”   (Dibble)

Kalākaua notes, “To this record of the tangled relationships of the chiefly families of the group at that period may be added … that Kahekili, the mōʻi of Maui, was the real father of Kamehameha; and in proof of the latter the acts and admissions of Kahekili are cited.”

When Kamehameha prepared an invasion in east Maui, Kahekili sent his younger brother, Alapaʻi, with the following orders: "Go, and bestow our kingdom upon our son; and if he will receive it, well; but if he does not recognize me as his father and will not respect the gift, but insists upon war; then, tell him that both he and his soldiers shall die in their youth, before the going down of the sun.”  (Dibble)

“If, indeed he shall listen to my request, then, say to him, 'Wait, till the black tapa, shall cover me and my funeral rites shall be performed, then, come and receive his kingdom, without the peril of war,' - for indeed, he is my son, and from me he received his name Kamehameha after that of my elder brother." (Dibble)  Receiving the message, Kamehameha delayed his invasion.

Some say that Kekuʻiapoiwa had a liaison with Kahekili (ruler of Maui) and from this union was born Kamehameha.  Though Kahekili was thought to be his biological father, he was raised by his parents (and was considered the son of Kekuʻiapoiwa and Keōua.)

After Kahekili died, Fornander had an interesting perspective related to the relationships of the parties.  Fornander notes, “Kameʻeiamoku and his twin-brother Kamanawa secretly took Kahekili's body away and hid it in one of the caves at Kaloko in North Kona, Hawaii.”

Kameʻeiamoku and Kamanawa were the children of Kekaulike of Maui, and thus half-brothers of Kahekili.  The twins (Kameʻeiamoku and Kamanawa) were Chiefs from the Kohala and North Kona districts and were uncles of and his counselors in the wars to unite the islands.

This relationship receives further confirmation from the native legends when they relate that, on learning the birth of Kamehameha, Kahekili sent these two sons of his father Kekaulike to Hawaiʻi to be and act as "Kahus" to Kamehameha.  (Fornander)

“In no other way can the otherwise singular fact be explained that two of Kamehameha's oldest and most prominent and trusted councilor chiefs, during a time of what may be called suspended hostilities, should have repaired from Hawaii to Oahu for the purpose of securing and safely hiding (Huna-kele) the bones of Kamehameha's political rival; nor the otherwise equally inexplicable fact that they should have been permitted by Kalanikūpule, Kahekili's son and successor, to carry their design into effect.”  (Fornander)

Under the social system of the old regime, and of time-hallowed custom, Kamehameha would have had no power to prevent those chiefs from executing their pious errand, and Kalanikūpule would have had no motive to mistrust their honesty when resigning to them his father's remains; and a breach of trust on their part would have consigned them to an infamy of which Hawaiian history had no precedent, and so deep, that the Hawaiian language would not have had a word detestable enough wherewith to express it.  (Fornander)

“He was the reputed and accepted son of Keōua, the half-brother of Kalaniʻōpuʻu, although it was believed by many that his real father was Kahekili, mōʻi of Maui. But, however this may have been, he was of royal blood, and was destined to become not only the king of Hawaiʻi, but the conqueror and sovereign of the group. This chief was Kamehameha.”  (Kalākaua)

Kamehameha, through the assistance of the Kona "Uncles" (Keʻeaumoku, Keaweaheulu, Kameʻeiamoku & Kamanawa (the latter two ended up on the Island’s coat of arms;)) succeeded, after a struggle of more than ten years, in securing to himself the supreme authority over that island (and later, the entire Hawaiian Islands chain.)

The image shows Kamehameha (drawn by Choris in 1816.)  In addition, I have added other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Friday, September 27, 2013

George Charles Beckley

George Charles Beckley was known as “the English friend and military adviser of Kamehameha the Great.”  (Taylor)  Born in 1787, Beckley arrived in the Islands around 1804.  About 1813, he married Ahia Kalanikumaikiʻekiʻe.

Ahia was daughter of Kaha, a trusted friend of Kamehameha I, a warrior and Kahuna Kalaiwaʻa (a priest who superintended the building of canoes) and of Makaloa, daughter of Malulani (k) and of Kelehuna (w) of Puna, Hawaiʻi.  (Hawaiian Historical Society)

In preparation of Kamehameha’s conquest of the Islands, he ordered Kaha, “to build a war fleet to carry his invasion forces across the straits to the other islands. As each canoe was finished, to show the confidence he had in his skills, Kaha had his beautiful daughter Ahia ride each canoe on its sea trial."  (Dye)

Family traditions credit Beckley as being the designer of the Hawaiian Flag (other stories suggest the flag was designed by Alexander Adams, another trusted sea captain of Kamehameha - they may have designed it together (Adams later served as executor of Beckley’s estate and guardian of his children.))

The early Hawaiian flag looks much like the Hawaiʻi State flag of today, the apparent inspiration of the design being a melding of British and US flags, the most common foreign flags seen in Hawaiian waters at the time.

The original design had stripes (like the US flag) representing the eight major islands under one sovereign and the British Union Jack, representing the friendly relationship between England and Hawai‘i.

At the birth of the princess Nahiʻenaʻena (Kamehameha’s daughter) at Keauhou, Kona, in 1815, Beckley was made a high chief by Kamehameha, so that he might with impunity enter the sacred precinct, and present the royal infant with a roll of China silk, after which he went outside, and fired a salute of thirteen guns in her honor.  (Hawaiian Historical Society)

“In consequence of his having become a tabu chief, his wife, Ahia, was thenceforth obliged by the ancient code of etiquette to "kolokolo" or crawl prone on hands and knees, when she entered the house of her lord.”  (Hawaiian Historical Society)

In 1815, Kamehameha I granted some Russians permission to build a storehouse at Honolulu Harbor.  Instead, they began building a fort against the ancient heiau of Pākākā and close to the King’s complex and raised the Russian flag.  (Pākākā was the site of Kaua‘i’s King Kaumuali‘i’s negotiations relinquishing power to Kamehameha I.)

When Kamehameha discovered they were building a fort (rather than storehouses,) he sent several chiefs, along with John Young (his advisor) and Kalanimōku, to remove the Russians from Oʻahu by force, if necessary.   The partially built blockhouse at Honolulu was finished by Hawaiians and mounted guns protected the fort.

Beckley was the first commander of the fort (known as Fort Kekuanohu or Fort Honolulu.)  Its original purpose was to protect Honolulu by keeping enemy or otherwise undesirable ships out.  But, it was also used to keep things in (it also served as a prison.)

“Kareimoku (Kalanimōku) is always in the fort, where they are still at work, and the natives not being familiar with the use of cannon, they have appointed an Englishman, named George Berkley, who had formerly served in a merchantman as commandant. The fort is nothing more than a square, supplied with loop-holes, the walls of which are two fathoms high, and built of coral stone.”  (Kotzebue)

The Beckleys had seven children, William (1815,) Maria (1817,) Localia (1818,) Mary (1820,) George (1823,) Hannah and Emmeline (1825.)

His oldest child, William Beckley, who was born at Keauhou, was brought up together with Kauikeaouli (later King Kamehameha III.) His two oldest daughters were brought up by Queen Kaʻahumanu.  (Hawaiian Historical Society)

The diary of missionary Hiram Bingham notes, "Whatever of hostility may have been manifested against the spiritual claims of the Gospel by foreigners and others, we were encouraged in our efforts to commence a school by several residents, some wishing their wives, and others their children to be instructed. Among there, were … Beckley (English)… These cherished a desire that their long neglected children, whose morals, habits, language, and manners differed little from their contemporaries - the children of aboriginal fathers - might now, at length, if they wished it, have the advantage of a school for their improvement.”

Apparently, marriage did not keep Beckley constantly in the Islands. Instead, after a couple of years, he followed the custom of the day and took his wife with him on his numerous long voyages between the Mexico and Canton, China. (Hawaiian Historical Society)  He apparently also kept a home in Vera Cruz, Mexico.  His youngest daughter Emmeline was born off the coast of Mexico.

Beckley had several Hawaiʻi properties, including: a farm with the fishing grounds called Kealahewa, situated in the district of Kohala, Island of Hawaiʻi, by King Kamehameha I (1811;) a farm with the fishing grounds called Kaliheawa, Kalihi, by Keōpūolani (1815;) a farm called Kawailole, situated at the mouth of the valley of Manoa, sold by Kalanimōku (then Governor of Oahu) (1815;) and house lot in Honolulu by King Kamehameha (1819.)

George Charles Beckley died April 16, 1826 in Honolulu.  “He was buried agreeably to his wish within his own enclosure. A vault was dug within the walls of an unfinished house; and inclosed with bricks & lined with mats. A part of the church buryal service was read by Mr. Bingham, who afterwards made a short address to the bystanders both in English & Hawaii & closed with prayer.”  (Chamberlain)

The image shows George Charles Beckley.

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Thursday, September 26, 2013

Marine Corps Base Hawaiʻi

The US military first established a presence on the Mōkapu peninsula in 1918 when President Woodrow Wilson signed an executive order establishing Fort Kuwaʻaohe Military Reservation on 322-acres on the northeast side of Mōkapu.

The Army stayed there until August 1940 when the Navy decided to acquire all of Mōkapu Peninsula to expand Naval Air Station Kāneʻohe; it included a sea plane base, it began building in September 1939 and commissioned on February 15, 1941.

Between 1939 and 1943, large sections of Kāneʻohe Bay were dredged for the dual purposes of deepening the channel for a sea plane runway and extending the western coastline of the peninsula with 280-acres of coral fill.

As of December 1941, two of five planned, steel hangars had been completed, each measuring 225-feet by 400-feet.

On Sunday morning, December 7, 1941, two waves of Japanese Imperial Navy aircraft bombed and strafed Kāneʻohe Naval Air Station, several minutes before Pearl Harbor was attacked.

Of the 36 PBY Catalina “flying boats” based here, 27 of 33 on the ground or moored in Kāneʻohe Bay were destroyed. Only three planes, out on patrol at the time of the attack, escaped and they suffered air-to-air combat damage.

Following repairs, a 5,700-foot land runway was built and 14-inch guns were brought to be set atop the edge of Ulupaʻu Crater in the seven-story deep “Battery Pennsylvania” as part of the coastal defense of Windward Oʻahu.

One of the 14-inch guns was from the USS Arizona; construction of Battery Pennsylvania was completed in August 1945. The huge gun was fired only once, in celebration, a few days before Japan’s formal surrender on V-J Day, September 2, 1945.  The firing shook and, some said, "cracked" the crater.

In 1941, this reservation became known as Camp Ulupaʻu; a year later it was redesignated as Fort Hase. It was never as permanent as the Navy’s air station side of the peninsula. Historic photos show tents and wooden structures dominating the landscape, even in August 1945. After the war, Fort Hase was rapidly emptied.

After the armistice was signed aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945, thousands of military members of all services began to pass through Pearl Harbor and other military installations in Hawaiʻi, including Kāneʻohe Naval Air Station, bound for discharge on the US Mainland and return to civilian life.

On April 1, 1946, all Kāneʻohe NAS residents and workers were evacuated as nearly 25-foot waves from the Alaska tsunami washed over the peninsula, nearly covering the runway and the Fort Hase areas before rapidly receding back to the sea.

In May of 1949, Kāneʻohe Bay NAS was decommissioned and placed in a maintenance status. All property (except buildings) was transferred to NAS Barbers Point.

The Navy put Mōkapu Peninsula land up for lease, but no interested parties came forward. By June 1950, only a small security detail remained.

The following year, in 1951, the Marine Corps decided that Mōkapu Peninsula would make an excellent home for a combined air-ground team, consolidated all landholdings and, in January 1952, commissioned Marine Corps Air Station Kāneʻohe Bay.

In 1953, the base became the home of the 1st Provisional Marine Air-Ground Task Force.

In 1993, the Navy moved its "Orion" and helicopter squadrons to MCAS, Kāneʻohe Bay from NAS, Barber’s Point, which had been selected for closure under the Base Realignment and Closure Act (BRAC)

In April 1994, the Marine Corps consolidated all of its installations in Hawaiʻi, under a single command -- Marine Corps Base Hawaiʻi (MCBH).

Today, MCB Hawaiʻi continues to serve as a fully functional operational and training base for US Marine Corps forces. The Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) here operates a 7,800-foot runway that can accommodate both fixed wing and rotor-driven aircraft.

Navy and Marine Corps units headquartered at MCB Hawaiʻi Kāneʻohe Bay, include air, ground and combat service support elements; non-operational tenants include a branch health care clinic; a judicial court; a commissary facility; veterinary services; and various Marine Corps schools and academies.

All US military units located in Hawaiʻi, and others within the Pacific theater, fall under the command of the US Pacific Command, which is headquartered - along with US Marine Corps Forces, Pacific - at Camp HM Smith, on Oʻahu.

The Commanding General of MARFORPAC also commands 12 Marine Corps bases and stations in Arizona, California, Hawaiʻi and Japan, and operational forces in Okinawa and Hawaiʻi, afloat on naval shipping and forward-deployed to Southwest Asia. The Commander, MCB Hawaiʻi, is responsible for all Marine Corps installations and facilities in Hawaiʻi.

The image shows Marine Corps Base Hawaiʻi.  In addition, I have added some other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Falls Of Clyde

She was launched December 12, 1878 by shipbuilders Russell & Co at Port Glasgow, Scotland; the four-masted, full-rigged ship Falls of Clyde became part of the Falls Line fleet - all of which were named after Scottish waterfalls.

Falls of Clyde has a wrought-iron hull with a net tonnage of 1,748 tons and has a registered length of 266-feet, with a 40-foot beam and a 23.5-foot depth of hold.

She was rated the highest rating the maritime insurance firm could provide (Lloyd's of London.)

Used for trade between Britain and India, the ship was under the British flag and journeyed into the Pacific, stopping at Australia, New Zealand, Bangkok, Hong Kong and Shanghai.

Falls of Clyde made 10 voyages to American ports while under the British flag.  Sailing to San Francisco and Portland for wheat, she also made one voyage to New York. The voyages to San Francisco were particularly important, for they involved the ship in one of the United States and Britain's most significant maritime trades, the California grain trade.

She was later sold to Captain William Matson in 1898 with plans to be used for the lucrative sugar trade between Hawaiʻi and the continent.  However, according to US law, Falls of Clyde needed American registry to trade between American ports, a right denied to foreign-built and registered vessels.

“The four masted iron ship Falls of Clyde (under the command of Captain Matson,) floating the Hawaiian flag, the Oceanic Steamship Company's pennant and her own signal letters, came into the harbor at 10 o'clock this morning.  … The Falls of Clyde brings about 1,000 tons or general merchandise, a large part of which is machinery for the Honolulu plantation.  She also brings 40 mules and 8 horses for the plantation and a stallion for W. G. Irwin & Co.”  (Hawaiian Star, January 20, 1899)

“She is the first four masted Iron ship with yards on each mast that ever came into this harbor flying the Hawaiian flag. Her authority for flying this flag is a temporary register Issued to her by Hawaiian Consul General Wilder at San Francisco.”  (Hawaiian Star, January 20, 1899)

A special provision was added to the 1900 'Organic Act;' Section 98 of the Act states: "That all vessels carrying Hawaiian registers on the twelfth day of August, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, and which were owned bona fide by citizens of the United States, or the citizens of Hawaii, together with the following-named vessels claiming Hawaiian register, Star of France, Euterpe, Star of Russia, Falls of Clyde, and Wilscott, shall be entitled to be registered as American vessels, with the benefits and privileges appertaining thereto, and the coasting trade between the islands aforesaid and any other portion of the United States, shall be regulated in accordance with the provisions of law applicable to such trade between any two great coasting districts."

Converted to US registry, Falls of Clyde then was involved in the Hawaiian transpacific sugar trade for Matson Navigation Co.  She carried people, too.

Her cargo hold was not limited to the sugar plantation business; just as modern Matson ships bring in assorted cargo that fill a variety of shelves across the islands, the Falls of Clyde supplied the Islands with various goods that filled the needs of the past.

Here’s a brief summary of an early manifest: “The ship Falls of Clyde sailed yesterday for Hilo with an assorted cargo valued at $23,599 and including the following: 95 bbls flour, 41 ctls wheat, 914 ctls barley, 231 bales hay, 18,521 lbs bran, 12 ctls corn, 75,000 lbs rice, 12 tons salt, 6492 gals wine, 900 lbs lard, 25 cs canned goods, 189,947 lbs fertilizer, 114,174 ft lumber, 38,000 lbs cement, 4200 lbs tobacco, 550 gals distillate, 65 cs gasoline, 150 cs coal oil, 101 cs assorted oils, 100 bxs soap, 1 cs arms and ammunition, 15 pkgs agricultural implements, 3 pkgs machinery, 3 rolls leather, 50 sks coal, 75 pkgs wagon material, 10 pkgs millwork, 6 cs matches, 25 bales paper, 85 kegs white lead, 20 cs paints, 6 pkgs dry goods, 4 pkgs bicycles and parts, 3 bales twine, 1 cs shoes, 30 mules." (San Francisco Call, February 19, 1905)

The four-masted vessel, originally rigged as a ship, was down-rigged to a bark; in addition, Matson modified and built a large wooden deckhouse forward and a charthouse on the poop deck.

She carried sugar from Hilo to San Francisco until 1906 when the Associated Oil Company (a group of 45 independent oil producers in which Matson had an interest) bought the ship and in 1907 Falls of Clyde was once again modified when she was converted into a sailing oil tanker.

Associated Oil added 10-tanks within the hull, a boiler room and a pump room with a carrying capacity close to 750,000-gallons.  She also carried molasses from Hilo to San Francisco over the next 13 years.

In 1921, she was sold to the General Petroleum Corporation who, after dismasting, then used her as a floating petroleum barge in Ketchikan, Alaska.

General Petroleum reorganized as Socony-Vacuum (now Mobil Oil) in 1959 and developed new shore facilities at Ketchikan. No longer needed, Falls of Clyde was again sold and towed to Seattle, and laid up.

After several attempts to save the ship of the fate of being scuttled as a breakwater, a group of civic and historic-minded folks in Hawaiʻi, aided by funds from the Matson Navigation Co. and other donations (spearheaded by the Friends of Falls of Clyde,) purchased and returned the ship to Honolulu in 1963.

With lots of voluntary help she was restored, remasted and rerigged and, under management of Bishop Museum, in 1970 she was opened to the public at Pier 5.

Damaged by Hurricane Iwa in 1982, she was moved to Pier 7, and over the course of a few years she was restored and became the centerpiece of the Hawaiʻi Maritime Center, moored at Pier 7 in Honolulu Harbor.

Maintaining any boat is expensive, particularly one that dates to the late-1800s.  By early 2008, after receiving an estimate of at least $30-million to restore the ship, Bishop Museum issued a contract to remove all valuable items from the ship including a priceless figurehead, to dismantle the rigging, and to prepare the Falls of Clyde to be towed out to sea for scuttling.

The Friends of Falls of Clyde mobilized and rallied, again, and on September 25, the Museum's Board of Directors approved the sale to the Friends, a non-profit 501(c)3 organization dedicated to the preservation and restoration of the Falls of Clyde.  (The Friends took ownership of the Falls of Clyde from Bishop Museum on September 30, 2008.)

The Friends needs your help.  Join their group on Facebook.  More importantly, visit their site and offer to volunteer or donate.  It looks like the Friends are planning to haul her out for a much needed drydock.

Falls of Clyde is the world's only surviving four-masted, full-rigged ship and is the oldest surviving American tanker and the only surviving sailing oil tanker left afloat.  (Lots of information and images from NPS, Historic Hawaiʻi and Friends of Falls of Clyde.)

The image shows Falls of Clyde (NPS;) in addition, I have added some other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Boki (Poki)

Boki (born before 1785 - died after December 1829) was the son of Kekuamanoha, a chief of Maui (but it was rumored that he was the son of Kahekili II.)  His original name was Kamaʻuleʻule; his nickname came from a variation on Boss, the name of the favorite dog of Kamehameha I.

His older brother, Kalanimōkū, was prime minister and formerly Kamehameha's most influential advisor. His aunt was the powerful Kaʻahumanu, queen regent and Kamehameha's favorite wife.

Boki married Chiefess Kuini Liliha (born 1802 - died August 25, 1839,) daughter of Ulumaheihei Hoapili (Kamehameha's most trusted companion) and Kalilikauoha; her paternal grandfather was Kameʻeiamoku, one of Kamehameha's four Kona Uncles and a respected advisor; her maternal grandfather was Kahekili, high chief of Maui and later of O'ahu.

King Kamehameha II appointed Boki as governor of Oʻahu and chief of the Waiʻanae district. John Dominis Holt III said Boki was "a man of great charisma who left his mark everywhere he went." 

Boki was skilled in Hawaiian medicine, especially the treatment of wounds, as taught by the kahunas. He was considered very intelligent and a highly persuasive man.

His duties as governor of Oʻahu brought him in frequent contact with foreigners. He became one of the first chiefs to be baptized.

Boki agreed to the breaking of the tabus in 1819 and accepted the Protestant missionaries arriving in 1820, although he had been baptized as a Catholic aboard the French vessel of Louis de Freycinet, along with Kalanimōkū , the previous year.

In 1824, Boki and Liliha were members of the entourage that accompanied Kamehameha II and Queen Kamāmalu on a diplomatic tour of the United Kingdom, visiting King George IV in 1824.

Less than two months after the royal group arrived in England, the king and queen were dead from the measles; it was Boki who lead the Hawaiian delegation to meet with King George IV and receive the King’s assurances of British protection for Hawai‘i from foreign intrusion.

Returning with Lord Byron on the Blonde, Boki brought to Hawaiʻi an English planter, John Wilkinson, and with him began raising sugar cane and coffee beans in Mānoa Valley.

Boki also encouraged the Hawaiians to gather sandalwood for trade, ran a mercantile and shipping business, and opened a liquor store called the Blonde Hotel.

In the late-1820s, Boki came into conflict with Kuhina Nui (Premier) Ka‘ahumanu when he resisted the new laws that were passed, and did not enforce them. In May of 1827, Ka‘ahumanu and the Council charged Boki with intemperance, fornication, adultery and misconduct, and fined him and his wife Liliha.

Just prior to Boki’s sailing to the New Hebrides in search of sandalwood, the lands of Kapunahou and Kukuluāeʻo were transferred to Hiram Bingham for the purpose of establishing a school, later to be known as Oʻahu College (now, Punahou School.)

These lands had first been given to Kameʻeiamoku, a faithful chief serving under Kamehameha, following Kamehameha’s conquest of Oʻahu in 1795.   At Kameʻeiamoku’s death in 1802, the land transferred to his son Hoapili, who resided there from 1804 to 1811.  Hoapili passed the property to his daughter Kuini Liliha.

Sworn testimony before the Land Commission in 1849, and that body’s ultimate decision, noted that the “land was given by Governor Boki about the year 1829 to Hiram Bingham for the use of the Sandwich Islands Mission.”
The decision was made over the objection from Liliha; however Hoapili confirmed the gift.  It was considered to be a gift from Kaʻahumanu, Kuhina Nui or Queen Regent at that time.

The Binghams oversaw the early development of the land and Mrs. Bingham planted the first night blooming cereus, now a symbol of Punahou. The Binghams left Hawaii in 1840, before Punahou School became a reality.

Boki incurred large debts and, in 1829, attempted to cover them by assembling a group of followers and set out for a newly discovered island with sandalwood in the New Hebrides.  Boki fitted out two ships, the Kamehameha and the Becket, put on board some five hundred of his followers, and sailed south.

Somewhere in the Fiji group, the ships separated. Eight months later the Becket limped back to Honolulu with only twenty survivors aboard.

Boki and two hundred and fifty of his men apparently died at sea when the Kamehameha burned, possibly when gunpowder stored in the hold blew up as a result of careless smoking.

Liliha then became a widow and governor of Oʻahu. She gave the ahupuaʻa of Mākaha to High Chief Paki. Chief Paki was the father of Bernice Pauahi Bishop.  (Lots of info here from waianaebaptist-org;  punahou-edu; keepers of the culture and others.)

The image shows Boki and Liliha, drawn when they were in London in 1824.  In addition, I have added other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Monday, September 23, 2013


The Royal Hawaiian Navy was created solely as a result of King Kalākaua’s plan for a confederation of Polynesian nations.
This was an era of kingdom-building, and alliances were in vogue.

King Kalākaua had been in office since 1874, overseeing his small independent country. Influenced by his recent trip around the world, he looked forward to developing alliances with other Polynesian countries, seeing Hawaii in the center position. By 1883, commissioners had visited the Gilbert Islands and the New Hebrides, without success.  (Kauai Historical Society)

The High Commissioner was a special Hawaiian envoy tasked with traveling to the various island nations of the Pacific to enlist them into the confederation.

In anticipation of the High Commissioner’s transportation needs, the Hawaiian government purchased a three-masted steamship named the “Explorer.” The ship was refitted as a gunboat and armed with Gatling guns and cannons. The name “Explorer” was translated into Hawaiian and the ship was renamed the “Kaimiloa”.  The ship's captain was George E Gresley Jackson.

His Hawaiian Majesty’s Ship Kaimiloa was commissioned on March 28, 1887, for the naval service of the Kingdom and comprised the whole of the Hawaiian Navy. (ksbe)

HHMS Kaimiloa was the first and only ship of the Hawaiian Royal Navy. The ship was a 170-ton Explorer gunboat, made in Britain in 1871. King Kalākaua bought the ship for $20,000 and added the rigging.

It sailed from Hawaiʻi to Samoa and other Pacific islands in an effort by Kalākaua to form a confederation of Polynesian states to counteract European imperialism.

The mission was facing an uphill climb in its endeavors. Imperial Germany was already in discussion with Samoa, and both Britain and the United States were interested in the structure of power within the region. (This important region was of interest to most of the European powers – two years after this voyage, the warships of the United States, England, and Germany were all at anchor in Apia Bay, as Germany had asserted a right to possession.  (Kauai Historical Society)  Talks did not progress well.

Capt. Jackson was a former British naval officer, and more recently, the former head of a reform school.  Members of the crew were former students. On board was John E Bush, as the King’s embassy; the crew was Hawaiian.  (Kauai Historical Society)

With only one month of training, the youths were put to the test when the Kaimiloa was ordered to transport the Secretary of Foreign Affairs to Samoa. The ship departed Honolulu on May 18, 1887, and arrived in Samoa 29 days later.  (ksbe)

Historical accounts indicate that from the beginning there were problems with the officers and the crew. Upon arrival in Samoa on June 15th, the festivities were problematic as well.  (Kauai Historical Society)

Robert Louis Stevenson, then a resident of Samoa, is quoted regarding a reception at the Hawaii embassy: “Malietoa, always decent, withdrew at an early hour. By those that remained, all decency appears to have been forgotten.”

In the morning, he added, the revelers were aroused from a drunken stupor and sent home. King Malietoa is reported to have said: “If you came here to teach my people to drink, I wish you had stayed away”.    (Kauai Historical Society)

Due to the music program which was in effect at the reform school, some of these crew members were also members of a military band. They were led by Charles Palikapu Kaleikoa.

While the Kaimiloa was in Samoa, the Cadet Band performed concerts in Apia, the capital city, and around Samoa. The Hawaiian Consul reported (August 23, 1887:) Her (Kaimiloa’s) cadet band also became popular and their concerts were an appreciated treat to the Samoans.  (ksbe)

The Hawaiian Consul in Samoa, also impressed with their exemplary conduct, reported in a letter: “I must say a word in praise of the Reform School boys. It was a matter of surprise to me to observe how well they behaved on shore and aboard, and how well they performed their duties.”  (ksbe)

Under the direction of Lorrin A Thurston, the Kaimiloa was recalled. She returned to Honolulu Harbor on September 23, 1887; this appears to be her only voyage for the state.  (Kauai Historical Society)

The crew was disbanded and the ship was decommissioned.  After this, Kaleikoa joined the Royal Hawaiian Band and continued to play in it until his retirement 40 years later and retired as assistant band leader.  (ksbe)

After it was decommissioned, the Kaimiloa was still used as a quarantine ship, but in 1888 she was sold and used as a transportation vessel between the Hawaiian Islands.

For a while, she was used for interisland shipping, transporting coal and oil. After a period in dry dock, her engines were removed (and used to turn wheels in a sugar mill operation) and in 1910, the hull was burned.    (Kauai Historical Society)

The image shows Kaimiloa in Honolulu Harbor.  In addition, I have added other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Sunday, September 22, 2013

Ni‘ihau – 1863

Ni‘ihau was formed from a single shield volcano approximately 4.89-million years ago, making it slightly younger in age than Kaua‘i. It is approximately 70-square miles or 44,800-acres.  It’s about 17-miles west of Kauaʻi.

The island’s highest point is 1,281-feet; approximately 78% of the island is below 500-feet in elevation.   Located inside Kauai’s rain shadow, Ni‘ihau receives only about 20 to 40-inches of rain per year.  Ni‘ihau has no perennial streams.  (DLNR)

“There was no appearance of any running stream; and though they found some small wells, in which the fresh water was tolerably good, it seemed scarce. The habitations of the natives were thinly scattered about; and, it was supposed, that there could not be more than five hundred people upon the island, as the greatest part were seen at the marketing-place of our party, and few found about the houses by those who walked up the country.”  (Cook’s Journal)

With limited rainfall and no perennial streams, for people to survive on the island, they likely farmed ʻuala (sweet potato) and/or uhi (yams.)  The evidence indicates Niʻihau produced excellent ʻuala and/or uhi.

“The eastern coast is high, and rises abruptly from the sea, but the rest of the island consists of low ground; excepting a round bluff head on the southeast point. It produces abundance of yams, and of the sweet root called Tee … they brought us several large roots of a brown colour, shaped like a yam, and from six to ten pounds in weight. The juice, which it yields in great abundance, is very sweet, and of a pleasant taste, and was found to be an excellent substitute for sugar. The natives are very fond of it, and use it as an article of their common diet … We could not learn to what species of plant it belonged, having never been able to procure the leaves ….”  (Cook’s Journal)

For many years Niʻihau was called Yam Island by Western sailors because of the high quality of yams grown there.  A map of Yam Bay and the island of Niʻihau appeared in Captain George Dixon’s journal in 1788.  (Joesting)

So, while the island has limited rainfall, it was sufficient to grow food and sustain a population of around 500 (according to Cook.)  Niʻihau had a population of 790 people in 1853.  The census of 1860 reported a Niʻihau population of 647.

In the Māhele (1848,) Victoria Kamāmalu (sister of Kamehameha IV and V) claimed Niʻihau, however returned it and the land was retained by the government.  A couple Land Commission Awards were made to Koakanu, as well as a sale to Papapa.

Following the Māhele, the Kuleana Act of 1850 encouraged makaʻāinana to file claims with the Land Commission for land they were cultivating, plus an additional quarter acre for a house lot.  Islands-wide a total of 14,195 claims were filed and about 8,421 awards were approved; there were no Kuleana awards granted on Niʻihau.   (Van Dyke)

A couple things happened in 1863 that changed things on the island.

Through a letter dated September 22, 1863, Niʻihau residents petitioned Prince Lot (later Kamehameha V) "for a new lease of the land."  The petition was signed by 105 of the residents of Niʻihau.  They selected one resident to represent them to negotiate the terms.  (Jonah Roll found this letter in his late father's (Warren Roll) files.  It is not clear how Warren got it, or if it ever presented to the Prince.)

The letter also notes, "... the people from here on Niihau are leaving their long established residence on the land to be with the foreigners, or to be on Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai.  At tax time, they do not pay their taxes.  Some just make a small payment."

At about this same time, the Sinclair clan sailed from New Zealand, with the idea of possibly relocating to Hawaiʻi.  The family was anxious to find land on which to settle and they were offered several large tracts on Oʻahu (at Kahuku, Ford Island and ʻEwa.)  When King Kamehameha IV heard the family might leave the Islands, the King offered to sell them the island of Niʻihau.  (Joesting)  (Later, the family includes the Sinclairs, Gays, Robinsons and Knudsens.)

A final purchase price of $10,000 was agreed upon, but Kamehameha IV died on November 30, so Royal Patent No. 2944 shows his brother, Kamehameha V, completed the transaction on January 23, 1864, giving fee simple title to James McHutchinson Sinclair and Francis Sinclair for all the government lands on Ni‘ihau.  These "government lands" did not include two large parcels of land set off for Koakanu during the Great Māhele in 1848 and a tract of land containing 50 acres previously sold to Papapa.  (Niʻihau Cultural Heritage Foundation)

Papapa apparently agreed to sell his acreage to the Sinclairs without incident, but it seems Koakanu refused to allow anyone to cross any portion of his land and even forbade boats to come in closer than one-half mile off the shoreline of his property.  The story goes that it was his wife who finally convinced him to accept an offer of $1,000 (or $800 according to other records) for his lands.  (Niʻihau Cultural Heritage Foundation)

“The whole island is now owned by a Presbyterian family of Scotch origin, who received me very kindly, & who will assist our work there very materially & very heartily.  The native population now remaining there is about 250 in number.” (Gulick to Anderson ABCFM (1865,) Joesting)

As he signed the contract, the king said: '”Niihau is yours. But the day may come when Hawaiians are not as strong in Hawaii as they are now. When that day comes, please do what you can to help them.'”  (New York Times)

“It is said that the transfer of the island involved some hardships, owing to a number of the natives having neglected to legalize their claims to their kuleanas, but the present possessors have made themselves thoroughly acquainted with the language, and take the warmest interest in the island population.”  (Isabella Bird, 1894)

The Sinclairs "bought sheep and cattle from the big ranches on Hawaii, and took them, with some fine sheep (they) brought with (them) from New Zealand, (began a) new ranch on Niihau."  (Von Holt)  They hired the Hawaiians to help with the ranch and the island.

"The natives on Niihau and in this part of Kauai, call Mrs. (Sinclair) "Mama." Their rent seems to consist in giving one or more days' service in a month, so it is a revival of the old feudality. ... It is a busy life, owing to the large number of natives daily employed, and the necessity of looking after the native lunas, or overseers."  (Isabella Bird, 1894)

Today, Niʻihau has about 130-people who live at Pu‘uwai village, on the western (leeward) side of the island.  Niʻihau is nicknamed the "Forbidden Island," because the Robinsons (present owners and descendents of the original Sinclairs) strictly limit access to the island.

The island lacks basic municipal infrastructure.  There are no paved roads (walking, horseback or bicycle are the only transportation options on Ni‘ihau.)  No water and wastewater systems.  No stores.  No restaurants.  No doctors.  No police.  No fire department.

But it has a school - the only school in Hawai‘i that relies entirely on solar power for its electricity (a 10.4-kW photovoltaic power system with battery storage was installed in December 2007.)  This enabled reliable refrigeration and use of technological hardware (yes, they have computers – however, no internet or email system is available to Niʻihau School, as of yet.)  School enrollment fluctuates between 25-50 students.

The image shows some of the Niʻihau residents and their homes (taken by Francis Sinclair, 1885.) In addition, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Saturday, September 21, 2013

The Prince-Slayer and Kingmaker

Keʻeaumoku Pāpaʻiaheahe (c. 1736-1804) was married to Namahanaʻi Kaleleokalani; they had several children, Kaʻahumanu (favorite wife of Kamehameha,) Kalākua Kaheiheimālie (wife of Kamehameha, later known as Hoapili Wahine,) Kahekili Keʻeaumoku II (Governor Cox of Maui,) Kuakini (John Adams Kuakini, Governor of Hawaiʻi and Oʻahu) and Namahana Piʻia (wife of Kamehameha.)  (kekoolani)

Before the conquest of Kamehameha, the several islands were ruled by independent kings, who were frequently at war with each other, but more often with their own subjects. As one chief acquired sufficient strength, he disputed the title of the reigning prince. If successful, his chance of permanent power was quite as precarious as that of his predecessor. In some instances the title established by force of arms remained in the same family for several generations, disturbed, however, by frequent rebellions … war being a chief occupation …”  (Jarves)

At the period of Captain Cook’s arrival (1778-1779), the Hawaiian Islands were divided into four kingdoms: (1) the island of Hawaiʻi under the rule of Kalaniʻōpuʻu, who also had possession of the Hāna district of east Maui; (2) Maui (except the Hāna district,) Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi and Kahoʻolawe, ruled by Kahekili; (3) Oʻahu, under the rule of Kahahana; and at (4) Kauaʻi and Niʻihau, Kamakahelei was ruler.

Keʻeaumoku became a staunch supporter and one of the great chiefs of the Kona district and the first among the war leaders of Kamehameha.

Following Kalaniʻōpuʻu’s death in 1782, the kingship was inherited by his son Kīwalaʻō; Kamehameha (Kīwalaʻō's cousin) was given guardianship of the Hawaiian god of war, Kūkaʻilimoku.)

Dissatisfied with subsequent redistricting of the lands by district chiefs, civil war ensued between Kīwalaʻō's forces and the various chiefs under the leadership of Kamehameha.

In the first major skirmish, Keʻeaumoku distinguished himself in the battle of Mokuʻōhai (a fight between Kamehameha and Kiwalaʻo in July, 1782 at Keʻei, south of Kealakekua Bay on the Island of Hawaiʻi.)

An ʻōlelo noʻeau notes, “Ka aku la kaʻu lāʻau i ka ʻaʻama kua lenalena.” (“My spear pierced the yellow-shelled crab.”) – a boast of a warrior who in the battle speared Keʻeaumoku (through his ʻahuʻula (cloak) - who survived.)

Keʻeaumoku killed Kiwalaʻo in a hand-to-hand combat; however, Keʻeaumoku’s mamo ʻahuʻula (feather cape – primarily of yellow feathers, named “Eheukani”) was bloodstained in that fight.

With the death of Kiwalaʻo, the victory made Kamehameha chief of the districts of Kona, Kohala and Hāmākua, while Keōua, the brother of Kiwalaʻo, held possession of Kaʻū and Puna, and Keawemauhili declared himself independent of both in Hilo.  (Kalākaua)

From the first of Kamehameha's battles Keʻeaumoku had not doubted the triumph of that chief over all adversaries in the end, and eagerly grasped at every circumstance calculated to strengthen the conviction. So believing, his way seemed to be clear.  (Kalākaua)

Keʻeaumoku never doubted the success of Kamehameha, and once, when Kamehameha was discomforted, Keʻeaumoku smiled as he said to his chief: “Thus far you have only skirmished with your enemies; you will win when you fight battles!”  (Kalākaua)

The remaining portion of Hāmākua, the district of Hilo, and a part of Puna, acknowledged Keawemauhili as their Moi; while the lower part of Puna and the district of Kaʻū, was under Keōua.  (Fornander)

Kamehameha, through the assistance of the Kona "Uncles" (Keʻeaumoku, Keaweaheulu, Kameʻeiamoku & Kamanawa (the latter two ended up on the Island’s coat of arms;)) succeeded, after a struggle of more than ten years, in securing to himself the supreme authority over that island.

A later battle at ʻIao saw the Maui troops completely annihilated by Kamehameha’s forces, and it is said that the corpses of the slain were so many as to choke up the waters of the stream of lao, and that hence one of the names of this battle was "Kepaniwai" (the damming of the waters).  (Fornander)

Then, a final battle of Kamehameha’s conquest took place on Oʻahu.  Kamehameha landed his fleet and disembarked his army on Oʻahu, extending from Waiʻalae to Waikīkī … he marched up the Nuʻuanu valley, where Kalanikūpule had posted his forces.  (Fornander)

In 1804, Kamehameha was preparing to invade Kauaʻi – with the goal of uniting the Islands under single control.  However, prior to the invasion, maʻi ‘ōkuʻu (believed to be cholera) struck the islands.  It affected Kamehameha and his planned invasion of Kauaʻi.

Keʻeaumoku, the slayer of princes and maker of kings, died peacefully as governor of the windward islands.  (Kalākaua)  It is believed maʻi ‘ōkuʻu was the cause of death of Keʻeaumoku, on March 21, 1804.

In the face of the threat of a further invasion, in 1810, at Pākākā on Oʻahu, negotiations between King Kaumuali‘i and Kamehameha I took place and Kaumualiʻi yielded Kauaʻi to Kamehameha.

The agreement marked the end of war and thoughts of war across the islands.  Although Kaumuali‘i had ceded Kaua‘i and Niʻihau to Kamehameha I, he generally maintained de facto independence and control of the island following his agreement with Kamehameha.

The image shows a drawing of Eheukani, Keʻeaumoku’s ʻahuʻula.  I have added other images to a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Friday, September 20, 2013

Try And Leave This World A Little Better Than You Found It

The Boy Scout movement was founded in England by Sir Robert Baden-Powell in 1908. As a military officer, he had noticed that soldiers in his regiment, while well educated in the classroom sense, were ill prepared for the field: “Tell one of them to ride out alone with a message on a dark night and ten to one he would lose his way.”

While stationed in India, he discovered that his men did not know basic first aid or the elementary means of survival in the outdoors. Baden-Powell realized he needed to teach his men many frontier skills, so he wrote a small handbook called Aids to Scouting, which emphasized resourcefulness, adaptability and the qualities of leadership that frontier conditions demanded.

Baden-Powell wanted to develop men who were more at ease in the world. "I wanted them to have courage, from confidence in themselves and from a sense of duty; I wanted them to have knowledge of how to cook their own grub; in short, I wanted each man to be an efficient all-round reliable individual."

In August 1907, he gathered about 20 boys and took them to Brownsea Island in a sheltered bay off England's southern coast. They set up a makeshift camp that would be their home for the next 12 days.

The next year, Baden-Powell published his book Scouting for Boys, and Scouting continued to grow. That same year, more than 10,000 Boy Scouts attended a rally held at the Crystal Palace; two years later, membership in Boy Scouts had tripled.

Because of growing demand for the scouting experience by younger boys, in 1914, Baden-Powell began implementing a program for them that was based on Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book. The Wolf Cub program began in 1916, and since that time, Wolf Cubbing has spread to other European countries with very little change.

A strong influence from Kipling's Jungle Book remains today. The terms "Law of the Pack," "Akela," "Wolf Cub," "grand howl," "den" and "pack" all come from the Jungle Book. At the same time, the Gold and Silver Arrow Points, Webelos emblem and Arrow of Light emblem are taken from American Indian heritage.

The seeds of Scouting were growing in the United States. On a farm in Connecticut, a naturalist and author named Ernest Thompson Seton was organizing a group of boys called the Woodcraft Indians; and Daniel Carter Beard, an artist and writer, organized the Sons of Daniel Boone.

But first, an American businessman had to get lost in the fog in England. Chicago businessman and publisher William D. Boyce was groping his way through the fog when a boy appeared and offered to take him to his destination. When they arrived, Boyce tried to tip the boy, but the boy refused and courteously explained that he was a Scout and could not accept payment for a Good Turn.

Intrigued, the publisher questioned the boy and learned more about Scouting. He visited with Baden-Powell as well, and became captured by the idea of Scouting. When Boyce boarded the transatlantic steamer for home, he had a suitcase filled with information and ideas.  On February 8, 1910, Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America.

That same year, a Hawaiʻi artist and outdoorsman by the name of David Howard Hitchcock discovered Scouting in California, and brought it home to Hawaiʻi.

"The boy scout movement, so popular in England, and which aims to develop patriotism, discipline, courage, thrift, helpfulness and cheerfulness in boys is described by Francis Buzzell in an illustrated article in the August Popular Mechanics. He says: "The general organization, and the symbolism of the scout movement are essentially military, but the strict military discipline, and especially the routine of incessant military drill, are almost entirely lacking. General Baden-Powell, chief scout of all the boys In the British Empire, appoints scout commissioners to organize branches, Inspect scout corps, and help scout masters."  (Hawaiian Star, July 27, 1910)

"The 'Boy Scout' movement has spread to Hawaii. ... The movement was founded in America by Ernest Thompson Seton, but did not attract much attention until the foundation of a similar organization in England by Sir Robert SS Baden-Powell, the hero of Mafeking. General Powell's organization spread like wildfire and over 400,000 boys are enrolled In England.  The object of the movement, as defined by Sir Robert, "is to seize the boy's character in its red-hot stage of enthusiasm and to weld it into the right shape and encourage and develop its individuality, so that the boy may become a good man and a valuable citizen for our country."  (Hawaiian Star, September 3, 1910)

A newspaper article noted the first meeting: "The Boy Scout movement in Honolulu will be started tonight at the meeting at the K. of P. (Knights of Pythias) Hall. All the parents in the city are invited to hear Colonel Bullard of the regular army tell about the boy scouts of America at eight o'clock in the K. of P. Hall."  (Honolulu Star, September 20, 1910)

Within months of returning home, Hitchcock, a Punahou School graduate, set up Hawaii’s first local troop – Scout Troop 1, the famed Rainbow Patrol (because of the wide range of nationalities represented in its membership) sponsored by Punahou and still in existence today.

The first troop included Hitchcock’s sons, Harvey (1917) and Dickson (1920) Hitchcock, Dudley Pratt (1918,) Walter (1919) and Fred (1920) Vetlesen, Ronald von Holt (1917,) Fred Waterhouse (1918,) Sam Wilder III (1917) and Donald Young (1918.)

According to Hitchcock:  "About 1910 I went to California and saw boys in pairs and in small groups camping out as Boy Scouts but with no such organization back of them as now exists. Visiting such men as could be found who were interested, I obtained all the data then available with a series of photographs from the East illustrating (Boy Scout) activities and with these came back to Honolulu where I proceeded to organize a troop which at first consisted of one patrol."

In later years the patrol was renamed Troop 1 to codify its status as Hawaiʻi’s original Boy Scout troop; it includes not only the students of Punahou, but also boys attending schools located all over the island of Oahu.

Hawaiʻi has a royal link to Boy Scouts.  In 1913, Queen Lili‘uokalani presented a silk Hawaiian flag with her royal crest “Onipaa” (Lit., fixed movement - steadfast, established, firm, resolute, determined)  and the lettering in gold “The Queen's Own Troop,” which she had sewn herself.  That flag was recently donated to the Bishop Museum.

 “This flag symbolizes the Queen’s recognition of Scouting as a positive and productive outlet to encourage young men and women to become leaders for life and contributing citizens who give back to their community,” Rick Burr, executive director of the Aloha Council said.  (Bishop Museum)

At the time of the Queen's death, "Roger Burnham, Scout commissioner, sent a letter to Colonel CP Iaukea, stating that inasmuch as the Queen had given the Boy Scouts a flag they wanted to do what they could to help in the funeral exercises. Colonel Iaukea accepted their offer and the Scouts will have a place assigned them in the funeral procession. The Scouts will doubtless also be used as messengers throughout the week."  (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, November 13, 1917)

Perhaps the most unique aspect of Scouting is that – unlike many other activities –it doesn’t focus on competition – it focuses on achievement. Something everyone experiences in Scouting and strives for in their day to day lives.

To not only Be Prepared – but to do a good turn every day. To be trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous, kind, obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean and reverent – as well as to do one’s duty to God and country.

Because of this early community support Scouting was quickly organized and grew. And because of those early community leaders Scouting established a deeply rooted heritage in Hawaiʻi.

Scouting has grown in the United States from 2,000 Boy Scouts and leaders in 1910 to millions strong today. From a program for Boy Scouts only, it has spread into a program including Tiger Cubs, Cub Scouts, Webelos Scouts, Boy Scouts, Varsity Scouts, and Venturers.

The Aloha Council is flourishing geographically as well – encompassing not only Hawaii, but Guam, American Samoa, Marianas, Marshall Islands, Micronesia and Palau. In all – the Aloha Council covers the largest geographical area in the world – over 8,000,000-square miles on both sides of the equator and date line.

After Baden-Powell's death in 1941, a letter was found in his desk that he had written to all Scouts. It included this passage: "Try and leave this world a little better than you found it."  (Lots of information here from Troop 1 and Aloha Council.)

The image shows Hawaiʻi's Troop 1 logo in 1970.   In addition, I have included other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

© 2013 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Thursday, September 19, 2013

St. Augustine by-the-sea

At the time of the arrival of Europeans in the Hawaiian Islands during the late-eighteenth century, Waikīkī had long been a center of population and political power on Oʻahu.  Starting back in the end of the fourteenth century, Waikīkī had become "the ruling seat of the chiefs of O'ahu," including Kamehameha, who resided here after conquering Oʻahu in 1795.

In 1819, Kalanimōkū was the first Hawaiian Chief to be formally baptized a Catholic, aboard the French ship Uranie. "The captain and the clergyman asked (John) Young what Ka-lani-moku's rank was, and upon being told that he was the chief counselor (Kuhina Nui) and a wise, kind, and careful man, they baptized him into the Catholic Church" (Kamakau).  Shortly thereafter, Boki, Kalanimōkū’s brother (and Governor of Oʻahu,) was baptized.

In July 1827, three Sacred Hearts priests and three Sacred Hearts brothers from France arrived in Honolulu to begin the Hawaiian Catholic Mission. The beginnings of the Mission were difficult. They were neither welcomed by the royal government nor by the Protestants already in the Islands.

France, historically a Catholic nation, used its government representatives in Hawaiʻi to protest the mistreatment of Catholic Native Hawaiians. Captain Cyrille-Pierre Théodore Laplace, of the French Navy frigate “Artémise”, sailed into Honolulu Harbor in 1839 to convince the Hawaiian leadership to get along with the Catholics - and the French.  Finally, the persecution ended in June and the kingdom granted religious freedom to all.

With Catholics now free to practice their faith, a small Catholic chapel was built in 1839 in Waikīkī "in the Hawaiian style," likely consisting of posts and thatch on the beach near the present Kalākaua Avenue.

This chapel was re-built 15 years later (in 1854) at that beach location in Western-style wooden framing (from the lumber of shipwrecked ships.) The size of this chapel was about 20 feet by 40 feet, with a steeple.

Waikīkī continued to grow and improvements to the chapel were made later by putting in flooring, galvanized roofing, and lattice walls. This church site on the beach served its purpose for many years, until the site was exchanged for a piece of land on what is now ʻOhua Avenue.

The chapel was used primarily for devotions; parishioners still had to go to the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace (in downtown Honolulu) for Sunday Mass.

During the Spanish-American War, American soldiers were garrisoned at Kapiʻolani Park (at a temporary Camp McKinley – 1898-1907) and the Catholic soldiers wanted a regular Catholic Mass in Waikīkī, so permission was given for Mass every Sunday. A larger chapel was built to accommodate all the worshippers.

The soldiers left when the war ended, but by that time there was a growing Catholic community in Waikīkī. On August 28, 1901, a more permanent church with lattice-work walls reminiscent of the palm fronds of the first chapel in Waikīkī.

As Waikīkī grew, so did the church; it was expanded twice, in 1910 and then in 1925; but time, a growing population and termites took their toll and by the early-1960s a larger church was needed.

In 1962, the present church was blessed. Designed by local architect George McLaughlin, the design reflects hands folded in prayer. The 20-side stained glass windows depict 15-mysteries of the rosary, the arrival of the missionaries, the first lay catechists (Catholic teachers of the faith) in Hawaiʻi, Father Damien and the bishop receiving the current church.

Today, St Augustine-by-the-Sea Church sits within urban Honolulu at the eastern end of the Waikīkī resort area. It is surrounded by modem urban development and high-rise hotels.

St. Augustine by-the-sea has not undergone any major exterior renovations or improvements since its construction in 1962.  The church recently published a Master Plan and Environmental Assessment for a new multi-purpose Parrish Hall, as well as other improvements.

St. Augustine features a small museum dedicated to the life and times of St. Damien of Molokaʻi. In 1863, his brother, who was to leave for the Hawaiian Islands, became ill and Damien took his place. He arrived in Honolulu on March 19, 1864, and was ordained at the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace (in downtown Honolulu) on May 21, 1864.

For the next nine years he worked in missions on the big island, Hawaiʻi. In 1873, he went to the leper colony on Molokaʻi, after volunteering for the assignment.  He announced he was a leper in 1885 and continued to build hospitals, clinics and churches, and some six hundred coffins. He died on April 15 1885, on Molokaʻi.  (Lots of information and images from St. Augustine website and related reports.)

The image shows an earlier St. Augustine by-the-sea church.  In addition, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section.

Click HERE for images.

© 2013 Hoʻokuleana LLC

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

Walter Murray Gibson

Walter Murray Gibson was born at sea, the son of English emigrants, en route to the United States (March 6, 1822.)  His early years were spent in New York, New Jersey and South Carolina; and his youthful imagination was kindled into a flame of romantic ambition by tales of the East Indies.  (Kuykendall)

While still a young man, he had been imprisoned by the Dutch in Java for more than a year, found guilty of plotting to stir up a rebellion against their rule. From that time in 1850-51 he had carried a dream of becoming the savior of the island races of Oceania, of gaining power to rescue them from the misrule of their white masters.  (Adler – Kamins)

In 1861, he came to Hawaiʻi after joining the Mormon Church the year before; he was to serve as a missionary and envoy of the Mormon Church to the peoples of the Pacific Ocean.  He landed in Lānaʻi and eventually created the title "Chief President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the Islands of the Sea."  He more regularly went by the name Kipikona.

The experience with the Church was relatively short-lived; in 1864, he was excommunicated for selling priesthood offices, defrauding the Hawaiian members and misusing his ecclesiastical authority (in part, he was using church funds to buy land in his name.)

By the 1870s, Gibson focused his interests in ranching in the area called Koele, situated in a sheltered valley in the uplands of Kamoku Ahupuaʻa. As the ranch operation was developed, Koele was transformed from an area of traditional residency and sustainable agriculture to the ranch headquarters.  (Lānaʻi Culture and Heritage Center)

Herds of sheep were managed from Koele, and during shipping season, wool and mutton for the meat markets in Honolulu, were shipped from the coastal village of Awalua, at the northern end of the island. (Lānaʻi Culture and Heritage Center)

In 1872, Gibson moved from Lānaʻi to Lāhainā and then to Honolulu.

He established a small bilingual newspaper, Ka Nuhou (News,) and wrote, edited and ran it for 14-months (1873-1874.)   It grew in circulation to about 5,000, double the size of any other Hawaiian language periodical to and for the Hawaiian people.  Its slogan was – Hawaiʻi for the Hawaiians.

Not everyone enjoyed its content.  “The Nuhou is scurrilous and diverting, and appears 'run' with a special object, which I have not as yet succeeded in unraveling from its pungent but not always intelligible pages.”  (Isabella Bird)

He denounced, as enemies of the kingdom, those who favored ceding Pearl Harbor to the US as an inducement to enter into the reciprocity treaty with Hawaiʻi so eagerly sought by the sugar planters to gain access to the American market.  (Adler – Kamins)

He used the newspaper to support, first, Lunalilo, then, King Kalākaua in their election campaigns.

Following that, he ran for political office and served in the House of Representatives, representing Maui (the only haole in the 27-member Legislative Assembly - 1878-1882.)

He made his way to become as Finance Committee Chairman and under his leadership allocations of public funds showed his concern for the national pride of Hawaiians: $500 to Henri Berger, leader of the Hawaiian Band, for composing the music for Hawaii Ponoʻi, the new national anthem; $10,000 for a bronze statue of Kamehameha I; and $50,000 to begin construction of a new ʻIolani Palace, to house King Kalākaua and Queen Kapiʻolani, and all their successors. (Adler – Kamins)

Public service did not stop there.  He was later Member of Privy Council and Board of Health (1880, Health President 1882;) Commissioner of Crown Lands (1882;) Board of Education, President (1883;) Attorney General (1883;) House of Nobles (1882-1886;) Secretary of War & Navy (1886;) Premier and Minister of the Interior (1886) and Minister of Foreign Affairs (1882-1887.)

In his new capacities, Gibson’s first notable accomplishment was his development of a new monetary system for the island nation.  The new money was printed in San Francisco and the bills featured Kalākaua.  This was followed by the creation of a postal system; Gibson himself designed and printed the postage stamps for the Hawaiian kingdom.  (Lowe)

Then, the good times ended.  “A conspiracy against the peace of the Hawaiian Kingdom had been taking shape since early spring.”  (Liliʻuokalani)  In 1887, the struggle for control of Hawaiʻi was at its height as David Kalākaua was elected to the throne. But the businessmen were distrustful of him.

“So the mercantile element, as embodied in the Chamber of Commerce, the sugar planters, and the proprietors of the "missionary" stores, formed a distinct political party, called the "down-town" party, whose purpose was to minimize or entirely subvert other interests, and especially the prerogatives of the crown, which, based upon ancient custom and the authority of the island chiefs, were the sole guaranty of our nationality.”  (Liliʻuokalani)

The Hawaiian League (aka Committee of Thirteen, Committee of Public Safety & Annexation Club) were unhappy with the rule of Kalākaua and used threats to force the king to adopt a new constitution.  The Hawaiian League came into control of the Honolulu Rifles (made of about 200 armed men.)  The Hawaiian League used the Rifles to force King Kalākaua to enact the Bayonet Constitution.  (Kukendall)

On July 1, Kalākaua asked his entire cabinet to resign.  Gibson, a strong and vocal supporter of the King was also an early target.  He was captured by the Honolulu Rifles and almost lynched; instead, he was banished from the Islands.

He left Honolulu on July 12, 1887 on the sugar freighter JD Spreckels and arriving in San Francisco on August 6, 1887.  He spent the following five months in and out of St Mary’s Hospital and died January 21, 1888 of tuberculosis of the lungs.

When his body was returned to Honolulu, he lay in state and thousands lined up to view his remains through a windowed coffin.  “The place has been thronged with visitors, many of whom were natives, who expressed a kindly aloha for the departed Premier.”  (Daily Bulletin, February 18, 1888)

The image shows Walter Murray Gibson.  In addition, I have included other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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Tuesday, September 17, 2013

Hālona Blowhole

As molten lava flows, its surface cools; the lava then flows underground, forming tubes. When the eruption stops, lava drains from the tube, leaving it an open chamber.  Sea caves also can form with openings in the roof.

Near the ocean, this can form a blowhole.  As waves rush toward the rock, the water is compressed as it moves upward, erupting into a spray of water, not unlike a small geyser.

Blowholes are sometimes called "spouting horns" because of the loud roaring noises created by the rushing air and water coming up the chimney.

Hālona Blowhole on Oʻahu's eastern coastline has a narrow opening, but then it opens up about eight-feet below the surface.  The waves crashing against the shoreline rush through, sending a spout of water and spray up to 30-feet into the air.

Ha-Lo-Na is literally saying - See The Foundation Breathe or Look At The Breath Of The Foundation. Ancient Hawaiians may have found it - just like us - to be a marvel and entertaining to watch - and perhaps as stupid as some to challenge it.  (Yardley)

It is one of Oʻahu's busiest brief stops, for residents and visitors alike.

It gained attention years ago, and a lookout was initially built in the early-1950s; railings were added in 1971.

In 2008, a $1-million renovation project replaced a lower viewing platform that collapsed in 1997, added stainless-steel railings and a sitting area.  An expanded 42-stall parking lot, including two bus spots, was repaved, and an accessible sidewalk was added.

Viewing is not limited to the blowhole; on a clear day, the islands of Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi and Maui can be seen from the lookout (an etched compass of Oʻahu and a map shows the island locations.)

It is not safe to go down to the blow hole.  Numerous signs warn of the hazards of getting too close.   However, that doesn’t seem to stop people from trying (and dying.)

Since 1927, four people have been swept into the blowhole; three men have died in 1969, 1986 and 2002, one man survived in 1967.

Likewise, a list of SCUBA fatalities since 1971 shows that more fatalities occur at Hālona Blow Hole than any other dive site in the state. (shorediving)

The sea cliffs that make this stretch of shoreline so great for diving also preclude any easy exit sites. This, coupled with the strong current, slippery rocks, waves on the ledges and lack of lifeguards makes this coast one of the most hazardous on the island.

Nearby is Hālona Cove (to the right as you look out,) it's a small pocket of sand that has a history of its own.

It was here, in the 1953 film 'From Here to Eternity,' that Deborah Kerr and Burt Lancaster shared the kiss as a wave rolled in.  The location also served as a scene in the 'Pirates of the Caribbean IV,' '50 First Dates' and Nikki Minaj's 'Starships.'

The image shows the spectacular display of the Hālona Blow Hole on Oʻahu.    In addition, I have included other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.

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