Monday, August 31, 2015


Anuenue It was created by the filling of the reef flats during incremental dredging of Honolulu harbor and Ke‘ehi lagoon. The village of Kou, inland of it, had a long history of settlement. It originally consisted of marginal sandy lands on an elevated coral reef platform named Kahololoa. For a time it was called Anuenue Island; that changed in 1969 when a proclamation by the Governor declared the Island shall be named Sand Island. One of the few lasting legacies of the Island’s former name is Anuenue Fisheries Research Center (AFRC,) a base yard, hatchery and culture center for DLNR’s Division of Aquatic Resources – it’s still operating on the Island.

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Sunday, August 30, 2015

Hawaiians Study Abroad

Hawaiians Study Abroad In 1880, the Legislative Assembly appropriated funds for the “Education of Hawaiian Youths in Foreign Countries, to be expended in the actual education of the youths, and not traveling and sight seeing”. This was a program designed and implemented by King Kalākaua. From 1880 to 1887, 18 young Hawaiians attended schools in six countries where they studied engineering, law, foreign language, medicine, military science, engraving, sculpture and music. The ‘studies abroad program’ was designed to ensure a pool of gifted and highly schooled Hawaiians who would enable the government to fill important positions in the foreign ministry and other governmental branches.

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Saturday, August 29, 2015

Greek Artillery

Greek Artillery Migration from Greece in the last third of the 19th Century was primarily due to crop failures and a surplus population that caused wide-spread poverty. A Western technological revolution of cheap and fast steamship and rail travel, along with rapid industrialization, made feasible large scale emigration to America and, on a smaller scale, to Hawaiʻi. The Greeks came into direct conflict with that small but powerful group of American businessmen who effectively weakened Kalākaua’s government by means of the ‘Bayonet Constitution’ of 1887. After the overthrow, there was a last major military operation by royalists who opposed the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi; several of the Greek businessmen were involved. The goal of the rebellion failed.

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Friday, August 28, 2015

‘Kakela me Kuke’

‘Kakela me Kuke’ In 1837 Samuel Northrup Castle and Amos Starr Cooke landed in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaiʻi,) as part of the 8th Company of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Castle was assigned to the ‘depository’ (a combination store, warehouse and bank) to help the missionaries pool and purchase their; Cooke was a teacher. Castle and Cooke, good friends, decided they would become business partners. On June 2, 1851, Castle and Cooke signed their names to partnership papers. A sign reading ‘Kakela me Kuke’ (‘Castle & Cooke’) was installed at the entrance to the Honolulu depository. For a time in the 1960s, Castle & Cooke were the biggest of the Big Five.

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Thursday, August 27, 2015

John Owen Dominis

John Owen Dominis John Owen Dominis was born March 10, 1832 at 26 Front Street in the home of Reverend Dr Andrew Yates in Schenectady, New York, son of Captain John Dominis and Mary Jones Dominis. They arrived in Honolulu Harbor in April 1837; Captain Dominis reportedly embarked on several trading voyages – he was not heard from on his trip in 1846. Mary Jones Dominis and teenage son John Owen Dominis remained at the house but rented out rooms to maintain it. Dominis married Liliʻuokalani; she later became queen. Dominis died August 27, 1891, seven months after Liliʻuokalani took the throne. “I have often said that it pleased the Almighty Ruler of nations to take him away from me at precisely the time when I felt that I most needed his counsel and companionship.” (Liliʻuokalani)

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Wednesday, August 26, 2015

Taking Hawaiʻi and Oʻahu

Taking Hawaiʻi and Oʻahu Kamehameha was especially fortunate in securing the services of John Young and Isaac Davis, who took an active part in the campaigns of the final conquest. Captain George Vancouver observed that both Young and Davis “are in his (Kamehameha's) most perfect confidence”. Because of their knowledge of European warfare, Young and Davis are said to have trained Kamehameha and his men in the use of muskets and cannons. In addition, both Young and Davis fought alongside Kamehameha in his many battles. “Thus did Tamahamaah, with the help of Young and Davis, and with hardly any firearms, easily conquer this important island (Oʻahu.)”

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Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Charles Hinckley Wetmore

Charles Hinckley Wetmore He was born at Lebanon, Connecticut, on February 8, 1820. He was the son of Augustus Wetmore (1784-1887) and Emily T Hinckley Wetmore (1789-1825.) He attained his medical degree; then started to teach. Three weeks after their wedding to Sheldon Taylor on September 25, 1848, they were off to Hawaiʻi under the ABCFM as a missionary doctor. The Wetmores were assigned to Hilo on the Island of Hawaiʻi. Later, leaving the mission, he was in charge of the American Hospital. “He was trusted by all. Whatever he said he meant, and his word in business was as good as his bond. He was to the front in every good work, and his gospel was one of action rather than of words.”

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Monday, August 24, 2015

The Islands in 1828

The Islands in 1828 In 1826, the French prepared for a round-the-world voyage on Le Heros, On board regulations required that there be a surgeon; Botta, though not yet a full-fledged doctor, was appointed to that post as well as naturalist aboard, with the mission of collecting examples. The Heros, a three-masted ship of 362 tons, with 32 men on board, left the port of Le Havre on April 9, 1826, circumnavigated the globe. Le Heros visited the Islands from September 17, 1828 to November 15, 1828. Botta described what he saw.

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Sunday, August 23, 2015

Uldrick Thompson

Uldrick Thompson He was orphaned at the age of 4; his maternal uncle and his wife took him in as one of their own according to the wishes of Thompson's mother. They farmed halfway between Glens Falls and Saratoga Springs in New York. Thompson was encouraged to become a professional teacher; he was recommended to teach in Hawaiʻi. Thompson (1849-1942) was a teacher at Kamehameha School for Boys (1889-1898 and 1901-1922) and served as the school principal (1898-1901.)

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Saturday, August 22, 2015


Makau Makau (Fishhooks) of Hawai‘i took on many different shapes, each one specialized to catching different types of fish with a variety of fishing techniques. Simple hooks were made from one piece of material, while composite hooks were made of more than one piece joined by lashing. Their fishing-hooks are made of mother-of-pearl, bone, or wood, pointed and barbed with small bones, or tortoise-shell. They are of various sizes and forms. “Considering the materials of which these hooks are made, their strength and neatness are really astonishing; and in fact we found them upon trial much superior to our own.” (Captain Cook’s Journal)

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Friday, August 21, 2015

Until Death Should Us Part

Until Death Should Us Part He stood before the officer of the government and said, “I first ask whether my wife will be allowed to go with me, the one I swore before Almighty God to care for, to become one blood with me, from whom only death could part me?” Denied, he replied, “the cord of my love for her is to be cut, and I am commanded to break my sacred promise before God and live alone in a strange land”. He was born in 1862; his name, Kaluaikoʻolau, may be translated as ‘the grave at Koʻolau,’ a commemorative name and, as fate would have it, prophetic. He was a cowboy from Kekaha, Kauai. In 1881, at the age of 19, he married Piʻilani (age 17.) A year later, they had a son, Kaleimanu. Koʻolau and his young son contracted leprosy; rather than going to Kalawao (Kalaupapa,) Koʻolau hid in Kalalau.

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Thursday, August 20, 2015

Kawaiahaʻo Female Seminary

Kawaiahaʻo Female Seminary In 1867, the Hawaiian Mission Children’s Society (HMCS - an organization consisting of the children of the missionaries and adopted supporters) decided to support a girls’ boarding school. An early advertisement (April 13, 1867) notes it was called Honolulu Female Academy. Lydia Bingham (daughter of Reverend Hiram Bingham, leader of the Pioneer Company of missionaries to Hawaiʻi) returned to Honolulu to be a teacher and run the school. In 1905, a merger with Mills Institute, a boys’ school, and Kawaiahaʻo School for Girls led to the formation of Mid-Pacific Institute.

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Wednesday, August 19, 2015


Mikimiki The Youngs went to Hawaiʻi from San Diego. Good seafaring men of Maine stock, whose parents went to California in Forty-nine, they followed a natural inclination, and the application of Yankee methods soon built up a business which has grown to be one of the most important in the Islands. In 1929, the tug Mikimiki was launched. The excellent performance of the original Mikimiki led to the adoption of her basic design for a large fleet of tugs produced for the US Army Transport Service in West Coast shipyards for World War II service. No class of tugs contributed more to the success in the postwar era than the Miki-class tugs built for US Army service. And it all started in Hawaiʻi, with Young Brothers.

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Tuesday, August 18, 2015


Toketa A Tahitian, Toketa, arrived in Hawaiʻi in 1818; he probably landed on the island of Hawaiʻi. He was a member of the household of the chief (Governor) John Adams Kuakini, at that time a prominent figure in the court of Kamehameha I in Kailua, Kona. A convert to Christianity (he likely received missionary instruction in his homeland - first Europeans arrived in Tahiti in 1767; in 1797 the London Missionary Society sent 29 missionaries to Tahiti,) he became a teacher to Hawaiian chiefs.

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Monday, August 17, 2015

Henry Martyn Whitney

Henry Martyn Whitney Henry Martyn Whitney was born at Waimea, Kauai, son of the Rev. Samuel and Mercy Whitney, members of the Pioneer Company of missionaries that arrived in Honolulu on the brig Thaddeus in 1820. (His sister, Maria, was the first white girl born in the Hawaiian Islands.) Hawaiʻi opened a post office in Honolulu and Whitney was appointed Postmaster of Honolulu (1850;) he conceived and produced Hawaiʻi’s first stamps, issued in 1851 (the stamps are now called ‘Hawaiian Missionaries.’) He started the Pacific Commercial Advertiser (forerunner of Honolulu Advertiser – first issue July 2, 1856.)

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Sunday, August 16, 2015

Place Names

Place Names “It was the same from Hawaiʻi to Kauai - no name was given without some reason.” In old Hawaiʻi, it was the nature of ‘place’ that shaped the practical, cultural and spiritual view of the Hawaiian people. In ancient times, the naming of a place was not a task to be undertaken lightly, for the Hawaiians recognized the power inherent in a name. Place names reflect the way in which the ancient Hawaiians viewed their island home.

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Saturday, August 15, 2015


Hakipuʻu The ahupuaʻa of Hakipuʻu (Broken Hill – referring to the jagged ridge top) is located at the northern end of Kāne’ohe Bay, between Kualoa and Waikāne. Paliuli (green cliff,) a “legendary paradise of plenty” with many proclaimed sites throughout the islands, was said to have existed in the mauka regions of Hakipuʻu. Handy described the taro flats at Hakipuʻu, originally more than one-half mile south from Moliʻi Fishpond, where all the level land along Hakipuʻu Stream was once in terraces. The land was later used for rice cultivation (1860s,) then pineapple. Much of the land was converted to pasture for cattle ranching.

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Friday, August 14, 2015

Baptism of Kalanimōku

Baptism of Kalanimōku Three months after Kamehameha's death, Captain Louis de Freycinet aboard the French ship Uranie, arrived at Kailua. Kalanimōku was a grandson of Kekaulike, the king of Maui - Kalanimōku had been Kamehameha's prime minister and adviser on whom the king leaned most heavily. Kalanimōku said he had desired to be a Christian The ceremony of his baptism took place on board, with considerable pomp (August 14, 1819.) Chairs were offered to the Princesses; rather, flags from several countries were placed over the deck to sit on (there is no apparent symbolism to the flags used of their placement.)

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Thursday, August 13, 2015

DUKW (Duck)

DUKW (Duck) “Auto that sails the seas and boat that runs on land”. Dr Thomas Augustus Jaggar looked to develop an amphibious motor car. After several months of experimentation, he completed his pioneer water bug and dubbed it ‘Ohiki,’ which is Hawaiian for sand crab. Jaggar invented the first practical wheeled amphibian. He later created another amphibian, the Honukai (sea turtle;) it was a twin-screw steel amphibian, built in Chicago by the Powell Mobile-Boat Corp. Today, we simply call these vehicles ‘Ducks.’ Jaggar was considered grandfather of the ‘Duck,’ which has played a prominent part in amphibious landings both in the European and South Pacific theaters of war.

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Wednesday, August 12, 2015

Kīkā Kila

Kīkā Kila There are three conflicting claims attributing the invention of the steel guitar to three different people: James Hoa, Gabriel Davion and Joseph Kekuku. Of this trio, Kekuku has been the most commonly mentioned as inventor of the steel guitar – and the evidence is impressive. Likewise, there are three stories as to how Kekuku started the steel guitar phenomenon: (1) walking along a road, a rusty bolt accidentally vibrated one of the strings, (2) rather than a road, he was walking along the railroad tracks, he picked up a bolt and slid it across the strings and (3) he was playing his hair comb wrapped in tissue paper like a harmonica, with his guitar in his lap, he dropped the comb on the strings causing them to vibrate. Come to your own conclusion – most credit Kekuku as being the originator.

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Tuesday, August 11, 2015

“The child will not die, he will live.”

“The child will not die, he will live.” There, in a shallow seat formed by a hollow in the top of a large rock, the mother had sat as she enjoyed her bath. Suddenly she was seized with her birth pains. Aided by her attendants she struggled to the near-by shore. There, grasping the trunk of a coconut tree to support and sustain her, she gave birth. Early in the morning, the child was born but as it appeared to be stillborn. Then came Kaikioʻewa from some miles away, close to Kuamoʻo, and brought with him his prophet who said, “The child will not die, he will live.” His exact birth date is not known; however, a generally accepted date is August 11, 1813. Never-the-less, Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III) was apparently an admirer of Saint Patrick and chose to celebrate his birthday on March 17. (Kauikeaouli died December 15, 1854 (age of 41.))

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Monday, August 10, 2015

Keʻelikōlani and Pele

Keʻelikōlani and Pele “Day and night the ancient forest was ablaze, and the scene was vivid beyond description. By the 25th of March the lava was within seven miles of Hilo, and steadily advancing. Until this time we had hoped that Hilo would not be threatened. But the stream pursued its way.” Keʻelikōlani (Princess Ruth) offered traditional oli (chants) and hoʻokupu (tribute) to Pele and later reportedly camped at the foot of the flow. “Whatever the explanation, the lava flow ceased.” (The lava flow stopped – August 10, 1881.)

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Sunday, August 9, 2015


1804 On the continent, Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr were dueling (Hamilton died;) following the Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark "Corps of Discovery Expedition" was underway. In the Islands, Kamehameha, following success at the Battle of Nuʻuanu, was initiating a second invasion attempt on Kauai that included about 7,000-Hawaiians along with about 50-foreigners (mostly Europeans.) The maʻi ‘ōkuʻu (believed to be cholera) struck the islands. Later, in 1810, Kaumuali‘i decided to peacefully unite with Kamehameha and join the rest of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi under single rule.

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Saturday, August 8, 2015

ʻAhahui Kaʻahumanu

ʻAhahui Kaʻahumanu The ʻAhahui Kaʻahumanu (Kaʻahumanu Society,) formed August 8, 1864, is named after Queen Kaʻahumanu; it “was established to assist each other member of this Association when they are in need (in sickness, poverty, and death)”. Its mission statement notes it is “to commemorate important historical figures of Hawaiian heritage. The organization provides its members financial assistance for medical needs, death benefits. And, operates a cemetery for its members. The organization also renders assistance to the Lunalilo home.”

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Friday, August 7, 2015


Manuiki After a brief stay in the Islands, in 1839, John Augustus Sutter, a Swiss seeking his fortune in America, had a “crew consisted of the two German carpenters I had brought with me from the Islands, and a number of sailors and mechanics I had picked up at Yerba Buena.” Manuiki was Sutter’s favorite companion for several years, although she was not the only one. They had several children together. “Manuiki keeps the garden here. The vegetables we eat have come from her garden, thogh I of course taught her to make the soup. Potatoes are not common fare among the kanakas in their native land.”

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Thursday, August 6, 2015

Honolulu Harbor Lights

Honolulu Harbor Lights Even in today’s high-tech environment with tools and toys with satellite support, the simple illumination from a known point continues to serve as a navigational aid, as well as warn mariners of hazardous areas. The original Honolulu Harbor Light was built in 1826 (a “crude oil lamp wrapped with red cloth.”) In 1869, “Harbor Wink” was built at the edge of the reef on the north side of the Honolulu Harbor entrance; other lights were replaced these, including the 10-story Aloha Tower (lighthouse.) The Aloha Tower navigational aid served until 1975, when the present Honolulu Harbor Light was established on a metal pole at the end of Pier 2.

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Wednesday, August 5, 2015

‘E hoi kaua, he anu.

‘E hoi kaua, he anu. Hiram Bingham joined Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III) in 1830 to the ‘frigid apex of Mauna Kea.’ “(T)he king set out with a party of more than a hundred, for an excursion further into the heart of the island, and an ascent to the summit of Mauna Kea. … The excursion occupied nearly five days”. “As the sun disappeared the cold was pinching. We occasionally cringed under the lee of the summit for a. momentary relief from the chilling blast. While taking some trigonometrical observations my fingers were stiffened with the cold, and Phelps repeatedly cried out with emphasis, ‘E hoi kaua, he anu. Let us return; 'tis cold.’”

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Tuesday, August 4, 2015

Curé d’Ars

Curé d’Ars It was during a Mass celebrated secretly behind barred doors by an anti-Revolution priest in a home near Écully that Jean-Baptiste-Marie (John) Vianney received his First Communion (at the age of 13,) which strengthened him in his inmost desire. “I will be a priest,” he affirmed. In 1818, Vianney was made Curé d’Ars (Parish Priest of Ars,) a village with a population of 200. He had not been long at Ars when people began coming to him from other parishes, then from distant places, then from all parts of France, and finally from other countries. Several schools and parishes were formed and named for St John Vianney. One such is the Parish and school in Enchanted Lake, in Kailua, Oahu, established in 1962.

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Monday, August 3, 2015

Missile-Age Minutemen

Missile-Age Minutemen It was not until World War II that the technology of using rockets and missiles in warfare became firmly established. The Cold War, a term used to describe the hostile relations between communist and non-communist countries, greatly accelerated missile and rocket technology. Coastal defenses during this period largely depended on the Nike antiaircraft missile system. The four sites on Oʻahu were at Dillingham Air Force Base in Mokuleʻia (Kawaihāpai;) Kahuku Army Training Area near Mt Kawela; Bellows Air Force Station at Waimanalo and Barbers Pt (Palehua,) on the southwestern portion of the Waianae Mountain Range.

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Sunday, August 2, 2015

How Did The Aliʻi Feel?

How Did The Aliʻi Feel? My recent post concerning nationality versus race in the “ongoing claims and discussions about restoring the Hawaiian Government that was deposed on January 17, 1893” has, unfortunately, produced some nasty remarks (however, I will note, some were very positive.) The historical record is clear – from Kamehameha I to Liliʻuokalani, the aliʻi befriended, sought counsel and even married Caucasians and other foreigners. Following contact, Caucasians were actively involved with all of the aliʻi – they served as personal and significant advisors to the aliʻi. Aliʻi sought their advice and put them in places of importance – many of these were missionaries.

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Saturday, August 1, 2015


Kahahawai When war broke out between Kalaniʻōpuʻu of Hawaiʻi Island and Kahekili in 1779, Kahahana had come to the aid of Kahekili. In a meeting between Kahahana and Kahekili, Kahekili deceived Kahahana. Kahekili prepared for an invasion against Oʻahu and Kahahana. He called on Kahahawai, his special friend, strategist and war chief. A decisive battle in the war between Kahekili and Kahahana took place near Kolekole Pass. Kahahawai’s warriors lit their torches and moved away (the enemies thought they had gone off to sleep.) But Kahahawai and his men arose and destroyed Kahahana’s warriors.

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