Thursday, December 31, 2015

Queen Kapiʻolani

Queen Kapiʻolani Julia Napelakapuokakaʻe Kapi‘olani was born on December 31, 1834 in Hilo, Hawaiʻi. She remained in Hilo until she was eight years of age, when she went to Kona. At the age of 16 Kapiʻolani came to Honolulu and was taken under the protection of Kauikeaouli (King Kamehameha III.) Four years later, she married the High Chief Nāmākehā (he died on December 27, 1860.) Later, efforts were underway to arrange a marriage between Victoria Kamāmalu and David Kalākaua. Kalākaua was, however, attracted to Kapiʻolani. On December 8, 1863, Kalākaua and Kapiʻolani married in a secret ceremony. Though childless, in 1890, she established the Kapiʻolani Maternity Home, which is today the Kapiʻolani Medical Center for Women and Children.

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Wednesday, December 30, 2015


Paʻaʻaina Mary Polly Paʻaʻaina was hanai (adopted) by John Papa ʻIʻi and his wife Sarai. In May 1843, Paʻaʻaina was the last girl to enter the Chief’s Childrens’ School; she was 10 years old. She was a pupil there for 7-years where she endeared herself to her teachers and fellow pupils. Then, she married Mr James Augustus Griswold on December 30, 1851, in Honolulu. Unfortunately, she became ill. “Her sufferings during her last sickness were extreme. She felt conscious of danger, and, as far as human eye could see, prepared herself for her departure.” She died at Honolulu, May 28, 1853. Her only child was a daughter named Mary Paʻaʻaina Griswold.

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Tuesday, December 29, 2015

Hawaiian Acres

Hawaiian Acres While the Puna district does not have running streams, it does have many inland and shoreline springs continuously fed by rains borne upon the northeast tradewinds. In Puna, much of the district's coastal areas have thin soils and there are no good deep water harbors. The ocean along the Puna coast is often rough and windblown. As a result, settlement patterns in Puna tend to be dispersed and without major population centers. Between 1958 and 1973, more than 52,500-individual lots were created for residential use. There are at least over 40 Puna subdivisions. Hawaiian Acres became the first of many speculative subdivisions to be created.

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Monday, December 28, 2015

Haleiwa Airfield

Haleiwa Airfield The date of construction of the Haleiwa airfield has not been determined. The earliest depiction of the field which has been located was a 1933 aerial photo, which depicted a group of B-6A biplanes on a grass field. Haleiwa Field on the northwest coast of Oahu, 30-miles from Honolulu, was originally (prewar) a center for private flying. This was not a regular runway (originally used as an emergency landing field,) just something comparable to an old country road rather than an airstrip.

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Sunday, December 27, 2015


Lurline Born in Sweden, Captain William Matson (1849–1917) arrived in San Francisco in 1867, at the age of 16. There, he began sailing in San Francisco Bay and northern California rivers. Captain Matson became acquainted with the Spreckels family and was asked to serve as skipper on the Spreckels’ yacht, Lurline. In 1887, Matson bought the Lurline from Spreckels - this was the first of several famous Matson vessels to bear the Lurline name. Matson met and married Lillie Low; the couple named their only child Lurline Berenice Matson. Matson built a steamship named Lurline in 1908; with growing passenger traffic to Hawai‘i, Matson built a world-class luxury liner, the SS Malolo in 1927. Its success led to the construction of the luxury liners Mariposa, Monterey and Lurline between 1930 and 1932.

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Saturday, December 26, 2015


Carrollton The coal industry was a major foundation for American industrialization in the nineteenth century. As a fuel source, coal provided a cheap and efficient source of power for steam engines, furnaces and forges across the US. The three-masted bark Carrollton was en route from Australia to San Francisco, via Honolulu, with a load of coal. In the midst of her career in the Pacific lumber, grain and coal business, the Carrollton under the command of Captain Hinrichs was accidentally lost on December 26th, 1906, when she ran bow-on onto the reef on the southern side of Sand Island at Midway. All of her crew were saved (rescued by the cable ship Restorer,) but the vessel was a total loss.

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Friday, December 25, 2015

Merry Christmas!!!

Merry Christmas!!! Wishing you and your loved ones peace, health, happiness and prosperity in the coming New Year! Merry Christmas!!! One of my favorite Christmas songs, Henry Kapono – Merry Christmas to You:

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Thursday, December 24, 2015

Merry Christmas

Merry Christmas Let’s not forget the reason for the season. Merry Christmas!!! Here is Willie K singing O Holy Night:

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Wednesday, December 23, 2015

Deserters, Debts … and a Treaty

Deserters, Debts … and a Treaty On December 23, 1826, the US signed a treaty (Articles of Arrangement) with the Kingdom of Hawaii thus indirectly recognizing Hawaiian independence. (State Department Historian) It is generally referred to as the Treaty of 1826 and was Hawaiʻi’s first treaty with the US. Its articles included, “peace and friendship subsisting between the United States, and their Majesties, the Queen Regent, and Kauikeaouli, King of the Sandwich Islands, and their subjects and people, are hereby confirmed, and declared to be perpetual.” “Jones, as a public officer, carefully sought to promote the interests of commerce and secure the right of traders, pressed the rulers to a prompt discharge of their debts, and negotiated articles of agreement with the government for the protection of American interests”. (Hiram Bingham)

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Tuesday, December 22, 2015

“Jehovah is my God. … I fear not Pele.”

“Jehovah is my God. … I fear not Pele.” In 1822, Naihe and Kapiʻolani were among the first chiefs to welcome instruction and accept Christianity. Kapiʻolani was the daughter of Keawemauhili, who was the high chief of the district of Hilo. When Kapiʻolani said that she was going to prove the falsity of the worship of Pele, there was a storm of heartfelt opposition (December 22, 1824.) The priests and worshippers of Pele honestly believed that divine punishment would fall on her. “You will die by Pele.’” She calmly addressed the company thus: “Jehovah is my God. He kindled these fires. I fear not Pele.”

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Monday, December 21, 2015

Malihini Tree

Malihini Tree “(T)he Malihini Christmas Tree was raised by some malihini who visited Honolulu two years ago, after discussion, they decided that it would be a fine thing to give presents to the children of this town, whereupon they collected money to purchase gifts and to do everything that would it enjoyable for them.” (1910) “There was a long table filled with presents of all sorts that were separated so there would be no confusion, and from there the gifts were given as per the sort of child; if it was a boy, they would give a gift appropriate to him, and if it was a girl, she would receive only a gift that would befit her; and every child was counted for; the table was heaped up with things from fruits to dolls and toys.”

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Sunday, December 20, 2015

Lili‘uokalani Educational Society

Lili‘uokalani Educational Society “‘Lili‘uokalani Educational Society’ is the name of an association of Hawaiian ladies. Its founder and president is Princess Liliuokalani, the Crown Princess of Hawaiʻi nei. Its other officers are a secretary, a treasurer, and five directresses.” “(T)he intention of which was to interest the Hawaiian ladies in the proper training of young girls of their own race whose parents would be unable to give them advantages by which they would be prepared for the duties of life.” “It is the intention to gather up destitute orphans, place them in boarding schools, and furnish them with a plain English education. In the case of girls, they are also to be instructed in needle work and household duties.” Through the Lili‘uokalani Education Society, Liliʻuokalani sponsored many girls in the community in their attendance at the Kawaiahaʻo Seminary.

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Saturday, December 19, 2015

Mea ‘Ono Pua‘a

Mea ‘Ono Pua‘a Dim sum includes char siu bao, a bun with a barbecued pork filling. It is either steamed or baked. Char siu refers to the pork filling; the word bao simply means ‘bun.’ In the islands this Chinese pork cake became known as mea ‘ono pua‘a (‘mea ‘ono’ (delicious thing) as in cake or pastry, and ‘pua‘a’ for pork.) Reportedly, the pidgin adaptation “mea ‘ono pua‘a” evolved to “manapua.” These steamed or baked buns are sometimes are filled with coconut, black bean paste or chicken (and other meats and vegetables,) but char siu pork has been predominant. Not only did the tasty snack receive a Hawaiian name, they were also Hawaiian-sized, turning the ‘small snack’ to accompany tea, into a meal. (Some suggest the name is a variant of “mauna pua‘a” (mountain of pork.)

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Friday, December 18, 2015

Soaring of Nighthawk

Gliding/Soaring is a generic term for the art of flying a heavier than air craft similar to an airplane, but not provided with an engine. In a gliding, the apparatus loses altitude continually throughout its course, never rising above its starting point. In soaring flight, however, the machine is carried aloft by the rising air currents and is capable of completing maneuvers, high above the point of departure.

Based in Wheeler, William Alexander Cocke, Jr and his support crew set up on the windward side of Oʻahu.  Launching on December 17, 1931 and flying along Oahu's Nuʻuanu Pali, he flew his homebuilt sailplane glider through the night and set the World and US Duration Record of sustained powerless flight at 21 hours, 34 minutes, 25 seconds and traveled an estimated 600 miles. 

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Thursday, December 17, 2015

Oceanic Steamship Company

Oceanic Steamship Company Sons of the Hawai‘i “Sugar King” (Claus Spreckels) formed John D Spreckels and Brothers (John Diedrich, Adolph Bernard and Claus August Spreckels.) On December 22, 1881, the Oceanic Steamship Company was incorporated in California. The company had its roots in a fleet of sailing vessels created in 1878 by Claus Spreckels, then a major sugar planter in Hawaii, to move raw sugar to his refinery in California. In 1882, Oceanic Steamship first chartered ships, then owned and operated their own fleet. The first of the fleet was the Mariposa, launched on March 7, 1883. The line was sold to Matson Navigation Co. in 1926 and operated as a Matson subsidiary thereafter. Its success led to the construction of the luxury liners Mariposa, Monterey and Lurline between 1930 and 1932.

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Wednesday, December 16, 2015

Everybody Has It - Everybody Needs It

Everybody Has It - Everybody Needs It Founded in 1941, the organization was originally known as the Honolulu Blood and Plasma Bank operating out of The Queen's Hospital. It was initially a war-time agency with the outbreak of World War II returning to its civilian status in 1942. Over the years, the name changed to Blood Bank of Hawaiʻi. Later, to encourage folks to donate, ‘Fang’ (Betsy Mitchell (the Blood Lady)) called into Aku’s morning radio program (Hal Lewis - J Akuhead Pupule) to announce a coming Blood Drive. The Blood Bank of Hawai‘i needs folks to drop into their offices or mobile locations to make donations to meet Hawaiʻi’s needs; please consider giving blood.

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Tuesday, December 15, 2015


Mastiff Evelaina was the English mastiff of Kamehameha III. She understood commands in both Hawaiian and English. Kamehameha III died on December 15, 1854. “When the remains of our late beloved King, Kamehameha III, were deposited in the sepulchre, many were the sad mourners who watched night and day, lamenting in heart-rending wailing the death of their King, friend and benefactor.” “Evelaina took his station outside the door of the tomb, and there commenced his weary watch. For many weeks he would not leave the spot. After a time, food was not taken to him, and at last, driven by hunger and thirst, he was compelled to leave; but, having satisfied these wants, he returned to his post, and has thus kept watch for nearly two years.” After the dog died, Evelaina was buried at Mauna ʻAla so she could continue to guard her beloved master.

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Monday, December 14, 2015

Mauka-Makai Watch

Mauka-Makai Watch Police tell us that an engaged community is one of the best ways to reduce crime. They then help organize and support Neighborhood Watch programs across the Islands. It’s a program that discourages preventable crime by organizing awareness meetings to help neighbors get to know one another and look out for each other, and recognize and report suspicious activity. At DLNR, we initiated the Mauka-Makai Watch program. It's modeled after the successful Neighborhood Watch program; the intent is to get communities working with resource managers and enforcement. However, here community volunteers focus on natural and cultural resources, especially the coastline and nearshore waters, when partnering with DLNR enforcement officers.

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Sunday, December 13, 2015

Ka Waʻa O Maui

Ka Waʻa O Maui There are many vague stories as to why the Wailuku River was so named. Wailuku literally means “destroying water.” Legends connected with the Wailuku tend to confirm the belief that it was named for its violent habits. It is on the Wailuku River that we still see the evidence of Maui in Hilo – Ka Waʻa O Maui – the Canoe of Maui. The stories of Maui are common old tales and speak of a real voyager who traveled throughout the islands of the Pacific, a sailor of great renown deified for his deeds; hence, the commonality of the tale. A long, narrow rock in the river, called Ka Waʻa O Maui, is still just where he ran it aground at the foot of the rapids.

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Saturday, December 12, 2015

John Kendrick

John Kendrick Sea Captain John Kendrick, born in 1740 on a small hilly farm in East Harwich, Cape Cod, fought in the French and Indian Wars in 1762, threw tea overboard in the Boston Tea Party in 1773, and was in charge of the Fanny, one of the United States’ first ships, during the Revolutionary War. He survived all that, and on December 12, 1794 in a 13-canon saluting round in Fair Haven (Honolulu Harbor) (salute by cannon originated in the 14th century; discharging the single shot rendered them harmless) one of the saluting guns was loaded with round and grape shot, and killed Captain Kendrick and several of his crew.

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Friday, December 11, 2015

Lot Kamehameha

Lot Kamehameha He died on his 42nd birthday (December 11, 1830 - December 11, 1872.) He was given the Christian name Lot and the Hawaiian name Kapuāiwa, which means ‘mysterious kapu’ (taboo) or ‘the sacred one protected by supernatural powers.’ December 11, Lot Kapuāiwa celebrated the first Kamehameha Day in 1871 as a day to honor his grandfather (it was Lot’s birthday;) because the weather was better in the summer, it was moved to June 11. Kamehameha V modeled his leadership after that of his grandfather, Kamehameha I, believing that it was the right and duty of the chiefs to lead the common people. "He was not a fool. He was a wise sovereign; … he was educated & accomplished, & he tried hard to do well for his people, & succeeded. … he dressed plainly, poked about Honolulu, night or day, on his old horse, unattended; he was popular, greatly respected, & even beloved."

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Thursday, December 10, 2015

Watershed Partnerships

Watershed Partnerships I have often said these are one of Hawai‘i’s best untold stories. Forest Reserves are commonly known and were critical steps forward in protecting our mauka resources. But, while they are the foundation of the focus of this summary, it is what happened 100-years later, and that continue today, that folks should also be aware of … Watershed Partnerships. Watershed Partnerships are voluntary alliances of private and public landowners and others working collaboratively with common goals of conservation, preservation and management of our mauka resources. Today, Watershed Partnerships cover nearly 2-million acres of land in the state (about half the land area of the state.) There is no model like it with respect to watershed management breadth, scope and success.

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Wednesday, December 9, 2015


Carlotta In 1898, 18-year-old Carlotta Stewart came to Hawai‘i with her father to continue her education and to begin planning her future; she attended Oʻahu College (Punahou) and graduated in 1902. After graduation, Carlotta received a Normal School certificate (teachers’ College,) and accepted a teaching position at the Normal School. In 1906, in addition to teaching, she was busy with classes, vacations, camping, surfing and frequent parties. She advanced in the school system, and although many black women had established teaching careers and a handful were school administrators by 1909, it was unusual for a black woman at the age of 28 to serve as principal of a multi-racial school. She met and married Yun Tim Lai of Chinese ancestry at Anahola; he died in 1935. She never remarried and served as principal and English teacher until her retirement in 1944.

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Tuesday, December 8, 2015

Fifth Column

Fifth Column There were several types of columns used by the military infantry: marching columns for transiting long distances and columns used on the battlefield. They were not intended as assault formations, except under special circumstances. Reference to a ‘Fifth Column’ dates to the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) and refers to a group or faction of subversive agents (or spys.) The term ‘Fifth Column’ survived that war and has ever since been used to designate secret armies or groups of armed subversives. With Japan’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, fear of the ‘Fifth Column” hit home. A report commissioned by Congress contended that the vast majority of Japanese Americans were loyal but it did nothing to stop the mounting public hysteria and government and military reactionism.

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Monday, December 7, 2015

A Dauntless Collides With a Val

A Dauntless Collides With a Val A pair of enemy planes apparently collided on the morning of December 7, 1941 – reports from the scene at the time suggest they also crashed at the same spot on the ʻEwa Plain. A ‘Dauntless’ manned by Ensign John HL Vogt (pilot) and Third Class Sidney Pierce (radioman-gunner) became separated from his section leader during the Pearl-bound flight in from the carrier; a Japanese ‘Val’ was manned by Petty Officer 2nd Class Koreyoshi Toyama (Sotoyama) (pilot) and Flier 1st Class Hajime Murao. Neither of these planes made it back to their respective ships.

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Sunday, December 6, 2015

‘It’s Different’

‘It’s Different’ These weren’t the words expected by the questioner in my response to what I thought about my first trip into the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (now the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.) I think she was expecting words like: spectacular, pristine, resource rich, special, abundant, etc. Yes, it’s all those descriptors, too; and for me, therefore, “different.” While I was Chair at DLNR, we created the Refuge rules to ensure their conservation and natural character for present and future generations. This started a process where several others followed with similar protective measures. President Bush declared it a Marine National Monument and UNESCO designated it a World Heritage Site. Some ask why we imposed such stringent limitations on use in this area. For me, it ended up to be pretty simple; it is the responsibility we share to future generations, to allow them to see what it looks like at a place in the world where you don’t take something.

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Saturday, December 5, 2015


Kanaʻina High Chief Charles Kanaʻina and High Chiefess Kekāuluohi “are among the most interesting of the aristocracy; and, of their claims to respect and attention, we needed no other proof, than that afforded on the present occasion.” They had two sons, Davida (who died quite young) and William. His mother was ambitious for William and she said others are high in rank but this is highest of all and he shall be named "Lunalilo". He was a student at the Chiefs’ Children’s School; later he was elected the first reigning monarch and served as King Lunalilo.

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Friday, December 4, 2015


Hālawa Molokai used to be referred to as ʻAina Momona (the bountiful land,) reflecting the great productivity of the island and its surrounding ocean. Hālawa Valley is the easternmost valley at the edge of Molokai’s north shore; four other major valleys span the coastline, from Hālawa westward toward Kalaupapa: from east to west they are Papalaua, Wailau, Pelekunu and Waikolu. Hālawa is “a very fertile valley, with wild fruits, mountain shrimps, and much water in the streams.... There were nine hundred and thirteen taro patches and with the hundred and nine others that I hadn't counted, they totaled a thousand and thirty-two patches. Most of the land is covered in taro”.

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Thursday, December 3, 2015

Sugar Changed the Social Fabric of the Islands

Sugar Changed the Social Fabric of the Islands A century after Captain James Cook's arrival in Hawaiʻi, sugar plantations started to dominate the landscape. Sugar‐cane farming proved to be the only available crop that could be grown. However, a shortage of laborers to work in the growing (in size and number) sugar plantations became a challenge. The only answer was imported labor. There were three big waves of workforce immigration: Chinese 1852; Japanese 1885 and Filipinos 1905. Several smaller, but substantial, migrations also occurred: Portuguese 1877; Norwegians 1880; Germans 1881; Puerto Ricans 1900; Koreans 1902 and Spanish 1907. It is not likely anyone then foresaw the impact this would have on the cultural and social structure of the islands; the sugar industry is at the center of Hawaiʻi's modern diversity of races and ethnic cultures.

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Wednesday, December 2, 2015

Niitaka Yama Nobore

Niitaka Yama Nobore On December 2, 1941 (Tokyo Time,) a coded message, ‘Niitakayama Nobore’ (“Climb Mount Niitaka”) was sent to all Imperial Japanese Navy units. It referenced the mountain Niitaka-yama, which means new high mountain; Fuji-yama, sacred to the heart of every Japanese, being thus relegated to the position of old high mountain. Receiving this signal Vice Admiral Nagumo Chuichi opened a set of Top Secret documents, which told him, and those that opened the same order throughout the fleet, that on December 8 (the 7th on the Pearl Harbor side of the International Date Line) Japan would be going to war.

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Tuesday, December 1, 2015

Ecumenical Memorial

Ecumenical Memorial It ‘became conspicuous by its absence.’ “It's like a beacon of peace. When it's on everything is tranquil … It’s a glimmer of hope for a better tomorrow.” “’As far as I know this was the first military Easter sunrise service conducted on the island. The (Camp Smith) cross remained lighted all night long through the two-Week Easter season following the sunrise service.” It stayed … at least for a while. The American Civil Liberties Union filed suit in Federal District Court seeking to force the Marine Corps to remove a huge cross from the military base here. General Kelley referred to the towering cross as an ‘ecumenical memorial’' to the marines and sailors who had died in the Vietnam War … a ‘'nonsectarian symbol of our national resolve to obtain a full accounting of American servicemen still missing or unaccounted for in Southeast Asia.’” The US District Court, District of Columbia, directed that the cross be removed … the Camp Smith Cross was taken down on December 1, 1988; an 80-foot flagpole flies a 20-by-38-foot American flag in its place.

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