Reasoning from observations has been important to modern scientific practice at least since the time of Aristotle (384–322 BC.) A scientific process or scientific method requires observations of nature and formulating and testing the hypothesis. It consists of following four steps.
Hawaiians in traditional times also made observations of the world around them. Most of the makaʻāinana (common people) were farmers, a few were fishermen. Part of the observations noted appropriate planting/fishing according to moon phases (‘Moon Nights.’)