Thursday, May 31, 2012

Whaling in Hawai‘i


Hawai‘i’s whaling era began in 1819 when two New England ships became the first whaling ships to arrive in the Hawaiian Islands.  

At that time, whale products were in high demand; whale oil was used for heating, lamps and in industrial machinery; whale bone was used in corsets, skirt hoops, umbrellas and buggy whips.

Rich whaling waters were discovered near Japan and soon hundreds of ships headed for the area. 

The central location of the Hawaiian Islands between America and Japan brought many whaling ships to the Islands.

Whalers needed food and the islands supplied this need from its fertile lands.

Whalers’ aversion to the traditional Hawaiian diet of fish and poi spurred new trends in farming and ranching.  The sailors wanted fresh vegetables and the native Hawaiians turned the temperate uplands into vast truck farms.

There was a demand for fresh fruit, cattle, white potatoes and sugar.  Hawaiians began growing a wider variety of crops to supply the ships.

In Hawaiʻi, several hundred whaling ships might call in season, each with 20 to 30 men aboard and each desiring to resupply with enough food for another tour "on Japan," "on the Northwest," or into the Arctic.

The whaling industry was the mainstay of the island economy for about 40 years.  For Hawaiian ports, the whaling fleet was the crux of the economy.  More than 100 ships stopped in Hawaiian ports in 1824. 

The effect on Hawaiʻi's economy, particularly in areas in reach of Honolulu, Lāhainā and Hilo, the main whaling ports, was dramatic and of considerable importance in the islands' history.

Over the next two decades, the Pacific whaling fleet nearly quadrupled in size and in the record year of 1846, 736-whaling ships arrived in Hawai‘i.

Then, whaling came swiftly to an end.

In 1859, an oil well was discovered and developed in Titusville, Pennsylvania; within a few years this new type of oil replaced whale oil for lamps and many other uses – spelling the end of the whaling industry.

Although Hawai‘i’s commercial whaling is gone today, the humpback whales continue to visit the islands. 

In the summer, humpbacks are found in high latitude feeding grounds in Gulf of Alaska in the Pacific where they spend the majority of the time feeding and building up blubber that they live off of in the winter.

From December to late-May, the humpback whales migrate to calving grounds in Hawaiian waters.

Humpback whales are the favorite of whale watchers, as they frequently perform aerial displays, such as breaching (jumping out of the water), or slap the surface with their pectoral fins, tails or heads.

The humpback whale is on the endangered species list, but efforts to protect them have increased their overall population.

In 1992, Congress created the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary to protect humpback whales and their habitat in Hawai‘i.  The sanctuary constitutes one of the world's most important humpback whale habitats.

The image is a portion of an Engraving at Lahainaluna image(Courtesy of Hawaiian Mission Houses Historic Site and Archives,) overlooking Lāhainā from Lahainaluna in 1838.  Note the many ships at anchor outside of Lāhainā - a center for the whaling industry in Hawaiʻi.

In addition, I have posted other images related to whaling in Hawaiʻi in a folder of like name in the images section of my Facebook page.  (I tried to pick images that illustrate the whaling ships in ports - for some, if you look closely, you'll see the masts of ships at anchor at the various ports.)


Wednesday, May 30, 2012

ʻĀinahau (“land of the hau tree”)


Princess Victoria Kawekiu i Lunalilo Kalaninuiahilapalapa Kaʻiulani Cleghorn (commonly referred to as Princess Kaʻiulani) was born in Honolulu on October 16, 1875.

Princess Kaʻiulani's mother was Princess Miriam Kapili Kekauluohi Likelike (sister of King Kalākaua and Queen Liliʻuokalani) and her father was Scottish businessman and horticulturist Archibald Scott Cleghorn, who later became Governor of Oʻahu.

Princess Kaʻiulani was the only child born to the Kalākaua dynasty; as such, she was the only direct heir to the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.

Kaʻiulani inherited 10-acres of land in Waikīkī from her godmother, Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani.  Originally called Auaukai, Princess Likelike (Kaʻiulani's mother) named it ʻĀinahau; Princess Kaʻiulani spent most of her life there.

The stream that flowed through ʻĀinahau and emptied into the ocean between the Moana and Royal Hawaiian Hotels (where the present Outrigger Hotel is located,) was called ʻApuakehau (the middle of three rivers that used to run through Waikīkī.)

The family built a two-story home on the estate.  At first the home was used only as a country estate, but Princess Kaʻiulani's family loved it so much, it soon became their full time residence.

The home was furnished with two grand pianos, elaborate brocade chairs, gold and glass cabinets and fixtures. Also, there were various art collections displayed on the walls and rooms.

The Scottish writer Robert Louis Stevenson was a frequent guest and used to read passages of poetry to the young Princess under the banyan tree.  He even composed a poem for her where he described her as his “island rose, light of heart and bright of face.”

Archibald Cleghorn had an avid interest in horticulture.  He imported plants and flowers from all over the world and planted them at ʻĀinahau.

Plants on the estate included mango trees, teak, cinnamon, camphor trees, date palms and sago palms.  Its ten acres were filled with gardens, three lily ponds, 500 coconut trees, 14 varieties of hibiscus and 8 kinds of mango trees.

Reportedly, the first banyan tree in Hawaii was planted on the grounds of ʻĀinahau.  As many as fifty peacocks, favorites of the young Princess, were allowed to roam freely on the grounds.

While attending a wedding at Parker Ranch at Waimea on the Big Island, Kaʻiulani got caught in a cold Waimea rain while riding on horseback, she became ill; she and her family returned to O‘ahu.

After a two-month illness, Kaʻiulani died at ʻĀinahau on March 6, 1899, at age 23.  It is said that the night she died, her peacocks screamed so loud that people could hear them miles away and knew that she had died.

In the late-1920s, the dredging of the Ala Wai Canal dried up the streams and ponds on the ʻĀinahau estate.  The home was torn down in 1955 to make room for the Princess Kaʻiulani Hotel and other real estate properties.  

Today the Princess Kaʻiulani Hotel sits at the former driveway entrance to the ʻĀinahau Estate, across the street from Waikiki's historic Moana Hotel, which opened in 1901.

In 1999, a statue of Princess Kaʻiulani was erected in a small triangle park (at the corner of Kūhiō Avenue and Kaʻiulani Avenue,) which also includes a bus stop, halau mound for performances, landscaping and walkway.

The image shows Princess Kaʻiulani with friends at ʻĀinahau; in addition, I have included other images of the property in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.


Tuesday, May 29, 2012

Engraved at Lahainaluna - Pick Up Your Copy May 30


Join the Hawaiian Mission Houses Historic Site and Archives tomorrow, May 30, at 5:30 pm to celebrate the launching of "Engraved at Lahainaluna"!

Lahainaluna Seminary (now Lahainaluna High School) was founded on September 5th 1831 by the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions “to instruct young men of piety and promising talents”.

In December, 1833, a printing press was delivered to Lahainaluna from Honolulu. It was housed in a temporary office building and in January, 1834, the first book printed off the press was Worcester's Scripture Geography.

Besides the publication of newspapers, pamphlets and books, another important facet of activity off the press was engraving.

A checklist made in 1927 records thirty-three maps and fifty-seven sketches of houses and landscapes, only one of which is of a non-Hawaiian subject.

That brings us to a newly printed book "Engraved at Lahainaluna," offered through the Hawaiian Mission Houses Historic Site and Archives.

It’s here and being processed for sales - if you like things of Hawai‘i, this is something you will want to add to your collection.

Hawaiian Mission Houses Historic Site and Archives invites the public to celebrate the launching of Engraved at Lahainaluna, on Wednesday, May 30, at 5:30 p.m. at Hawaiian Mission Houses.

For more information on the book launch, or to purchase Engraved at Lahainaluna, please call 447-3923 or visit www.missionhouses.org.

Aloha Tower


Construction of Aloha Tower began in 1924. It was completed in a year and a half and became the landmark of Honolulu.

At 10 stories and 184 feet of height topped with 40 feet of flag mast, for four decades the Aloha Tower was the tallest structure in Hawaii. It was built in the Hawaiian Gothic architectural style.

The 4 clocks, each face 12 feet in diameter (by far the biggest clock in the Territory of Hawai‘i and one of the largest in the United States at the time) and facing different directions, were made of bronze and weighed 7 tons each.

If a ship or person was too far away to read the clock, two other means of time synchronization were provided. A time ball was lowered to the bottom of the forty-foot mast atop the tower each day at noon, and the blast of a siren was sounded at 7 am, noon and 4 pm.

Aloha Tower was built as a control tower for the Honolulu harbormaster and a lighthouse as part of a modern freight and passenger terminal at piers 8, 9 and 10. 

In addition, it provided offices for the harbor master, pilots and customs officials.  The eleventh floor of the tower served as a lookout for the harbor pilots, with balconies on all four sides.

In the day (pre-1959 trans-Pacific jetliner service,) the method of travel to Hawai‘i was by ship.  Aloha Tower welcomed cruise passengers/visitors to the islands.

When the attack on Pearl Harbor came on December 7, 1941, Coast Guardsmen took up defensive positions around Aloha Tower and protected it from being occupied.

The Aloha Tower received little damage during the bombing of Pearl Harbor, but shortly thereafter, it was camouflaged with brown and green paint, and its light was extinguished for the remainder of the war.

Pre- and during WW II, the tower had been secretly a control facility for military convoy shipping for the Pacific Theater of Operations.  The military took control of the facility and painted it camouflage to minimize detection.

In 1947, the green camouflage paint was sandblasted from the tower and the brilliant white paint replaced.

By the late 1960s, tall buildings were crowding the tower, and the Coast Guard decided to discontinue the beacon atop the Aloha Tower and install one on a 220-foot television tower.

This navigational aid served until 1975, when the present Honolulu Harbor Light was established on a metal pole at the end of Pier 2.

Owned by the State of Hawai'i, the Aloha Tower was renovated in 1994, at no cost to taxpayers, by the developer of the adjacent Aloha Tower Marketplace.

It was designed by Arthur Reynolds in Art Deco style.  It is listed on the State and National Registers because of its association with the development of Hawaii as a tourist destination for travelers from the mainland and for its role as a harbor-control tower during WWII.  It is as an example of 1920s Art Deco architecture in Honolulu. 

The image is a 1935 postcard of Honolulu Harbor, Downtown Honolulu and Aloha Tower.  In addition, I have added some other images of Aloha Tower in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.


Sunday, May 27, 2012

Kamakahonu Royal Center at Kailua Bay, Hawaiʻi Island


Kamakahonu Royal Center at Kailua Bay was the residential compound of Kamehameha I from 1813 until his death in 1819.

It had previously been the residence of a high chief, and it was undoubtedly a residential area back into the centuries prior to European contact. 

Kamakahonu (which literally means eyes of the turtle) was the location of multiple heiau known collectively as Ahu‘ena, originally said to have been built by either Liloa or his son Umi-a-Liloa during the sixteenth century, was reconstructed and rededicated by Kamehameha I in the early nineteenth century.

John Papa ʻĪʻī, attendant of Kamehameha I, to become a companion and personal attendant to Liholiho (later King Kamehameha II,) described Kamakahonu from on board a ship in 1812, “Kamakahonu was a fine cove, with sand along the edge of the sea  and  islets  of  pāhoehoe,  making  it  look like a  pond,  with a  grove of  kou trees a  little inland and a heap of pāhoehoe  in  the center of the stretch of sand.”

Kamehameha first moved into the former residence of Keawe a Mahi. He then built another house high on stones on the seaward side of that residence, facing directly upland toward the planting fields of Kuahewa.

Like an observation post, this house afforded a view of the farm lands and was also a good vantage from which to see canoes coming from the south.

The royal residence at Kamakahonu was served by a series of anchialine pools, upwellings of fresh and salt water found on young lava fields. These anchialine pools were used to raise bait fish and shrimp for larger catches.

During Kamehameha's use of this compound, reportedly 11 house structures were present. These included his sleeping house, houses for his wives, a large men's house, storehouses and Ahuʻena heiau. 

Kamehameha also included a battery of cannon and large stone walls to protect the fortress-like enclosure.

Upon Kamehameha's death, a mortuary house was built, which held his remains until they were taken and hidden away.

After Liholiho's departure from Hawaiʻi Island in 1820, the high chief Kuakini, who served as Governor of Hawai'i for many years, resided here until 1837, when he had Huliheʻe built and moved there.

By the late-1800s, Kamakahonu was abandoned and in the early-1900s H. Hackfield & Co. purchased the land, and its successor American Factors used the site as a lumberyard and later for the King Kamehameha Hotel.

Today, three remnant structures are present on the seaward beach of the property (all recreated in the 1970s and recently refurbished) - 'Ahu'ena heiau, the mortuary house's platform and an additional structural platform.

These structures are set aside in a covenant agreement between the State's Historic Preservation Division and the current hotel owners.

Kamakahonu became the backdrop for some of the most significant events in the early nineteenth-century history of the Hawaiian Kingdom.

Three momentous events occurred here which established Kamakahonu as one of the most historically significant sites in Hawaiʻi:
  • In the early morning hours of May 8, 1819 King Kamehameha I died here.
  • A few months after the death of his father, Liholiho (Kamehameha II) broke the ancient kapu system, a highly defined regime of taboos that provided the framework of the traditional Hawaiian socio-economic structure
  • The first Christian missionaries from New England were granted permission to come ashore here on April 4, 1820.

The property is now part of King Kamehameha's Kona Beach Hotel; none of the original houses or walls remain.

Ahuʻena heiau was reconstructed in the 1970s at 2/3-scale and can be viewed, but not entered.

The small sandy beach provides a protected beach for launching canoes and children swimming.  The first Hotel was built here in 1950; it was imploded (boy, that was an exciting day in Kona) and the current one constructed in 1975.

Kamakahonu is one of the featured Points of Interest in the Royal Footsteps Along The Kona Coast Scenic Byway.  We prepared the Corridor Management Plan for the Scenic Byway.

The image is a portion of a Kekahuna map (Bishop Museum) noting the Kamakahonu Royal Center.  In addition, I have placed other images and maps of Kamakahonu in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook page.


Saturday, May 26, 2012

What Time?


People who know me, know that I try to be early for everything.

Time is valuable and I don’t want to waste someone else’s time.

I’d rather be ½-hour early, rather than 3-minutes late.

It isn’t wasted time for me; I use the down time to prepare, or simply relax.

Kāne‘ohe Yacht Club


The Kāne‘ohe Yacht Club was organized on October 28, 1924, with the original Club site on the western side of Kāne‘ohe Bay. 

Opening ceremonies at the present site were held on December 17, 1955.  Reportedly, Kāne‘ohe Yacht Club is the oldest Yacht Club in Hawai‘i, in terms of continuous service.

When we were kids, KYC and the Bay were our back yard.

Our house was about a block away.  An entrance gate to the club was at the end of the street of the old neighborhood.

A significant milestone and rite of passage in life was turning 10-years of age – it was then that you could go down to the Yacht Club on your own, without adult supervision.

Lots of the club is pretty much the same.  (However, to add more mooring spaces, there is a new parallel dock on the right side of the image below (where the El Toros are sailing.)

The place was kid-friendly and accommodating to young adults.  Back in the day, the Long House was available for periodic teen dances (hundreds of us packed the place.)  (Does anybody else remember the Vaqueros?)

We’d keep the Boston Whaler down there, and on a moment’s notice could run down and hoist it into the water for running around the Bay.

Back then, the clover-leaf opening in the reefs on the Marine Base side of the Club was the “ski lanes.” 

Two rafts were anchored across each other to keep you high and dry, while others in the group skied around the loop.  (It’s now used for mooring of larger boats.)

The Whaler also took us to all other points of interest on the Bay, camping at Coral Island, Kapapa and Chinaman’s Hat (Mokoli‘i;) fishing and diving across the bay; and just general cruising around.

In addition to the ski/cruising outboard boat, we first had the Mokuone, then Na Ali‘i Kai, then Lanakila fishing boats and regularly entered the Club’s fishing tournaments.

In addition to mooring and dry storage areas, the Club has two tennis courts, a swimming pool and a kid-sized wading pool.

And, it has a bar.  As a kid, that was some mysterious place that you were forbidden to enter.  We’d gaze in to see what was up.

I swear, looking into the bar, now, it looks like the same people sitting there sipping their cocktails – they must be the kids of the adults we used to look at.

There are swimming and sailing classes for kids and young adults offered throughout the year and plenty to do for the adults, too.

The image shows the Kāne‘ohe Yacht Club as we knew it as kids, in a pre-1966 postcard noted in “The History of Kaneohe Yacht Club” book.  (This is the way I remember the club from small-kid times.)

I have added a few additional photos of KYC and the area in a folder of like name in the Photos section of my Facebook page.


Friday, May 25, 2012

Pineapple In Hawai‘i


Christopher Columbus brought pineapple, native of South America, back to Europe as one of the exotic prizes of the New World.  (‘Pineapple’ was given its English name because of its resemblance to a pine cone.)

Pineapple (“halakahiki,” or foreign hala,) long seen as Hawaiʻi’s signature fruit, was introduced to the Kingdom of Hawai‘i in 1813 by Don Francisco de Paula Marin, a Spanish adviser to King Kamehameha I.

Credit for the commercial production of pineapples goes to the John Kidwell, an English Captain who started with planting 4-5 acres in Mānoa.

Although sugar dominated the Hawaiian economy, there was also great demand at the time for fresh Hawaiian pineapples in San Francisco.

After Kidwell's initial planting, others soon realized the potential of growing pineapples in Hawaii and consequently, started their own pineapple plantations.

Here is some brief background information on four of Hawai‘i’s larger pineapple producers, Dole, Libby, Del Monte and Maui Land & Pineapple.

Ultimately, as part of an economic survival plan, pineapple producers ended up in cooperative marketing programs and marketed the idea of Hawaiian products, as in “Don’t ask for pineapples alone.  Insist on Hawaiian Pineapple!”

Dole Pineapple Plantation (Hawaiian Pineapple Company)
James Dole, an American industrialist, also famously called the Pineapple King, purchased 60 acres of land in the central plains of Oahu Island and started the Hawaiian Pineapple Company in 1901.

In the year 1907, Dole started successful ad campaigns that introduced whole of America to canned pineapples from Hawaii.

In 1911, at the direction of Dole, Henry Ginaca invented a machine that could automatically peel and core pineapples (instead of the usual hand cutting,) making canned pineapple much easier to produce.

The demand for canned pineapples grew exponentially in the US and in 1922, a revolutionary period in the history of Hawaiian pineapple; Dole bought most of the island of Lāna‘i and established a vast 200,000-acre pineapple plantation to meet the growing demands.

Lanai throughout the entire 20th century produced more than 75% of world's total pineapple.  More land on the island of Maui was purchased by Dole.

In 1991, the Dole Cannery closed.  Today, Dole Food Company, headquartered on the continent, is a well-established name in the field of growing and packaging food products such as pineapples, bananas, strawberries, grapes and many others.

The Dole Plantation tourist attraction, established in 1950 as a small fruit stand but greatly expanded in 1989  serves as a living museum and historical archive of Dole and pineapple in Hawai‘i.

Libby, McNeil & Libby (Libby’s)
Libby’s, one of the world's leading producers of canned foods, was created in 1868 when Archibald McNeill and brothers Arthur and Charles Libby began selling beef packed in brine.

In the early 1900s it established a pineapple canning subsidiary in Hawaiʻi and began to advertise its canned produce using the ‘Libby’s’ brand name.

By 1911, Libby, McNeill & Libby gained control of land in Kāne‘ohe and built the first large-scale cannery at Kahalu‘u.  This sizable cannery, together with the surrounding old style plantation-type housing units, became known as “Libbyville.”

The Kāne‘ohe facility ultimately failed; some suggest it was because Libby built it on and destroyed the Kukuiokane Heiau in Luluku.

In 1912 Libby, McNeill and Libby bought half of the stock of Hawaiian Cannery Co.  By the 1930s, more that 12 million cases of pineapple were being produced in Hawaii every year; Libby accounted for 23 percent.

Del Monte Plantation
Del Monte another major food producing and packaging company of America started its pineapple plantation with the purchase of the Hawaiian Preservation Company in 1917.  The company progressed and increased its plantation areas during 1940s.

In 1997, the company introduced its MD-2 variety, popularly known as Gold Extra Sweet pineapple, to the market.  The variety, though produced in Costa Rica, was the result of extensive research done by the now dissolved Pineapple Research Institute, in Hawaii. In 2008, Del Monte stopped its pineapple plantation operations in Hawaii.

Maui Land & Pineapple Company
The family of Dwight Baldwin, a missionary physician, created the evolving land and agricultural company.  It first started as Haiku Fruit & Packing Company in 1903 and Keahua Ranch Company in 1909, then Baldwin Packers in 1912.

In 1932, it was renamed Maui Pineapple Company, which later merged with Baldwin Packers in 1962.  In 1969, Maui Land & Pineapple Company, Inc. (ML&P) was created and went public.

In 2005, the company introduced its now famous "Maui Gold" variety, which is naturally sweet and has low acid content.  Maui Gold pineapple is presently grown across 1,350 acres on the slopes of Haleakala.

Maui Land & Pineapple Company is now a landholding company with approximately 22,000-acres on the island of Maui on which it operates the Kapalua Resort community.

In 2009, the remnants of the 100-year old pineapple operation were transferred to Maui Gold Pineapple Company (created by former Maui Pineapple Company employees who were committed to saving the 100-year tradition of pineapple on Maui.)

While the scale of pineapple farming has dwindled, the celebration of pineapple lives on through Lāna‘i’s Pineapple Festival.  Starting in 1992, the event, formerly known as the “Pineapple Jam,” honors the island’s pineapple history.  (June 30, 2012 will be the 20th annual Pineapple Festival)

The image is the iconic Dole Cannery pineapple 100,000-gallon water tank. Built in 1928, it was a Honolulu landmark and reminder of pineapple’s role in Hawaiian agriculture until it was demolished in 1993. (images via: A Pineapple Heart and Burl Burlingame, Honolulu Star-Bulletin)

In addition, I have added other pineapple related images into a folder of like name in the Photos section of my Facebook page.


Thursday, May 24, 2012

Halehui Palace Complex


After the Battle of Nu'uanu, in the summer of 1795, Kamehameha's chiefs and followers populated Honolulu.

In those days, the area around today’s Honolulu Harbor was not called Honolulu.  Instead, each land section had its own name.  This area was oftentimes referenced as “Kou.”

In 1804, Kamehameha I first lived at Waikīkī, but then moved near the Pākākā canoe landing in 1809.  This area was then referred to as Halehui Palace Complex.

This complex was located at what is today approximately just Ewa of Fort and Queen Streets. 

The complex was surrounded on the mauka and Diamond Head sides by a fence, it consisted of many houses, for Kamehameha, Ka‘ahumanu and other chiefesses, and for his Gods and his personal attendants.

Close by were two drilling sites and a “foot racing” and maika field, where the king kept a personal eye on the performances of his warriors and chiefs.

The Hale Mua (men’s eating house) was the largest thatch building.  The next largest building was the Hale ‘Aina (women’s eating house).  Ka‘ahumanu, and others with her, slept in three small buildings nearby.

Next, along the beach of Kuloloia, was the home of the chiefess Nāmāhana, mother of Ka‘ahumanu; that of Liliha, mother of Keōpūolani, Kamehameha’s sacred wife and mother of Kamehameha’s II and III.

Then came the residence of Kalanimoku, the king's prime minister - known to the foreigners as "Billy Pitt."

Other buildings nearby included  a storage house, powder magazine, guardhouse, attendant houses, a battery of 16 carriage guns and two extensive stone storehouses for the King’s western goods.

At Kamehameha's request, O‘ahu governor Kuihelani gave Don Francisco Paula de Marin a waterfront holding of about two acres.

Marin, a Spaniard who arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1793 or 1794 and had become a confidante of Kamehameha, recorded in his journal, “In the end of 1809 and beginning of 1810 I was employed building a stone house for the King” (Honolulu's first permanent building.)

This was the first stone structure in Honolulu, a town that, by 1810, was “a village of several hundred native dwellings centered around the grass houses of Kamehameha on Pākākā Point near the foot of what is now Fort Street.  Of the sixty white residents on O‘ahu, nearly all lived in the village, and many were in the service of the king.”

It is unclear whether Kamehameha himself ever resided in the completed house. 

The left section of the map (where Nu‘uanu Stream empties into the harbor) identifies the area known as Kapu‘ukolo; this is "where white men and such dwelt."

Building in Honolulu, however, continued quickly with Marin and other foreign residents building their own stone houses and buildings during the ensuing decade.

A system of trails led from the village.  In the Diamond Head direction, one path led from the homes of Kamehameha, Kalanimoku, Kīnaʻu and others partially across modern Kakaʻako to Kālia (in Waikīkī.).

A second series of trails followed modern South King Street before branching off in Pāwa‘a to Waikīkī, Waialae and areas now generally East Mānoa and Mānoa Roads.

The Ewa bound path passed the homes of Kamehameha, chiefs and Marin, and followed the Diamond Head side of Nu‘uanu Stream before passing into Kapālama and taking the route of the Moanalua Freeway into ‘Aiea.

Honolulu appeared as shown here for only a short while; in the latter part of 1812, Kamehameha and most of his Court, including Liholiho, went to Hawai‘i to the Kamakahonu Royal Center, where he remained until his death in 1819.

The map image (a portion of the Ii-Rockwood map from UH at Mānoa, Hamilton Library) notes the Kamehameha compound and surrounding associated uses that made up the Halehui Palace Complex in the 1810 time frame.

Again, the Pākākā area of this complex was located at what is today approximately just Ewa of Fort and Queen Streets – the reef was filled in and land added to form what is now Aloha Tower and surrounding uses.

Wednesday, May 23, 2012

Camp Maui - Fourth Marine Division – Ha‘ikū, Maui


The “Fighting Fourth” was home-based at Camp Maui (aka “Giggle Hill”) during WWII operations in the Pacific.  Camp Maui in Ha‘ikū (housing 20,000 Marines) was the main base of the 4th Marine Division.

It is said it was nicknamed “Giggle Hill” because American soldiers training there would bring their girls here to "neck".  At night, you could sometimes hear the giggles of young women.

At the outbreak of WWII, the Army rented 1,600 acres from various landowners in the Ha‘ikū area.  The principal owners were: Hawaiian Pineapple Co. (490 acres,) Maui Agricultural Co. (397 acres) and the Copp Estate (220 acres).  Thirteen different owners accounted for the remaining 493 acres. The rental for the site was $15,000 per year, prorated among the owners.

Buildings went up for offices, tents for living quarters; mess halls were constructed and roads carved out. Post Exchanges opened up; movie screens and stages were built and baseball diamonds were laid out.

The terrain and beaches of Maui provided excellent and rugged training ground.  All the Division's amphibious maneuvers for the Marianas and Iwo Jima operations were held off Ma‘alaea Bay.  Haleakalā became a course with 13-mile hikes through its crater.

A total of 47 training areas, many of them belonging to the Army, were available to the Division.  Six areas, consisting of gulches and rough terrain, near the camp, were used for non-tactical maneuvering.

On the outskirts of camp, a demolitions area, a live-grenade course, a pistol range and machine-gun range were set up.  Five miles east of camp, in a gulch opening into the sea, was the Division's bazooka area, and along the coast, east of camp for about ten miles, were combat firing ranges which permitted the maneuvering and firing of tanks and halftracks in coordination with the infantry.

The Division's 100-target rifle range at Opana Point was also located in this area.  Another area in the vicinity was used to train motor transport drivers in the movement of troops and supplies under both day and night conditions of combat.

The Ma‘alaea Bay area furnished an antitank moving-target range, a close-combat range, and a 20-point rifle range. The beach at Ma‘alaea Bay was fortified with pillboxes and emplacements modeled after the Tarawa Beach.

In addition to all this, there was a mortar and artillery impact area, a seacoast artillery range and an antiaircraft firing area. Inland were two artillery positions and maneuver areas. In the center of the island, near the Pu‘unene Air Station, were, the Division's tank maneuver areas.

Maui was involved in the war effort as a staging center, training base and for rest and relaxation.  At the 1943-44 peak, the number of troops stationed on Maui exceeded 100,000.

The 4th Marines were involved with four major battles: Kwajalein (Roi-Namur,) Saipan, Tinian and Iwo Jima, suffering more than 17,000 casualties.

Kwajalein (Roi-Namur)
In one historic week, from January 29 to February 4, 1944, the 4th Marine Division set three new records: it became the first division to go directly into combat from the US; it was first to capture Japanese-mandated territory in the Pacific; and it secured its objective in a shorter time than that of any other important operation since the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Camp Maui was first occupied by the 4th Marine Division in late-February 1944 after the Roi-Namur operation in Kwahalein (Marshall Islands.)

Saipan
The 4th Marine Division landed on Saipan June 15, 1944.  The severity of this battle was indicated by the 2,000 casualties suffered in the first two days of battle.  The Flag was raised on Saipan after 25 grueling and bitter days of combat.  The Division sustained 5,981 casualties killed, wounded and missing (27.6 percent of the Division's strength.)  The Japanese count was 23,811 known dead and 1,810 prisoners were taken.

Tinian
The 4th Marine Division landed on Tinian 24 July 1944.  The island was defended by 9000 plus Japanese troops. This battle lasted nine days.  The land assault on Tinian had cost the Division 290 men killed, 1,515 wounded and 24 missing in action. Approximately 9,000 Japanese troops were dead and 250 prisoners taken. In recognition of its work on Saipan and Tinian, the Fourth Division was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation.

The Division arrived back on Maui from the Saipan-Tinian operations in late-August 1944.

Iwo Jima
The Japanese troops on Iwo Jima numbered 23,000.  The first wave of Marines hit the beach the morning of February 19, 1945.  By the end of the second day casualties totaled 2,011.  On March 16th, 26 days after the first troops landed, Iwo Jima was declared secured - the greatest battle in Marine Corps history was over.

After the battle of Iwo Jima, the Division arrived back on Maui in early-April 1945.

On July 4, 1945, a parade was held on the Camp Maui airstrip, at which time 714 men of the Division were decorated. The Divisions was awarded two Presidential Unit Citations and a Navy Unit Commendation.  Twelve men from the Fourth Marines were awarded the Medal of Honor for "conspicuous gallantry."

The 4th Marine Division was deactivated November 28, 1945.  In April 1946, the Camp Maui land was returned to the owners.

Today, the grounds are now a public park named  “Kalapukua Playground” (“magical playground”;) Giggle Hill has a large children's playground (and some claim they can still hear the laughter of Marines and their girlfriends on dark nights.)

The centerpiece of the park is the memorial to the Fourth Marine Division.  In addition to these images (JoeRichard-BenBradshaw,) I have added other images and maps of Camp Maui and related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section of my Facebook page.


Tuesday, May 22, 2012

Banana Poka Round-Up – Sunday, May 27 – Kōkeʻe


It’s a forest education fair for the whole family with a funny name – the Banana Poka Round-Up!

An invasive pest from South America, the Banana Poka vine, with its gorgeous bubble-gum pink blossoms, is the “poster weed” for this zany annual event.

It is just one of the many threats to the health and diversity of Hawaiian forests – and also a fabulous craft material.  The Round-Up always features a huge tent where you can learn how to make a basket out of the pest.

Held in early summer, May 27, 2012, in Kanaloahuluhulu Meadow, the event features basket making, great live music, exhibits by organizations and agencies that work to save the environment, along with lots of activities for kids – face-painting, hiking, painting from nature, as well a walking stick from guava saplings.

Right after the Memorial Moment and Pedal to the Meadow Biking winners, a Crowing Contest is held – everyone from little kids to adults join in!

Banana Poka Round-Up enters third decade of forest fun May 27, 2012

Sponsored by Hui o Laka since 1989, the 23rd annual Round-Up includes several new features, including being the finish line for the second annual Pedal to the Meadow bike race, a Kekaha-to-Kōkeʻe race that begins at 7:00 am Sunday morning.

Schedule:
07:00 am   Start Pedal to the Meadow bike race, a Kekaha-to-Kōkeʻe race
09:00 am   Early finishers of bike race
10:00 am   Start Banana Poka Round-Up
10:00 am   Banana Poka Basketmaking
10:00 am   Harry Koizumi
11:00 am   Paul Tokioka
12 noon    Memorial Moment
12:15 pm  Pedal to the Meadow Results
12:30 pm Russell the Rooster Crowing Contest
12:30 pm   Family hike on the Berry Flats Loop
01:00 pm   Banana Poka Basketmaking
02:00 pm   Banana Poka Basketmaking
04:00 pm   Pau Banana Poka Round-Up

Daylong    Ikebana Flower arranging and hiking stick whittling

Also, please consider joining Hui O Laka (I am a new and proud member.)

Kōkua Kōkeʻe (Hui o Lakaʻs stewardship program) is looking for new members so it will be able to grow into the first ongoing (as in year-round and continuous) natural resources management program that is NOT funded by government.

They want to expand this forest ʻohana before their 60th anniversary and dedication of the CCC Camp in 2013!

It really does not matter what level folks join at ... here's a link to their website: http://www.kokee.org

Isaac Davis


It’s hard to tell the story of Isaac Davis without including John Young.  They arrived in Hawai‘i at the same time (on different boats) and they served Kamehameha I as co-advisors.  I’ll try to keep the focus on Davis, here (but remember, their roles in Hawai‘i are pretty much the same.)

Isaac Davis (c. 1758–1810) (Welch) arrived in Hawaii in 1790 as the sole survivor of the massacre of the crew of The Fair American.  He became one of the closest advisors to Kamehameha I. 

He and co-advisor John Young were instrumental in Kamehameha's military ventures and his eventual conquest and unification of the Hawaiian Islands. 

Davis became a respected translator and military advisor for Kamehameha.

Davis brought western military knowledge to Hawai‘i and played a big role during Hawaii's first contacts with the European powers.  His skill in gunnery, as well as the cannon from the Fair American, helped Kamehameha win many battles.

Isaac Davis resided entirely with Kamehameha (note that his home is near the King’s at Pākākā (see my post on March 15, 2012, noting the map of Honolulu in 1810.))

Davis had the King’s “most perfect confidence” and he attended to Kamehameha’s needs on all travels of business or pleasure – and ventured with him during times of war.

Davis earned Kamehameha’s “greatest respect and the highest degree of esteem and regard.”

He became one of the highest chiefs under Kamehameha the Great, and was Governor of Oʻahu during the early-1800s.  Isaac Davis had been one of Kamehameha's closest friends and advisors.

An observer noted in 1798 that, "On leaving Davis the king embraced him and cried like a child. Davis said he always did when he left him, for he was always apprehensive that he might leave him, although he had promised him he would never do it without giving him previous notice."

Davis was known among the Hawaiians as “Aikaka.”

Davis married twice. His blood survives to this day; the Davis family is reportedly the oldest foreign family in the Hawaiian Islands.

His daughter Betty married Humehume (George Prince Kaumuali‘i, the son of King Kaumuali‘i of Kauaʻi.)  His grandson was the second husband of Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani.

When Kamehameha sought to negotiate with King Kaumuali‘i of Kaua‘i, Kamehameha summoned Isaac Davis to escort Kaumuali‘i to O‘ahu.

At Pākākā (at Honolulu Harbor, in 1810,) it was agreed that Kaua‘i would join with the rest of the archipelago, but that Kaumuali‘i would continue to rule that island while acknowledging Kamehameha as his sovereign - reportedly, Isaac Davis assisted in the negotiations, on behalf of Kamehameha.

Several chiefs opposed this agreement and wished that Kaumuali‘i be put to death and plotted a secret plan to poison him.

Isaac Davis learned of the plot and warned Kaumuali‘i – then, Kaumuali‘i fled back to Kaua‘i.

Isaac Davis suddenly died in April, 1810.

Apparently, the poison that was intended for Kaumuali‘i was given to Davis.

When Isaac Davis died, it was a shock to Kamehameha and a “dark day” in the life of the king.

Davis was buried in Honolulu, in "The Cemetery for Foreigners"; however, the exact burial location is not known.

After his death, his friend and co-advisor to Kamehameha, John Young, looked after Davis' children. In addition, Young's will, dated 1834, stated: "I give and bequeath to be equally divided between my surviving children and the surviving children of my departed friend the late Isaac Davis of Milford in England, in such manner as it shall please His Magesty the King and his Chiefs."

The image is a memorial in O‘ahu Cemetery to Isaac Davis and his descendants.

Monday, May 21, 2012

Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council (WRPFMC - WESPAC)

Where do I begin?

How about starting with what Fisheries Councils are set up to do … let’s look at the federal law.

WESPAC is one of eight regional fishery management councils established by the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act.

The Regional Council system was designed to allow regional, participatory governance by knowledgeable people with a stake in fishery management.

The eight Regional Councils develop management plans for marine fisheries in waters seaward of state waters of their individual regions.

Plans and specific management measures (such as fishing seasons, quotas and closed areas) are developed.  These plans and measures are implemented by the National Marine Fisheries Service.

The Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council (WESPAC) is composed of 16-members members and is the policy-making organization for the management of fisheries in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ - generally 3- to 200-miles offshore) of member US interests.

Management includes areas around the State of Hawai‘i, Territory of American Samoa, Territory of Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and US Pacific island possessions, an area of nearly 1.5 million square miles.

The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act is the guiding document for fisheries management actions.  In it are “National Standards.”

The first National Standard states that any fishery management plan, its rules, and conservation and management measures shall prevent overfishing.

I am very concerned about purported "management" of our marine resources - particularly, the stated goal of "sustainable fishery management plans" that have proven to be insufficient to sustain the fisheries.

Over the recent years, here's what's happening with some of the managed species under the management plans of WESPAC:
  • Big Eye Tuna - NOAA Fisheries announced in June 2004 that overfishing was occurring – it continues
  • Yellowfin Tuna - The 2006 assessment results indicated overfishing is occurring – it continues
  • NWHI lobster fishery - NOAA Fisheries declared an emergency closure in 2000
  • North Pacific albacore - the stock is considered fully exploited
  • Southwest Pacific Swordfish - Since 1997, catch rates and mean size have been declining
  • Striped Marlin in the Southwest Pacific - levels of fishing mortality may exceed the maximum sustainable yield
  • Bottomfish - In May 2005, NOAA Fisheries determined that over-fishing is occurring in the Main Hawaiian Islands – it continues
  • Black Coral - Due to the reduction in large colonies the minimum size of harvested colonies was raised
  • Swordfish - NOAA periodically halted longline in 2006 and 2011 because of too many endangered sea turtle interactions

 (Overfishing means the rate at which a species is being harvested is greater than it can sustain itself.)

Again, the law says, “Conservation and management measures shall prevent overfishing while achieving, on a continuing basis, the optimum yield from each fishery for the United States fishing industry.”

Obviously, this hasn’t been working and we need to do things differently.

The decline in marine resources has an enormous impact on local, subsistence and recreational fishermen, and coastal fishing communities statewide.

I was honored to serve as a member of WESPAC - initially, as a representative for the State of Hawai‘i, then, a term as an at-large member on the Council.

However, I was mostly frustrated while serving - too often, it looked like decisions were made for the benefit of short-term fish harvesting, rather than long-term fisheries sustainability.

I hope in the future WESPAC more-fully addresses its obligations and opportunities to prevent overfishing and protect the resources for future generations.

Water Matters


For centuries, Hawaiians recognized the life giving qualities, significance and value of water to their survival.  Water is wealth; water is life.

On islands with limited supplies of water, we need to better understand the importance of water in our lives.  With greater understanding, we may then give greater respect (and attention and care) to water and recognize its critical link to our quality of life and ultimate existence.

Ground and surface water resources are held in public trust for the benefit of the citizens of the state.  The people of Hawai‘i are beneficiaries and have a right to have water protected for their use and/or benefit.

The Hawaii Supreme Court identified water-related public trust purposes: Maintenance of water in their natural state; Domestic water use of the general public, particularly drinking water; and Exercise of Native Hawaiian traditional and customary rights.

The object of the public trust is not to maximize consumptive use, but, rather, the most equitable reasonable and beneficial allocation of state water resources, with full recognition that resource protection also constitutes "use."

“Reasonable and beneficial use” means the use of water for economic and efficient utilization for a purpose and in a manner which is both reasonable and consistent with the state and county land use plans and the public interest.

Such uses include: domestic uses, aquacultural uses, irrigation and other agricultural uses, power development, and commercial and industrial uses.

Under the State Constitution (Article XI,) the State has an obligation to protect, control and regulate the use of Hawaii's water resources for the benefit of its people.

Over 90% of our drinking water statewide comes from ground water resources.

This percentage could change to include more surface water, as Counties make use of surface water ditches formerly run by sugar companies, most whose fields have since been taken out of sugar cultivation.

Virtually all of our fresh water comes through our forests.

Forests absorb the mist, fog and rain, and then release the water into ground water aquifers and surface water streams.  Healthy forests protect against erosion and sediment run-off into our streams and ocean.

A healthy forest is critically important to everyone in Hawaii.

We are fortunate that 100-years ago, some forward-thinkers established Hawai‘i’s forest reserve system and set aside forested lands and protected our forested watersheds - thereby protecting the means to recharge our ground water resources.

Interestingly, it was the sugar growers, significant users of Hawai‘i's water resources, who led the forest reserve protection movement.

Threats to the forests, and ultimately to our fresh water resources, are real and diverse - whether it is miconia (a tree that prevents rain water from soaking into the watershed, resulting in run-off and erosion,) ungulates (such as pigs and goats that disturb the forest floor and lower level shrubs and ferns) or the many other invasive plants and animals that negatively impact the native forest resources.

We are reminded of the importance of respect and responsibility we each share for the environment and our natural and cultural resources - including our responsibility to protect and properly use and manage our water resources.

I was honored to have served for 4½-years as the Chair of the State’s Commission on Water Resource Management overseeing and regulating the State’s water resources.

We are fortunate people living in a very special place.  Let's continue to work together to make Hawaii a great place to live.

Sunday, May 20, 2012

Kānāwai Māmalahoe - Law of the Splintered Paddle


In old Hawai‘i, people knew their place in life; some were born to be ali‘i (chiefs,) others were maka‘āinana (commoners.)

Each followed protocols, traditions and kapu.

The Ali‘i were descended from the gods and had strong mana (spiritual power.)

Maka‘āinana were workers (farmers, fishers, crafters and laborers.)

Even though kapu and traditions guided people on how to behave, sometimes innocent people got caught in the middle of feuding chiefs.

A story suggests that on one occasion, Kamehameha I was fighting in Puna.

While chasing two fishermen (presumably with the intention to kill them), his leg was caught in the reef and, in defense, one of the fisherman hit him on the head with a paddle, which broke into pieces.

Kamehameha was able to escape (because the fisherman fled, rather than finishing him off.)

The story continues that Kamehameha learned from this experience and saw that it was wrong to misuse power by attacking innocent people.

Years later, Kamehameha summoned the two fishermen.  When they came, he pardoned them and admitted his mistake by proclaiming a new law, Kānāwai Māmalahoe - Law of the Splintered Paddle.

The original 1797 law:

Kānāwai Māmalahoe (in Hawaiian:):

E nā kānaka,
E mālama ‘oukou i ke akua
A e mālama ho‘i ke kanaka nui a me kanaka iki;
E hele ka ‘elemakule, ka luahine, a me ke kama
A moe i ke ala
‘A‘ohe mea nāna e ho‘opilikia.
Hewa nō, make.

Law of the Splintered Paddle (English translation:)

Oh people,
Honor thy gods;
Respect alike [the rights of]
People both great and humble;
See to it that our aged,
Our women and our children
Lie down to sleep by the roadside
Without fear of harm.
Disobey, and die.

Kamehameha’s Law of the Splintered Paddle of 1797 is enshrined in the State constitution, Article 9, Section 10:

“Let every elderly person, woman and child lie by the roadside in safety”.

It has become a model for modern human rights law regarding the treatment of civilians and other non-combatants.

Kānāwai Māmalahoe appears as a symbol of crossed paddles in the center of the badge of the Honolulu Police Department.

A plaque, facing mauka on the Kamehameha Statue outside Ali‘iōlani Hale in Honolulu, notes the Law of the Splintered Paddle (it is the image noted here.)

Saturday, May 19, 2012

Lahainaluna Printing-Engraving


Lahainaluna Seminary (now Lahainaluna High School) was founded on September 5th 1831 by the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions “to instruct young men of piety and promising talents”.

Out of this training came many of Hawaii's future leaders and scholars including David Malo (1835,) Samuel Kamakau (1837) and others (Keali‘i Reichel graduated in 1980.)

In  December,  1833,  a  printing  press  was  delivered  to  Lahainaluna  from  Honolulu.  It was  housed  in a temporary office building and in January,  1834,  the  first book  printed  off  the  press  was  Worcester's  Scripture Geography.

On February 14, 1834 came  the  first newspaper, ‘Ka Lama Hawaii,’ ever  printed  in  the  Islands  in  any  language, also  the  first newspaper  published  west of the Rocky Mountains.

Besides the publication of the newspapers, pamphlets and books, another important facet of activity off the press was engraving.

A checklist made in 1927 records thirty-three maps and fifty-seven sketches of houses and landscapes, only one of which is of a non-Hawaiian subject.

That brings us to a newly printed book "Engraved at Lahainaluna," offered through the Hawaiian Mission Houses Historic Site and Archives.

It’s here and being processed for sales, soon … and if you like things of Hawai‘i, this is something you will want to add to your collection. 

The Mission Houses store is open Tuesday through Sunday 10 am through 4 pm – it’s located at the Historic site at 553 South King Street (Diamond Head side of Kawaiahaʻo Church.

Hawaiian Mission Houses Historic Site and Archives invites the public to celebrate the launching of Engraved at Lahainaluna, on Wednesday, May 30, at 5:30 p.m. at Hawaiian Mission Houses.

For more information on the book launch, or to purchase Engraved at Lahainaluna, please call 447-3923 or visit www.missionhouses.org.

The image shows a drawing of Lahainaluna (ca. 1838, drawn by Bailey and engraved by Kepohoni;) in addition, Missions Houses has given me permission to post some of the engravings and I added a few other Lahainaluna engravings in a folder of like name in the Photos section.  (I’ll add some more later.)

But don’t rely on these, get you own copy of the “Engraved at Lahainaluna” (I’ve already ordered mine.)