Saturday, March 31, 2012

Uluniu Swimming Club

As a little kid, we’d go down to Waikiki Beach and visit my grandmother at the Uluniu Swimming Club.

Back in those times, it seemed like it was a place only grandmothers went; from my sub-four-foot perspective, the place was packed with old ladies.

It figures, Uluniu was originally founded as the Women's Auxiliary of the Outrigger Canoe Club.

The facility was right on Waikiki Beach between the Royal Hawaiian Hotel and the Moana Hotel, next door to the old location of the Outrigger Canoe Club.

I remember the hau-covered trellised walkway into the club.

Uluniu started in Waikiki in 1909; it was located in a grove called Helumoa (they say there were 10,000 coconut trees; in 1795, King Kamehameha I established a home in the Helumoa coconut grove.)

The Women's Auxiliary provided women and girls with a recreational environment, away from the men’s club.

In 1925, the Club separated from the Outrigger and became the Uluniu Women's Swimming Club, accepted male spouses as non-voting members, and sponsored swimming programs, meets and competitions with trophies sought by local high schools.

The Swanzy Cup, named for Julie Judd Swanzy, the first club president, was given to individuals, mostly for high school swimmers.

The Uluniu Bowl trophy was awarded to teams, and was won so many times by the Punahou School team that the Club has given it on permanent loan to the school.

In 1965, the Club changed its name for the third time to the Uluniu Swimming Club and admitted men as voting members.

The club no longer has a place at Waikiki; its last day on Waikiki Beach was June 26, 1968.

In the 1970s, the club purchased the present clubhouse property in Lāʻie, overlooking a large coconut palm-lined lawn extending to the beachfront.

Members and their guests can stay at the clubhouse, "Kaiwao" (literally, "inland of the sea;") it’s located just past the Polynesian Cultural Center.

It's actually a beach house used by members as an overnight-retreat.  With about 100 members in the club, members share responsibility of management and care for the house.

In 2008, about five-decades after first visiting Uluniu as a little kid, I joined the Uluniu Swimming Club; we enjoy our retreats to the beach house.

The images are of my grandparents and my mother enjoying Uluniu in the old days on Waikiki Beach; my mother is about the same age I was when I first went with her to see my grandmother at Uluniu (the Royal Hawaiian is in the background.)

I have also included some other images of Waikiki Beach in and around the old Uluniu location (between the Royal Hawaiian and Moana hotels,) as well as a couple modern shots of the clubhouse in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.

Friday, March 30, 2012

Holo Holo Kōloa Scenic Byway - Preservation Commendation

I am honored and proud to share with you some great news we just received concerning a project we are working on.

Holo Holo Kōloa Scenic Byway will be recognized with a Preservation Commendation from Historic Hawai‘i Foundation at its 2012 Preservation Honor Awards ceremony for outstanding efforts in preservation through planning and designation of the Holo Holo Kōloa Scenic Byway.

This award is being given to Kōloa Community Association, Mālama Koloa, Po‘ipū Beach Resort Association, HDOT Hawai'i Scenic Byways Program and Ho‘okuleana LLC.

Holo Holo Kōloa Scenic Byway, recently designated a State Scenic Byway, is situated in the historic
Old Kōloa Town and runs down and through the Po'ipu Beach resort area on Kaua‘i’s South Shore.

This region is steeped in history and its various points of interest tell the stories of Hawaii’s people and its evolving socio-economic past.

Along this corridor are significant historic, archaeological, cultural, natural, recreational and scenic resources.

Holo Holo Kōloa gives the traveler a look at the historic and socio-economic evolution of the Hawaiian Islands.

Here many "firsts" took place that ultimately guided this transformation.  This is a corridor with many stories to tell, under the backdrop of its impressive scenic and natural beauty.

We have been assisting Holo Holo Kōloa Scenic Byway in the State designation process, as well as preparing the Corridor Management Plan for the Scenic Byway.

This is our second Scenic Byway project.  We also prepared the Corridor Management Plan for the Royal Footsteps Along The Kona Coast.

Royal Footsteps also received a Historic Hawai‘i Foundation Preservation Commendation, as well as an APA-Hawai‘i Environment-Preservation Award and a Kona-Kohala Chamber of Commerce Pualu Award for Culture & Heritage.

Thursday, March 29, 2012

Luluku Agricultural Terraces

Unbeknown to many, land within the loop in the off-ramp road from H-3 connecting to Likelike Highway holds evidence of an inland component of the prehistoric settlement in Kāneʻohe.

This area is a small part and representative example of what constitutes the most extensive early wetland agricultural complex known on Oʻahu and has evidence of a long period of continued use and that probably began by 500 A.D.

The ‘ili (a smaller land division within an ahupuaʻa) of Luluku, located in the ahupuaʻa of Kāneʻohe, district of Koʻolaupoko, is where these numerous agricultural terraces are located.  The site is currently inaccessible to the public.

Luluku is one of five upland ‘ili (Luluku, Punalu‘u Mauka, Kapalai, Pa‘u and Kea‘ahala) that are within the traditional boundaries of Kāneʻohe.

The terrace system in Luluku followed the stream channels and utilized all of its tributaries to irrigate the various loʻi kalo (taro,) forming a continuous mosaic of lo‘i from the inland slopes to the lowlands along the coast.

As late as 1940, especially in the lowland terraces, Kāneʻohe ahupua’a was still one of the most active communities in planting commercial taro.

In modern times, uplands were planted in bananas and papaya; lowlands were planted with rice and taro.

I remember this upland area known as the "Banana Patch."  Large-scale banana plantations began in 1930s; rice and taro farmers also planted bananas in areas unsuitable for their main crop.  (There’s even a “Banana Patch” boat design from this area.)

The lo‘i kalo complex of agricultural terraces were initially divided by the construction of the Likelike Highway.  The terraces were further impacted by the construction of the Interstate H-3 and are now located within the Kāneʻohe Interchange.

As part of a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) Highways Administration and H-3 Cooperative Agreement, Hawai’i Department of Transportation and Office of Hawaiian Affairs are undertaking a project that would preserve and interpret the cultural resources at the Luluku Terraces in Kāneʻohe.

To date, an Interpretive Development Plan has been prepared, a Hālawa-Luluku Interpretive Development Working Group has been formed, and mitigation measures and actions are identified.  These efforts will restore a small portion of the once extensive loʻi kalo in Kāneʻohe.

The vision of the program is, "The Luluku Agricultural Terraces shall be restored through the perpetuation of culturally appropriate science, engineering and agricultural practices.  Research will be demonstrated through the planting of primarily native Hawaiian kalo using ancient and contemporary techniques in water resource management and sustainable agricultural practices.  The relationship between the land and its people are of both historical and cultural importance in the context of interpretations which emphasizes Luluku’s ability to feed many people in the Kāneʻohe district and areas beyond."

Find more here:

I’ve added some additional images of the Lukuku site and other agriculture in the Kāne‘ohe area in a folder of like name in the Photos section.  In some, you can see that rice replaced the former taro lo‘i; likewise, pineapple replaced other agriculture in this region.)

Wednesday, March 28, 2012

Currency Stamped with “HAWAII” during WWII

Like most people of his generation, my father saved stuff, especially “special” stamps, currency and coins - below is a $10 bill of his that he gave to me.

According to the Federal Reserve, with the start of World War II, the US started printing specialized military currency to provide economic stability for the US dollar in occupied countries.

In Hawaiʻi, the Treasury Department replaced all US currency with special issue notes as a precautionary measure in the event of a Japanese victory.

These notes were circulated only in Hawai‘i and their brown seals and serial numbers differentiated them from notes issued on the mainland.

Overprints of the word HAWAII were made; two small overprints to the sides of the obverse of the bill between the border and both the treasury seal and Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco seal, and huge outlined HAWAII lettering dominating the reverse.

The hope was that, should there have been a Japanese invasion, the US Government could immediately declare any Hawai‘i-stamped notes worthless, due to their easy identification.

$1, $5, $10 and $20 San Francisco Reserve notes featured the seal and serial numbers that the Bureau of Engraving and Printing called the "Hawaiʻi Overprint" (from July 1942 until October 1944.)

Hawai‘i wasn’t the only place where special currency was distributed.  Similarly, special notes were issued for use by American troops during the invasion of North Africa in November 1942.

These notes were overprinted with distinctive yellow Treasury Seals to distinguish them from the regular Silver Certificates overprinted with blue seals.

Like the overprinted Hawai‘i notes, these distinctive certificates could be declared worthless if large amounts fell into enemy hands.

In addition to the Hawai‘i currency issued, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing produced or oversaw the private production of Allied military currency used in Italy, France, Austria, Germany and Japan during and after the war.

The Department of the Treasury redeems all genuine United States currency at face value only, and does not render opinions concerning the numismatic value of old or rare currencies.

However, numerous websites indicate premiums are being paid for these special bills.  (I am keeping mine as a reminder of my father.)

Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Wind, Wings and Waves

Hawaiʻi is the world’s most-isolated, populated-place, we are about: 2,500-miles from the US mainland, Samoa & Alaska; 4,000-miles from Tokyo, New Zealand & Guam, and 5,000-miles from Australia, the Philippines & Korea.

We are surrounded by a vast ocean and sometimes naively feel isolated, separated and protected from outside threats and negative impacts.  Unfortunately, we take too much for granted.

Formation of Hawaiian Island chain started more than 70 million years ago.  Yet despite millions of years of isolation, plants, animals and insects found their way to Hawaiʻi ... on Wind, Wings and Waves.

Some seeds, spores and insects arrived on the wind.  A few birds flew or were blown off course; in them or stuck to their feathers were more seeds.  Some seeds managed to float here on ocean currents or waves.  Ocean currents also carried larval forms of fish, invertebrates, algae and even our freshwater stream species.

It is estimated that one plant or animal arrived and successfully colonized every 30,000 years.  Over millions of years in isolation, these original plant and animal species changed, forming into our native species.

The first alien species arrived with Polynesians in the year 300 A.D. or so. In 1778, Hawaiʻi was placed on the world map; and so started new invasive species pathways.

It is estimated that in the last 230+ years, as many as 10,000 plants have been introduced: 343 new marine/brackish water species; Hawaiʻi went from 0 native land reptiles to 40; 0 amphibians to 6 (including coqui) and there is a new insect in Hawaiʻi every day.

The greatest threat to Hawaiʻi’s native species is invasive species.

Hawaiʻi has the dubious distinction of being called the endangered species capital of the world and unfortunately leads the nation in endangered species listings with 354 federally listed threatened or endangered listed species.

With only 0.2% of the land area of the United States, nearly 75% of the nation’s historically documented plant and bird extinctions are from Hawaiʻi.  We have more endangered species per square mile on these islands than any other place on Earth.

Impacts from invasive species are real and diverse: Tourism and agriculture-based economy; Forests’ ability to channel rainwater into our watersheds; Survival of native species found nowhere else; Health of residents and visitors; and Quality of life that makes Hawaiʻi a special place.

Today, the pathways to paradise are diverse, including: air & ship cargo; ship hulls & ballast water; hand-carry/luggage; mail & freight forwarders; forestry activities; horticulture trade; aquaculture; pet trade; botanical gardens and agriculture experiment stations (or simply on you and your clothing.)

While I was at DLNR, we formed and I co-chaired the Hawai‘i Invasive Species Council, a multi-jurisdictional agency, established to provide policy level direction, coordination, and planning among state departments, federal agencies, and international and local initiatives.

Our focus was primarily on two actions: the control and eradication of harmful invasive species infestations throughout the State; and prevention the introduction of other invasive species that may be potentially harmful.

We must continue to be vigilant in stopping new pests from coming in and eradicating those that have already made it to our shores.

We share a common goal.  Whether your concern is in having enough water, healthy reefs, diverse forests, a healthy economy or a healthy family, we all want the same thing:  To make and keep Hawaiʻi a great place to live.

Monday, March 26, 2012

Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Piʻikoi

Born on March 26, 1871, Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Piʻikoi (grandson of Kaua‘i King Kaumuali‘i and the cousin of King Kalākaua and Queen Lili‘uokalani) was prince of the reigning House of Kalākaua.

After the rule of the House of Kamehameha ended with the death of King Kamehameha V in 1872, and King Liholiho died in 1874, the House of Kalākaua ascended to the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.

He became an orphan after his father died in 1880 and mother in 1884.  Prince Kūhiō was adopted by King David Kalākaua’s wife, Queen Kapi‘olani, who was his maternal aunt.

He attended the Royal School and Punahou; studied four years in St. Matthew’s College, California; was a student at the Royal Agricultural College in England and graduated from a business college in England.

Historical accounts say that Kūhiō was tagged with the nickname “Prince Cupid” by a French teacher when he was very young because of his chubby stature and good-natured personality.

He witnessed the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, took the side of the monarchy, was found guilty of treason for plotting a counter-revolutionary attempt and made a political prisoner.

Prince Kūhiō, last royal heir to the Hawaiian throne, Delegate to Congress for ten consecutive terms and tireless worker for native Hawaiian rights, was born along the Poʻipū coast at Kukui‘ula and grew up in Kōloa on Kaua‘i.

Kūhiō was often called Ke Ali‘i Maka‘āinana (Prince of the People) and is well known for his efforts to preserve and strengthen the Hawaiian people.

In politics, he was a Republican.  He launched a campaign to establish local government at the County level; this led to the County Act in 1905.  Under the Act, the islands were divided into five separate Counties.

Prince Kūhiō restored the Royal Order of Kamehameha I and established the Hawaiian Civic Club.

The Order of Kamehameha I was established on April 11, 1865 by King Kamehameha V (Lot Kapuāiwa) to honor the legacy of his grandfather, the unifier of these islands, Kamehameha the Great. 

The Order was reorganized by Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaole in 1902.  Today, the organization continues to guard, maintain and preserve the rituals and the memory of the ruling Chiefs of Hawai‘i.

Hawaiian Civic Clubs were organized in 1918 and were formed to provide scholarship aid for the education of Hawaiian students; preserve and promote the Hawaiian heritage, traditions, language and culture; improve the conditions of the Hawaiian people and community at large; and perpetuate the values that dignify all human life.

In 1919 he also introduced the first bill asking that Hawai‘i become a state. 

While a delegate of Congress, he spearheaded the effort in the passage of the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act that provides lands for native Hawaiians.

He was concerned about the diminishing number of Hawaiians and their seeming inability to adapt to urban living.  It was his dream to have Hawaiians return to the land and encourage them to be self-sufficient farmers, ranchers and homesteaders.

Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Piʻikoi died on January 7, 1922 of heart disease.  He was given the last state funeral for an Ali‘i; he is buried at Mauna ‘Ala, the Royal Mausoleum.

Prince Kūhiō Day is an official holiday in the State of Hawaiʻi.  It is celebrated annually on March 26, to mark the birth of Prince Kūhiō.

Here are links to entities that Prince Kūhiō helped form/reorganize:

The Prince Kūhiō Birthsite is one of the featured Points of Interest on the Holo Holo Kōloa Scenic Byway.  We are working with Mālama Kōloa and the Kōloa Community Association in preparing the Corridor Management Plan for the Scenic Byway.

The image shows the statue of Prince Kūhiō in Waikīkī.

Sunday, March 25, 2012

Kaniakapūpū: The Summer Palace Of King Kamehameha III

Kaniakapūpū (translated roughly as “sound (or song) of the land shells” sits on land managed by the State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife, as the Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve and a Restricted Watershed.

Located in the Luakaha area of Nu‘uanu Valley, O‘ahu, Kaniakapūpū (sound or song of the land snail) is the ruins of the royal summer palace of King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) and Queen Kalama.

The structure at Kaniakapūpū (modeled on an Irish stone cottage) was completed in 1845 and is reportedly built on top or in the vicinity of an ancient heiau.  It was a simple cottage, a square with four straight walls.

During the Battle of Nu‘uanu in 1795, the forces of King Kamehameha I engaged the warriors of Kalanikupule at Luakaha, some say this was a turning point of that great struggle.  Before that, it was the site of a heiau used for healing (heiau hoʻōla) since ancient times.

In 1847, as part of an event observing an anniversary of Restoration Day or Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea (celebrating sovereignty being returned to the Kingdom of Hawaii by the British,) Kaniakapūpū was the site of celebration hosted by the King and with guests in attendance in excess of 10,000 people (reportedly, the largest lūʻau ever recorded.) 

It is rumored that Kamehameha III may have drafted the Great Mahele here, the land reforms implemented in 1848 that abolished the ahupua‘a system and allowed for private land ownership.

Today, stone ahu or mounds sit just across Lulumahu Stream, marking what many believe to be grave markers of fallen warriors.

The gravesites, the location of the original heiau known as Kaniakapūpū and the placement of the King's summer palace all attest to the significance of this very special and very Hawaiian place.

Kaniakapūpū has been placed on both the National and State of Hawaii's Register of Historic Places.

On November 13, 2002, the burial mounds were brought to the attention of the Oʻahu Island Burial Council.  After full discussion, several motions were adopted which would assist in the preservation of Kaniakapūpū and the burial mounds.

When I was at DLNR, we presented and the Land Board unanimously approved (December 8, 2006) the establishment of a Kokua Partnership Agreement with Aha Hui Mālama O Kaniakapūpū.

Aha Hui Mālama O Kaniakapūpū is a non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of Hawaiian cultural traditions through the conservation of native ecosystems.

Through this partnership, Aha Hui Mālama O Kaniakapūpū would take responsibility for the maintenance and ongoing stewardship of Kaniakapūpū, its immediate surrounding area and the burial mounds located across of Lulumahu Stream.

Aha Hui Mālama O Kaniakapūpū was charged with creating controlled access which would be obtained by permit consistent with the Restricted Watershed rules and would be supervised by a member of the Hui who could also act in a curator capacity.

A plaque placed at the site reads,”Kaniakapūpū - Summer Palace of King Kamehameha III and his Queen Kalama Completed in 1845, it was the scene of entertainment of foreign celebrities the feasting of chiefs and commoners.  The greatest of these occasions was a luau attended by an estimated ten thousand people celebrating Hawaiian Restoration Day in 1847.”

I’ve included some additional images and layout of Kaniakapūpū in a folder of like name in the Photos section of my Facebook page.

Saturday, March 24, 2012

French Frigate Shoals (Kānemilohaʻi)

Is it just me, or can others see an eerie similarity between Lānaʻi and French Frigate Shoals?

Here's another interesting quirk between them - each is 18-miles long.  (Can you hear the Twilight Zone theme, too?)

French Frigate Shoals was my first experience in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) (now the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.)

After a 3½ plane ride, we landed on Tern Island (it looks like an aircraft carrier in the reef - it's just off to the left at the top of the image.)

French Frigate Shoals is the first atoll to the northwest of the main Hawaiian Islands and is also the midpoint of the archipelago (about 490-miles WNW of Oʻahu) and the largest coral reef area in Hawai‘i.

According to the Monument Management Plan, this low, flat area is called Kānemilohaʻi (flat, sand island) is where Pele is said to have left one of her older brothers, Kānemiloha‘i, as a guardian during her first journey to Hawai‘i from Kahiki (Tahiti.)

 Pele continued down the archipelago until finally settling in Kīlauea, Hawai‘i Island, where she is said to reside today.

"Shoal of the French Frigates" was rediscovered (and named by reference) on November 6, 1786 when two French frigates, the Astrolabe and the Boussole, narrowly averted running into the reef.

French Frigate Shoals is the largest atoll in the chain, taking the form of an 18-mile long crescent. It is estimated to be 12.3 million years old.

Tern Island (approximately 30-acres) in the atoll is the site of a Fish & Wildlife Service field station, which occupies a former U.S. Coast Guard Long-Range Aids to Navigation (LORAN) station that closed in 1979.

Within the NWHI, French Frigate Shoals is the center of diversity for corals (more than 41 species, including the genus Acropora, which is all but absent elsewhere in Hawai‘i) and reef fishes (178 species).

A relatively deep (80 to 100 feet) coral reef at this atoll has been recently discovered to function as a spawning site for Ulua (the giant trevally); a rare discovery of spawning sites for top predators.

The lagoon is also unusual in that it contains two exposed volcanic pinnacles representing the last vestiges of the high island from which the atoll was derived, as well as nine low, sandy islets.  The sand islets are small, shift position, and disappear and reappear.

The largest pinnacle, La Perouse Pinnacle, is a rock outcrop in the center of the atoll; it’s reportedly the oldest and most remote volcanic rock in the Hawaiian chain.

These islets provide important habitat for the world’s largest breeding colony of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal. 

The atoll’s sandy islets also provide nesting sites for 90 percent of the threatened green turtle population breeding in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

On a tour around Tern Island we saw monk seals and turtles resting on the sandy shore, as well markings in the sand of a turtle who laid her eggs the night before.

And lots of birds … mostly terns ---> Tern Island.

On that trip, we were unexpectedly greeted by Jean-Michel Cousteau; he was on the island during his filming of "Voyage to Kure."

I’ve included some additional images of French Frigate Shoals (Kānemilohaʻi) in a folder of like name in the Photos section of my Facebook page.

Friday, March 23, 2012

Camp Tarawa - Waimea, Island of Hawaiʻi

Camp Tarawa memorial was erected on July 3rd 1984 - the large rock is symbolic of Mt Suribachi on Iwo Jima; the brass plaque is made from shell casings.  The memorial has three panels.

The left panel is dedicated to 2nd Marine Division for the battle of Tarawa and their training here until they departed for Saipan and Tinian.

Marines and Sailors trained for what has been referred to as the toughest marine offensive of WWII. 1300 miles northeast of Guadalcanal, the Japanese had constructed a centralized stronghold force in a 20-island group called Tarawa.

RADM Shibasaki, the Japanese commander there, proclaimed, “a million men cannot take Tarawa in a hundred years.”   Ultimately, the objective took 9,000 marines only four days - but not without a staggering 37% casualties.

The victories at Tarawa, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands marked a turning point in the war.  The Marines would reconstitute at the Camp Tarawa camp site.

The right panel commemorates 5th Marine Division through the battle of Iwo Jima and occupation of Japan.

Lt General Kuribayashi, Japanese ground forces commander, concentrated his forces in the northern two-thirds of the island. The miles of interlocking caves, concrete blockhouses and pillboxes proved to be one of the most impenetrable defenses in the Pacific.

While the 4th Marine Division defeated heavy opposition to take a Japanese strong-point called the quarry, the 28th Marines of 5th Marine Division seized Mount Suribachi.   The 36-day assault on Iwo Jima cost America more than 26,000 casualties, including 6,800 dead.  Of the 20,000 Japanese defenders, only 1,083 survived.

Twenty-seven Medals of Honor were awarded to Marines and Sailors, many posthumously - more than for any other single operation during the war.

The center panel honors Richard Smart, Parker Ranch, the community of Waimea and the Big Island.

Camp Tarawa trained over 50,000 servicemen between 1942 and 1945.

Originally an Army camp named Camp Waimea, when the population in town was about 400, it became the largest Marine training facility in the Pacific following the battle of Tarawa.

There were three ways to get to Camp Tarawa - by narrow-gage sugarcane freight train; by hard-axle truck or on foot.  Many arrived to sleep outdoors on rough lava beds until Seabee construction could catch up with the surge - all were appreciative of the shelter and the respite from war.

Pyramid tent cities and streets of long convoys of jeeps, trucks, half-tracks, tanks, artillery, amphibious ducks made up the formidable, but top secret, Camp Tarawa.

The town warmly received the Marines who:
  • Bought all the goods from the farmers and storekeepers
  • Brought in Bob Crosby’s (Bing’s brother) Band
  • Set up outdoor movie theaters
  • Played baseball with the locals
  • Ate Thanksgiving dinner in Kohala homes
  • Conducted live fire training

The camp closed in November 1945 as 5th Marine Division was transferred to Japan for occupation.  The Army took over the camp and auctioned off the remaining assets.

The image shows the Camp Tarawa Memorial (top) and an aerial view of Waimea at the time of encampment (bottom.)  In addition, more images have been added to a folder of like name in the Photos section, including several images from The Waimea Gazette (used with their permission.)

Past articles by Aileen Lindsey Barros, Alice Cook and Gordon Bryson in The Waimea Gazette (February 1995 & March 1995) give more good information on Camp Tarawa (here are links:)

Thursday, March 22, 2012

Lāna‘i Culture & Heritage Center Presents "Aloha Lāna‘i"

No plans this weekend?  Problem solved.

Lāna‘i Culture & Heritage Center Presents "Aloha Lāna‘i" a Benefit Fundraising Event on the Island of O‘ahu, Sunday, March 25th, 2012 - Saint Louis High School - Mamiya Theater.

I was early and fortunately got my tickets early; but I understand due to an overwhelming response to the Aloha Lanai Benefit Concert, the event has been sold out.

Not to fret - arrangements have been made for overflow seating in the Saint Louis Presidential Suite adjoining Mamiya Theater.

Sunday, March 25, 2012 at Saint Louis Campus - Mamiya Theater; $30.00 at door.

Outside at 4:00 pm - Strolling musicians; Voices of Lanai Oral History Program; Silent Auction Opportunities viewing and bidding; Food ; Sales of CDs from contributing musicians; Sales of Lanai Culture & Heritage Center Publications and a special "Aloha Lanai" t-shirt.

In the Mamiya Theater at 6:00 pm - Welcome presentations/program background and call to support; Raffle Giveaway and Silent Auction; Music and Hula.

Proceeds benefit heritage, preservation and cultural-historical education programs on Lāna‘i.

How John Young and Isaac Davis Came to Hawai‘i

John Young (British) and Isaac Davis (Welch) became two of the closest advisors to Kamehameha I. Here is a very brief summary on how they got to Hawai‘i and to Kamehameha.

In 1789, Simon Metcalf (captaining the Eleanora) and his son Thomas Metcalf (captaining the Fair American) were traders; their plan was to meet and spend winter in the Hawaiian Islands.

The Eleanora arrived in the islands first; John Young was boatswain on the Eleanora. In Kohala on the island of Hawaiʻi, Metcalf was greeted by local chief Kame’eiamoku.

Metcalf believed in strong and immediate punishment when his rules were broken. By most accounts he was snappish and harsh; because of some infraction, Metcalf had the chief flogged. Metcalf then sailed to the neighboring island of Maui to trade along the coast.

Kame‘eiamoku vowed revenge on whatever ship next came his way.

By coincidence, the Fair American was the next ship to visit the territory of chief Kame‘eiamoku, who was eager for revenge. Isaac Davis was a crew member of the Fair American.

On March 16, 1790, the Fair American was attacked by Kameʻeiamoku’s warriors at Puako, near Kawaihae, Hawaii.

The schooner was manned by only four sailors, plus its relatively inexperienced captain. It was easily captured by the Hawaiians.

Kame‘eiamoku appropriated the ship, its guns, ammunition and other valuable goods, as well as the only survivor, Isaac Davis. They turned the Fair American and Davis over to Kamehameha.

Unaware of the events and fate of the Fair American, the Eleanora returned from Maui and arrived at the Big Island; Captain Simon Metcalf sent John Young ashore to see the country.

That evening, as Young attempted to return to his ship, Kamehameha’s forces detained him (Kamehameha had placed a kapu on anyone going on the ship.)

Young was captured and Metcalf, unaware, was puzzled why Young did not return.

Metcalf waited two days for Young to return, firing guns in hope that the sound would guide Young back and sending a letter to foreigners ashore.

Finally, sensing danger or becoming frustrated, Metcalf departed and set sail for China (abandoning Young,) not knowing that his son had been killed not far away.

Kamehameha befriended Young and Davis, who became respected translators and his close and trusted advisors. Their skill in gunnery, as well as the cannon and other weapons from the Fair American, helped Kamehameha win many battles.

John Young and Isaac Davis were instrumental in Kamehameha's military ventures and his eventual conquest and unification of the Hawaiian Islands.

The image, reportedly the oldest surviving document from Hawai‘i in the Hawai‘i State Archives (222-years old, today) is the letter, dated March 22, 1790, written by Captain Simon Metcalf, addressed to four foreigners living there at the time (coincidently, one was also named John Young) - demanding the return of John Young and threatening revenge.

It reads, “As my Boatswain landed by your invitation if he is not returned to the Vessel consequences of an unpleasant nature must follow, (to distress a Vessel in these seas is an affair of no small magnitude) if your Word be the Law of Owhyhe (Hawai‘i) as you have repeatedly told me there can be no difficulty in doing me justice in this Business, otherwise I am possessed of sufficient powers to take ample revenge which it is your duty to make the head Chief (Kamehameha) acquainted with.”

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

How Much Land Do We Need To Be Food Self-Sufficient?

Given the recent and on-going conversations on food “self-sufficiency” and “sustainability,” in trying to answer the above question, I first looked to existing State plans to see the estimates and computations noted there.

To my surprise, there is no detail in the Hawaii 2050 Plan (the State’s most recent long-range planning document) that quantifies how much land is needed for food self-sufficiency.

While it does use “happy words” (as I describe its text) generalizing that we need to do this or that; however, no roadmap to get there or measures of success are included.

I then did an internet investigation into the matter to see if ‘rules of thumb’ or other standards could apply.  The evidence is variable.

As noted by the graphic used here, some suggest, at a self-subsistence level, a family of four can live off of approximately 2-acres of land.

Extend that to the Hawai‘i’s existing defacto population of about 1.5-million people, we need about 750,000-acres of land to feed everyone.  (Of course, there are economies of scale when moving from individual family subsistence production to commercial scale production, so this number is inflated.)

(By the way, de facto population is defined as the number of persons physically present in an area, regardless of military status or usual place of residence.  It includes visitors present but excludes residents temporarily absent, both calculated as an average daily census.)

The 750K acres for 1.5M people conflicts with a report on feeding the people in the city of Detroit.  In that report, Detroit’s 5.4-million people would require only 164,250-acres to feed everyone there, per year.

Extrapolating that to Hawai‘i’s 1.5-million de facto population that means, under the Detroit analysis, Hawai‘i only needs about 45,625-acres of farmland to feed the State.  Hmmm.

Another study on Costa Rica “Quantifying Sustainable Development: The Future of Tropical Economies” suggests that it takes about 495,000-acres of land to feed 1.2- to 1.6-million people.

Of course, all of these estimates do not include the significant dietary supplement we are able to use in Hawai‘i by harvesting seafood from the surrounding ocean.

Nor does it include opportunities that concentrated farming offer, like aquaponics, hydroponics, intensive grazing, etc.

So, while we talk about food “self-sufficiency” and “sustainability” what are we doing about it?

Lately, I think the only ‘action’ has been talk – folks go to a meeting, talk, then they prepare a plan.  They meet again, and talk some more.  Then everyone goes away satisfied that they are ‘doing’ something (until the next happy words meeting.)

Presently, the State designates about 1.9-million acres as “Agriculture.” The USDA reports Hawai‘i’s total farm acreage is 1.1-million acres of land.

And, of course, you can farm lands that are not designated ‘agriculture;’ meaning, a lot more land is available for food production from lands under other land use classifications (including everyone’s own backyard.)
Given that, should we all feel comfortable there will be food for us in the future?

Not quite.

I think it is about time we have a frank discussion about what our needs are and start to take the necessary steps to ultimately realize our goal of food self-sufficiency and sustainability.

The world is changing in lots of ways - we cannot blindly go along with business as usual (with just happy words) in addressing this important and critical need.

Tuesday, March 20, 2012

Three Contemporary Leaders

While not the three amigos, these were three concurrent warriors and leaders of their respective parts of the planet – Kamehameha, Washington and Napoleon.

Each came into prominence through war and each left a mark in history in civil governance.

Kamehameha I (ca. 1758 – May 8, 1819)

Kamehameha was initially known as Paiʻea, which means “hard-shelled crab;” Kamehameha means "The Lonely One."

Raised in the royal court of his uncle, Kalaniʻōpuʻu, Kamehameha achieved prominence in 1782, upon Kalaniʻōpuʻu’s death.  While the kingship was inherited by Kalaniʻōpuʻu's son Kiwalaʻo, Kamehameha was given the prominent position of guardianship of the Hawaiian god of war, Kūkaʻilimoku.

In 1785, Kamehameha married Ka‘ahumanu, the daughter of one of his most trusted advisors.  In 1790, he attained control of Hawai‘i Island, then he successfully invaded the Islands of Maui, Lāna‘i, Moloka‘i and O‘ahu, by 1795.  Ultimately, in 1810, Kauai‘i’s Kaumuali‘i decided to peacefully yield and unite with Kamehameha and join the rest of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.

Kamehameha instituted the Kānāwai Māmalahoe, the Law of the Splintered Paddle.  The law, "Let every elderly person, woman and child lie by the roadside in safety," is enshrined in the state constitution, Article 9, Section 10, and has become a model for modern human rights law regarding the treatment of civilians and other non-combatants.

George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)

The first president of the United States, George Washington, serving from 1789 to 1797, is often referred to as the Father of Our Country.

He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783.

After victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to the emerging American political ideology of republicanism.  Washington was elected as the first president in 1789, and re-elected 1792.

Dissatisfied with the weaknesses of Articles of Confederation, in 1787, Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention that drafted the United States Constitution.

Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821)

Napoleon was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.

As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815.  He is remembered for his role in the wars led against France by a series of coalitions, the so-called Napoleonic Wars; his legal reform, the Napoleonic Code (with enhanced civil rights, property rights and class privileges were extinguished,) has been a major influence on many civil law jurisdictions worldwide.

After a streak of victories, France secured a dominant position in continental Europe and Napoleon maintained the French sphere of influence through the formation of extensive alliances.  Ultimately, in June 1815, Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo; he spent the last six years of his life in confinement by the British.

I find it interesting to see what these three notable leaders were doing at the same time in disparate and unconnected parts of the world.

I don’t know about you, but I am curious and fascinated in looking at similar timeframes and comparing histories of different parts of the world.

In future posts, I’ll include some additional ‘what’s going on here’ versus ‘what’s going on over there’ comparisons.

Monday, March 19, 2012

Poʻouli - Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) Forest Bird

The Po‘ouli is a stocky Hawaiian honeycreeper endemic to Maui that was not discovered until 1973. Po‘ouli have short wings and tail, a finch-like bill and distinctive plumage.

Aptly named “black-faced” in Hawaiian, Po‘ouli have a large black face mask, white cheeks, throat and underparts and brown wings and back; no other Hawaiian forest bird is similarly colored.

It has been listed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) and probably holds the distinction of being the most endangered bird in the world.

In 1980, the Poʻouli population was estimated at 140 birds. Last seen in 2003 and 2004, there are only two known individuals: one male and one female.

The two remaining birds are at least seven years old and are nearing the end of their reproductive lifespan; unfortunately, they had differing home ranges.

The exact causes of Poʻouli’s rapid population decline, since the species' discovery in 1973, are not well understood.

The Po‘ouli is likely susceptible to the same factors that threaten other native Hawaiian forest birds, including: loss and degradation of habitat, predation by introduced mammals (including cats, rats and mongoose) and disease.

The remaining Poʻouli individuals were found in windswept, high-elevation rainforest on the northeast slope of Haleakala Volcano.

I remember a helicopter trip flying over this region on our way to Waikamoi with folks from The Nature Conservancy; we knew that people were on the ground trying to capture the, then, three remaining Poʻouli.

Crews were attempting to catch the elusive birds to attempt to breed them in captivity; since it appeared natural breeding was not occurring.

I vividly remember a meeting of the Board of Land and Natural Resources, in September 2004. In the middle of the meeting, my secretary came into the room and approached me.

She knew that I frowned upon interruptions of Land Board meetings, but she also knew of my interest and concern about the Po‘ouli. She handed me a note and shared the great news, which I then shared with the rest of the people at the Land Board meeting.

Members of the Maui Forest Bird Conservation Center captured one of the only three remaining Po‘ouli birds that had been known to exist.

In the following days, the flurry of e-mails for days after this was phenomenal; the excitement, anticipation and hope that each shared in the prospect of saving a species. This was an exciting time to be at DLNR.

However, scientists’ efforts for captive breeding were crushed when the female bird died of malaria in November 2004 and no further sightings have been made of the two known remaining birds in the forest. (However, scientists successfully took tissue samples for possible future cloning.)

I want to make sure people realize and appreciate the magnitude of this story. We are talking about the possible end of a species. Someone, a few short years ago, had in his hands potentially the last bird of its species.

Sad as this story ends, it is an example of the kind of stuff that happens in resource management, especially in a place like Hawaiʻi where there are so many plants and animals that are endangered.

There is a lot of good work being done by a lot of good people to save a lot of species at risk. Thank you to all.

Sunday, March 18, 2012

Letting A Stream Be A Stream

The State Water Code provides for the Commission on Water Resource Management (Water Commission) to establish and administer a statewide instream use protection program.

Duties under this program include:
        Establishing instream flow standards on a stream-by-stream basis whenever necessary to protect the public interest in waters of the State
        Establishing interim instream flow standards
        Protecting stream channels from alteration whenever practicable to provide for fishery, wildlife, recreational, aesthetic, scenic, and other beneficial instream uses
        Establishing an instream flow program to protect, enhance and reestablish, where practicable, beneficial instream uses of water

Instream Flow Standard is “a quantity or flow of water or depth of water which is required to be present at a specific location in a stream system at certain specified times of the year to protect fishery, wildlife, recreational, aesthetic, scenic, and other beneficial instream uses.”

The technical language of the law is complicated; I simplify this to say that the instream flow standard allows a stream to be a stream.

Unfortunately, Hawai‘i’s do not have permanent IFS; our streams are monitored under Interim Instream Flow Standards (IIFS.)  Essentially this means that, years ago, the Water Commission allowed existing diversions to continue and whatever remained in the stream was the IIFS.

Lack of Instream Flow Standards has caused a number of litigations, Waiāhole being the most prominent.  The Waiāhole water case and others have taught us that we need to do things differently.

The Hawai‘i Supreme Court emphasized in the Waiāhole case that instream flow standards serve as the primary mechanism by which the Water Commission is to discharge its duty to protect and promote the entire range of public trust purposes dependent upon instream flows.

Under the Constitution, the State has an obligation to protect, control and regulate the use of Hawaii’s water resources for the benefit of its people.  In the Waiāhole case, the Supreme Court reaffirmed that the public trust doctrine applies to all water resources of the State.

The Court also identified three purposes or uses under the public trust doctrine: Maintenance of waters in their natural state (letting a steam be a stream;) Domestic water use (drinking water for you and me;) and Native Hawaiian traditional and customary rights.

Rather than react to the next litigation or crisis, we need to take proactive, comprehensive and collaborative approaches in developing instream flow standards for Hawai‘i’s stream systems.

While at DLNR, I Chaired the State Commission on Water Resource Management (the Water Commission.)  We worked on several programs to develop a better understanding of Hawai‘i’s 376 perennial streams.

These programs included: Statewide Watershed Coding System – providing a framework for inventorying of surface water resource information; Stream Diversion Database - providing information for all diversions statewide; Surface Water Information Management System – providing the informational foundation for instream flow standards; and Hawaii Stream Assessment through DLNR’s division on Aquatic Resources - the stream coding system.

The goal is to establish permanent instream flow standards for all streams across the state that are consistent and, to the extent practicable, based on scientific or measurable data, all in a manner that is understandable and transparent.  It is anticipated that this methodology will avoid future, lengthy litigation, as experienced in the past.

Saturday, March 17, 2012

Kauikeaouli – Kamehameha III

When I was a sophomore at University of Denver, I transferred into the business school and changed my major to real estate.

As a student of real estate, I became fascinated with Hawai‘i’s Great Māhele and the actions of Kauikeaouli, Kamehameha III.

Prior to the Māhele, the king controlled everything; he delegated authority to some of the land to his favored chiefs.

Although the chiefs controlled the land and extracted food and labor from the commoners who farmed the soil, “everyone had rights of access and use to the resources of the land and the sea … The people were sustained by a tradition of sharing and common use.”

The Great Māhele did not convey land, but established a land commission and provided the means whereby land claims could be presented to the commission and decided by them.

Ultimately, it transformed land tenure from feudal/communal trusteeship to private ownership.

It turns out that the Māhele is not my only tie to Kamehameha III.  In doing research for various planning projects we have been involved with, I learned of Kamehameha III’s ties back to Hiram Bingham, my great-great-great grandfather.

While doing a Master Plan, Cultural Impact Assessment and Environmental Assessment for DHHL on their lands on Mauna Kea, I learned that Bingham and Kamehameha III traveled to the summit of Mauna Kea together.  Mauna Kea is a very special place for me.

In doing some preliminary research for another planning project on Kaua‘i, I learned that Bingham and Kamehameha III interacted with each other there, as well.

Since I spent a lot of time in Kona, I was aware that Kauikeaouli’s Birthsite was in Keauhou.  This is one of the featured sites in the Royal Footsteps Along the Kona Coast Scenic Byway; we prepared its Corridor Management Plan.

Kauikeaouli spent the first 5-years of his life in the ‘O‘oma ahupua‘a in Kona (the place where he first learned to be a king.)  For the past five years, I have been working on planning and permitting on the coastal part of the ‘O‘oma ahupua‘a.

In 1846, Kamehameha III and the legislature passed a law declaring “the forests and timber growing therein shall be considered government property" in an effort to conserve the forests from further encroachment on the seaward side by the plantations’ need for fuel and on the mountain side from grazing animals.

The Forest Reserves in the state are managed by DLNR; as Director of DLNR, I oversaw the activities and was responsible for DLNR's Forestry and Wildlife Division, which oversees the State's forested lands.

Interesting; somehow I feel a link – I feel close to Kauikeaouli.  (Whenever his name comes up, I have anticipation on learning more about him.)

I wonder how our next project will link me back to Kauikeaouli - Kamehameha III.

Kauikeaouli was stillborn, but was revived.  He was the second son of Kamehameha I. 

The younger brother of Liholiho, he served as Hawai‘i’s King from 1825 to 1854.  Kauikeaouli was only about 10 or 11 when he ascended to the throne and had the longest reign in Hawaiian history.

In the early years of his rule, he served under a regency with Ka`ahumanu, his father’s favorite queen, as joint ruler.

In addition relinquishing his ownership and control of lands through the Great Māhele, a major gift to the people of Hawai‘i, Kauikeaouli also initiated other beneficial programs for his people.

Kamehameha III promulgated the Declaration of Rights, called Hawai‘i’s Magna Charta, on June 7, 1839, the Edict of Toleration on June 17, 1839 and the first constitution on October, 8, 1840.

Kauikeaouli’s second major gift to the Hawaiian people was when he granted the common people the right to participate in governing the Hawaiian Kingdom.

This first written constitution for Hawai‘i contained several innovations, including a representative body of legislators elected by the people.  It also set up a supreme court.  The first compilation of laws was published in 1842.

His exact birth date is not known; however, the generally accepted date is August 11, 1813.

Never-the-less, Kauikeaouli was an admirer of Saint Patrick and chose to celebrate his birthday on March 17 (today.)

Happy Birthday and Cheers to Kauikeaouli, Kamehameha III.  I think I'll have a Guinness (or two) tonight in his honor.